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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919060583, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.

2.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci ; 44: 85-123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292938

RESUMO

Research into antibody-mediated disease, in response to immune dysfunction or to tumour development, has rapidly expanded in recent years. Antibodies binding to neuroreceptors can cause psychiatric features, including psychosis, in a minority of patients as well as neurological features. The responsiveness of some of these cases to immunotherapy supports the hypothesis that antibody-associated mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of psychotic diseases. The purpose of this chapter is to review autoantibodies that are most likely to be relevant for patients with psychotic symptoms. Herein, we describe receptor structure and mechanism of action, clinical and psychiatric features for the growing number of neuronal surface antibodies, including those to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The identification of a subgroup of patients with psychiatric features having antibody-mediated disease highlights the importance of considering the diagnosis, particularly in those patients presenting with a first episode of psychosis.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Neurônios/imunologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/imunologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/imunologia
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 26-40, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870554

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from non-allelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats termed LCR22. About 60%-70% of individuals with the typical 3 megabase (Mb) deletion from LCR22A-D have congenital heart disease, mostly of the conotruncal type (CTD), whereas others have normal cardiac anatomy. In this study, we tested whether variants in the hemizygous LCR22A-D region are associated with risk for CTDs on the basis of the sequence of the 22q11.2 region from 1,053 22q11.2DS individuals. We found a significant association (FDR p < 0.05) of the CTD subset with 62 common variants in a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in a 350 kb interval harboring CRKL. A total of 45 of the 62 variants were associated with increased risk for CTDs (odds ratio [OR) ranges: 1.64-4.75). Associations of four variants were replicated in a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of CTDs in affected individuals without 22q11.2DS. One of the replicated variants, rs178252, is located in an open chromatin region and resides in the double-elite enhancer, GH22J020947, that is predicted to regulate CRKL (CRK-like proto-oncogene, cytoplasmic adaptor) expression. Approximately 23% of patients with nested LCR22C-D deletions have CTDs, and inactivation of Crkl in mice causes CTDs, thus implicating this gene as a modifier. Rs178252 and rs6004160 are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of CRKL. Furthermore, set-based tests identified an enhancer that is predicted to target CRKL and is significantly associated with CTD risk (GH22J020946, sequence kernal association test (SKAT) p = 7.21 × 10-5) in the 22q11.2DS cohort. These findings suggest that variance in CTD penetrance in the 22q11.2DS population can be explained in part by variants affecting CRKL expression.

4.
Ir J Psychol Med ; : 1-7, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to establish and evaluate the impact of a 6-week Balint group on empathy and resilience in fourth-year medical students during their psychiatry rotation. METHODOLOGY: This prospective study used the Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Student Version and the Brief Resilience Scale before and after 6-week Balint groups. Participating students also completed a qualitative assessment of their experience. RESULTS: Students who participated were enthusiastic regarding the value of Balint groups in promoting self-reflection and gaining insight into self- and patient-care dynamics. There was a significant difference in empathy scores pre- and post-Balint intervention. There was no significant difference in resilience scores. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a 6-week Balint group for fourth-year medical students was successful in increasing empathy. Students reported a positive view of Balint and its beneficial role in this study group.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

6.
Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci ; 17(3): 333-342, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352700

RESUMO

The relationship between serum prolactin and bone mineral density (BMD) in schizophrenia is unclear. We conducted a literature review of databases from inception until December 2018 for cross-sectional, case-control, prospective and retrospective studies analyzing correlations between serum prolactin and BMD measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or quantitative ultrasound at any skeletal site in people with schizophrenia. Data was summarized with a best evidence synthesis. This review identified 15 studies (1 longitudinal study, 10 cross-sectional and 4 case-control studies; 1,360 individuals with a psychotic disorder; mean age 45.1 ± 9.4 [standard deviation] years, female 742 [54.6%], mean illness duration 17.7 ± 11.3 years) assessing the relationship between serum prolactin and BMD in schizophrenia. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum prolactin and BMD identified in eight of the studies (53% of all studies), suggesting mixed evidence for an association between serum prolactin and BMD. Of those studies which identified a significant inverse correlation between serum prolactin and BMD (n = 5), 152 (52.1%) of patients were treated with prolactin raising antipsychotics, compared to 197 (48.1%) of patients in those studies which did not identify a significant correlation between prolactin and BMD. Available studies cannot resolve the link between excess prolactin and reduced BMD in schizophrenia. Future studies should be longitudinal in design and combine measures of serum prolactin along with other risk factors for reduced BMD such as smoking and vitamin D and sex hormone levels in assessing the relationship between prolactin and BMD in schizophrenia.

7.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 43: 125-131, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132542

RESUMO

AIM: People with psychotic disorders have increased premature mortality in comparison with the general population, with high rates of cigarette use a contributing factor. We aimed to describe the prevalence of cigarette use and nicotine dependence (ND) in first episode psychosis (FEP), and established psychosis; and to investigate associations between clinical symptoms and ND. METHODOLOGY: Smoking and clinical data were collected from two cohorts: 181 people with FEP recruited as part of the Physical Health and Substance Use Measures in First Onset Psychosis (PUMP) study and from 432 people with established psychosis recruited as part of the Improving physical health and reducing substance use in psychosis randomised controlled trial (IMPaCT RCT). RESULTS: The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 78% in FEP and 62% in established psychosis. Forty nine percent (n = 60) of smokers in the FEP cohort and 69% (n = 183) of smokers with established psychosis were highly nicotine dependent. Being a highly nicotine dependent smoker was significantly associated with higher PANSS positive symptom scores (F = 5.480 p = 0.004), and with decreased scores on the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (F = 3.261, p = 0.039) in established psychosis. There was no diagnostic specificity identified in relation to smoking or ND in both groups. CONCLUSION: High rates of cigarette usage and nicotine dependence are problems from the early stages of psychosis. ND is higher in people with established psychosis. Smoking cessation strategies as part of comprehensive management of psychotic disorders at every stage require further development and evaluation.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(9): 721-725, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082962

RESUMO

Clustering of symptoms to characterize simple schizophrenia is still debated, and support is needed for the characterization of simple schizophrenia as a syndrome. We conducted a systematic review to identify all cases of simple schizophrenia published until December 2017. We identified 42 cases of simple schizophrenia, 57% of which met all three diagnostic criteria (ICD-10, DSM-4 research criteria, and Black and Boffeli's criteria for simple schizophrenia). The mean age at first contact with clinical services was 30.1 (SD = 11.6) years, with a mean delay of 7.4 (SD = 6.8) years from symptom onset to first presentation. An insidious onset and negative symptoms were characteristic features in all cases. Social withdrawal, alogia, blunted affect, lack of initiative/interest, and functional impairment were found in more than 85% of cases. Our findings contribute to greater awareness and understanding of simple schizophrenia, and have the potential to reawaken interest in this clinically distinct subgroup.

9.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 32(2): 67-72, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394904

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have high rates of comorbid mental illness, particularly psychosis and schizophrenia. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent research in the area of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and psychosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past year has identified negative symptoms, functional impairment, dysphoric mood and a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as important clinical predictors of psychosis risk in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. As previously reported in nondeleted schizophrenia, recent studies have implicated neuroinflammation as a possible neurobiological mechanism for psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the cortex is significantly thinner in those with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and psychosis compared to those without psychosis, replicating similar findings in nondeleted schizophrenia. Further data from the International 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Brain and Behavior Consortium have suggested that chromosomal microdeletions are significantly more likely to involve protein-coding genes and several rare copy number variants are associated with the presence of psychosis in deleted individuals. SUMMARY: There have been several significant recent advances to further characterize the high rates of psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, to identify additional clinical predictors of psychosis and to increase our understanding of the neural substrate and genetic aetiology of psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2172-2181, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289625

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is caused by non-allelic homologous recombination events during meiosis between low copy repeats (LCR22) termed A, B, C, and D. Most patients have a typical LCR22A-D (AD) deletion of 3 million base pairs (Mb). In this report, we evaluated IQ scores in 1,478 subjects with 22q11.2DS. The mean of full scale IQ, verbal IQ, and performance IQ scores in our cohort were 72.41 (standard deviation-SD of 13.72), 75.91(SD of 14.46), and 73.01(SD of 13.71), respectively. To investigate whether IQ scores are associated with deletion size, we examined individuals with the 3 Mb, AD (n = 1,353) and nested 1.5 Mb, AB (n = 74) deletions, since they comprised the largest subgroups. We found that full scale IQ was decreased by 6.25 points (p = .002), verbal IQ was decreased by 8.17 points (p = .0002) and performance IQ was decreased by 4.03 points (p = .028) in subjects with the AD versus AB deletion. Thus, individuals with the smaller, 1.5 Mb AB deletion have modestly higher IQ scores than those with the larger, 3 Mb AD deletion. Overall, the deletion of genes in the AB region largely explains the observed low IQ in the 22q11.2DS population. However, our results also indicate that haploinsufficiency of genes in the LCR22B-D region (BD) exert an additional negative impact on IQ. Furthermore, we did not find evidence of a confounding effect of severe congenital heart disease on IQ scores in our cohort.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino
11.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 38(5): 520-527, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059436

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the criterion standard in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. We sought to review data on several inflammatory effects associated with clozapine, specifically interstitial nephritis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a systematic review to identify studies, published up until December 2017, describing clozapine-induced hepatitis, nephritis, and pancreatitis. The primary objective was to characterize the clinical characteristics associated with each of the specific inflammatory reactions to clozapine. FINDINGS/RESULTS: We identified 42 cases of inflammatory reactions associated with clozapine treatment- 20 :cases of clozapine-induced hepatitis, 11 cases of nephritis, and 11 of pancreatitis. The mean (SD) age was 38.8 (11.9) years. The mean (SD) dose of clozapine used was 252.4 (133.7) mg. Time to onset of pancreatitis (17.9 [11.2] days; range 4-35 days) was shorter than that for hepatitis (34.2 [20.1] days; range, 12-90 days) and nephritis (27.9 [27.0]; range, 8-90 days) but was not statistically significant (F = 2.267, P = 0.117). The mean (SD) time to recovery was shorter for cases of pancreatitis (15.7 [18.4] days) compared with cases of hepatitis (25.9 [16.5] days) and nephritis (24.5 [18.9] days). Three cases with hepatitis died. Seven of the cases had a clozapine rechallenge (hepatitis [n = 3], nephritis [n = 1], pancreatitis [n = 3]), with 5 having a recurrence at a mean (SD) onset of 3.5 (2.5) days (range, 1-7 days); 2 hepatitis cases were successfully rechallenged. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine-induced hepatitis, nephritis, and pancreatitis are uncommon adverse events, reflected in the paucity of case studies in the literature. Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of clozapine-associated hepatitis, nephritis, and pancreatitis is important, as when identified, clozapine should be urgently discontinued. Clozapine is associated with evidence of benign inflammatory processes; the extent to which hepatitis, and other inflammatory reactions, may be on a continuum with these more benign and self-limiting reactions is unclear, and this can only be resolved by prospectively following cohorts of clozapine-treated patients.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Nefrite Intersticial/epidemiologia , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nefrite Intersticial/induzido quimicamente , Nefrite Intersticial/diagnóstico , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895892

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion (22q11DS) is a common chromosomal microdeletion and a potent risk factor for psychotic illness. Prior studies reported widespread cortical changes in 22q11DS, but were generally underpowered to characterize neuroanatomic abnormalities associated with psychosis in 22q11DS, and/or neuroanatomic effects of variability in deletion size. To address these issues, we developed the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis) 22q11.2 Working Group, representing the largest analysis of brain structural alterations in 22q11DS to date. The imaging data were collected from 10 centers worldwide, including 474 subjects with 22q11DS (age = 18.2 ± 8.6; 46.9% female) and 315 typically developing, matched controls (age = 18.0 ± 9.2; 45.9% female). Compared to controls, 22q11DS individuals showed thicker cortical gray matter overall (left/right hemispheres: Cohen's d = 0.61/0.65), but focal thickness reduction in temporal and cingulate cortex. Cortical surface area (SA), however, showed pervasive reductions in 22q11DS (left/right hemispheres: d = -1.01/-1.02). 22q11DS cases vs. controls were classified with 93.8% accuracy based on these neuroanatomic patterns. Comparison of 22q11DS-psychosis to idiopathic schizophrenia (ENIGMA-Schizophrenia Working Group) revealed significant convergence of affected brain regions, particularly in fronto-temporal cortex. Finally, cortical SA was significantly greater in 22q11DS cases with smaller 1.5 Mb deletions, relative to those with typical 3 Mb deletions. We found a robust neuroanatomic signature of 22q11DS, and the first evidence that deletion size impacts brain structure. Psychotic illness in this highly penetrant deletion was associated with similar neuroanatomic abnormalities to idiopathic schizophrenia. These consistent cross-site findings highlight the homogeneity of this single genetic etiology, and support the suitability of 22q11DS as a biological model of schizophrenia.

13.
Br J Psychiatry ; 211(6): 350-358, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982659

RESUMO

BackgroundRemission and recovery rates for people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) remain uncertain.AimsTo assess pooled prevalence rates of remission and recovery in FEP and to investigate potential moderators.MethodWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess pooled prevalence rates of remission and recovery in FEP in longitudinal studies with more than 1 year of follow-up data, and conducted meta-regression analyses to investigate potential moderators.ResultsSeventy-nine studies were included representing 19072 patients with FEP. The pooled rate of remission among 12301 individuals with FEP was 58% (60 studies, mean follow-up 5.5 years). Higher remission rates were moderated by studies from more recent years. The pooled prevalence of recovery among 9642 individuals with FEP was 38% (35 studies, mean follow-up 7.2 years). Recovery rates were higher in North America than in other regions.ConclusionsRemission and recovery rates in FEP may be more favourable than previously thought. We observed stability of recovery rates after the first 2 years, suggesting that a progressive deteriorating course of illness is not typical. Although remission rates have improved over time recovery rates have not, raising questions about the effectiveness of services in achieving improved recovery.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Adulto , Humanos
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 252: 154-160, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28273630

RESUMO

It is not only unclear why hallucinations in schizophrenia occur with different prevalence by modality, but also to what extent they do. Reliable prevalence estimates of hallucinations by modality in schizophrenia are currently lacking, particularly for non-auditory hallucinations. Studies have also tended to report lifetime, not point prevalence by modality. This study assessed the prevalence and co-occurrence of hallucinations, for both lifetime and point prevalence, across the auditory, visual, olfactory, and tactile modalities, in people diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in Ireland (N=693) and Australia (N=218). Lifetime prevalence was 64-80% auditory, 23-31% visual, 9-19% tactile, and 6-10% olfactory. Past month prevalence was 23-27% auditory, 5-8% visual, 4-7% tactile, and 2% olfactory. The majority of participants had only hallucinated in one modality, with this nearly always being the auditory. Approximately one-third had hallucinated in two modalities, most commonly the auditory and visual. Most currently hallucinating patients also hallucinated in a single modality, again, nearly always the auditory. Whereas 30-37% of patients with lifetime auditory hallucinations had experienced visual hallucinations, 83-97% of patients with experience of visual hallucinations had experienced auditory hallucinations. These findings help delineate the modality distribution of hallucinations in schizophrenia, and provide an explanatory target for theoretical models.


Assuntos
Alucinações/epidemiologia , Alucinações/psicologia , Percepção , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Olfatória , Prevalência , Percepção do Tato , Percepção Visual
15.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 37(12): 4689-4705, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27511297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Impaired spatial working memory is a core cognitive deficit observed in people with 22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and has been suggested as a candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, to date, the neuroanatomical mechanisms describing its structural and functional underpinnings in 22q11DS remain unclear. We quantitatively investigate the cognitive processes and associated neuroanatomy of spatial working memory in people with 22q11DS compared to matched controls. We examine whether there are significant between-group differences in spatial working memory using task related fMRI, Voxel based morphometry and white matter fiber tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging employing functional, diffusion and volumetric techniques were used to quantitatively assess the cognitive and neuroanatomical features of spatial working memory processes in 22q11DS. Twenty-six participants with genetically confirmed 22q11DS aged between 9 and 52 years and 26 controls aged between 8 and 46 years, matched for age, gender, and handedness were recruited. RESULTS: People with 22q11DS have significant differences in spatial working memory functioning accompanied by a gray matter volume reduction in the right precuneus. Gray matter volume was significantly correlated with task performance scores in these areas. Tractography revealed extensive differences along fibers between task-related cortical activations with pronounced differences localized to interhemispheric commissural fibers within the parietal section of the corpus callosum. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal spatial working memory in 22q11DS is associated with aberrant functional activity in conjunction with gray and white matter structural abnormalities. These anomalies in discrete brain regions may increase susceptibility to the development of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4689-4705, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Síndrome da Deleção 22q11/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Neurodev Disord ; 8: 30, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have difficulty processing social information including facial identity and emotion processing. However, difficulties with visual and attentional processes may play a role in difficulties observed with these social cognitive skills. METHODS: A cross-sectional study investigated visual perception and processing as well as facial processing abilities in a group of 49 children and adolescents with 22q11DS and 30 age and socio-economic status-matched healthy sibling controls using the Birmingham Object Recognition Battery and face processing sub-tests from the MRC face processing skills battery. RESULTS: The 22q11DS group demonstrated poorer performance on all measures of visual perception and processing, with greatest impairment on perceptual processes relating to form perception as well as object recognition and memory. In addition, form perception was found to make a significant and unique contribution to higher order social-perceptual processing (face identity) in the 22q11DS group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate evidence for impaired visual perception and processing capabilities in 22q11DS. In turn, these were found to influence cognitive skills needed for social processes such as facial identity recognition in the children with 22q11DS.

17.
BJPsych Bull ; 39(1): 19-23, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26191419

RESUMO

Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a form of encephalitis occurring primarily in women and associated with antibodies against NR1 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. As a potentially treatable differential for symptoms and signs seen in neurology and psychiatric clinics, clinicians practising across the lifespan should be aware of this form of encephalitis. Common clinical features include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change (frequently with agitation), impaired consciousness, motor disturbance (ranging from dyskinesia to catatonia), seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. We present a review of the literature on the disorder, including its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis.

18.
J Neurodev Disord ; 7(1): 1, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25972975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS, velo-cardio-facial syndrome [VCFS]) is a genetic disorder associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. In addition to high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders, children with 22q11DS have impairments of face processing, as well as IQ-independent deficits in visuoperceptual function and social and abstract reasoning. These face-processing deficits may contribute to the social impairments of 22q11DS. However, their neurobiological basis is poorly understood. METHODS: We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural responses when children with 22q11DS (aged 9-17 years) and healthy controls (aged 8-17 years) incidentally processed neutral expressions and mild (50%) and intense (100%) expressions of fear and disgust. We included 28 right-handed children and adolescents: 14 with 22q11DS and 14 healthy (including nine siblings) controls. RESULTS: Within groups, contrasts showed that individuals significantly activated 'face responsive' areas when viewing neutral faces, including fusiform-extrastriate cortices. Further, within both groups, there was a significant positive linear trend in activation of fusiform-extrastriate cortices and cerebellum to increasing intensities of fear. There were, however, also between-group differences. Children with 22q11DS generally showed reduced activity as compared to controls in brain regions involved in social cognition and emotion processing across emotion types and intensities, including fusiform-extrastriate cortices, anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann area (BA) 24/32), and superomedial prefrontal cortices (BA 6). Also, an exploratory correlation analysis showed that within 22q11DS children reduced activation was associated with behavioural impairment-social difficulties (measured using the Total Difficulties Score from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ]) were significantly negatively correlated with brain activity during fear and disgust processing (respectively) in the left precentral gyrus (BA 4) and in the left fusiform gyrus (FG, BA 19), right lingual gyrus (BA 18), and bilateral cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: Regions involved in face processing, including fusiform-extrastriate cortices, anterior cingulate gyri, and superomedial prefrontal cortices (BA 6), are activated by facial expressions of fearful, disgusted, and neutral expressions in children with 22q11DS but generally to a lesser degree than in controls. Hypoactivation in these regions may partly explain the social impairments of children with 22q11DS.

19.
Psychiatr Serv ; 66(8): 883-7, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the number of accumulated coercive events experienced by patients during inpatient admission, the patients' functioning and quality of life (QOL) one year after discharge, and associations between these variables and patient characteristics and between follow-up outcomes and number of accumulated coercive events. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken at three community services and an independent hospital in Ireland (N=162). Accumulated coercive events scores were based on patients' legal status, perceived coercion, and exposure to physical restraint, seclusion, or forced medication. RESULTS: Most (68%) experienced at least one coercive event. Lower functioning predicted more coercive events. At follow-up, the mean subjective QOL score was 63% of the highest possible score, objective QOL improved for 15% of participants, and functioning improved for 70%. Accumulated coercive events did not predict these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Coercive events during psychiatric admission appeared unrelated to functioning and QOL at follow-up.


Assuntos
Coerção , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Restrição Física/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(3): 529-36, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25691406

RESUMO

Persons with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are characterized inter alia by facial dysmorphology and greatly increased risk for psychotic illness. Recent studies indicate facial dysmorphology in adults with schizophrenia. This study evaluates the extent to which the facial dysmorphology of 22q11.2DS is similar to or different from that evident in schizophrenia. Twenty-one 22q11.2DS-sibling control pairs were assessed using 3D laser surface imaging. Geometric morphometrics was applied to 30 anatomical landmarks, 480 geometrically homologous semi-landmarks on curves and 1720 semi-landmarks interpolated on each 3D facial surface. Principal component (PC) analysis of overall shape space indicated PC2 to strongly distinguish 22q11.2DS from controls. Visualization of PC2 indicated 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia to be similar in terms of overall widening of the upper face, lateral displacement of the eyes/orbits, prominence of the cheeks, narrowing of the lower face, narrowing of nasal prominences and posterior displacement of the chin; they differed in terms of facial length (increased in 22q11.2DS, decreased in schizophrenia), mid-face and nasal prominences (displaced upwards and outwards in 22q11.2DS, less prominent in schizophrenia); lips (more prominent in 22q11.2DS; less prominent in schizophrenia) and mouth (open mouth posture in 22q11.2DS; closed mouth posture in schizophrenia). These findings directly implicate dysmorphogenesis in a cerebral-craniofacial domain that is common to 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia and which may repay further clinical and genetic interrogation in relation to the developmental origins of psychotic illness.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Imagem Tridimensional , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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