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2.
Br J Nutr ; 123(2): 198-208, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583990

RESUMO

Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterise the association between plasma concentrations of thirty-five polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis, the OR and 95 % CI of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/l) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per standard deviation) was associated with 29 (95 % CI 50, 1) % lower odds of elevated hsCRP. In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·58, 95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·87), ferulic acid (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) and caffeic acid (OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·93). The present study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 929-942, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050823

RESUMO

Obesity has been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers; however, there are limited prospective data on associations by subtype/subsite. Obesity can impact hormonal factors, which have been hypothesized to play a role in these cancers. We investigated anthropometric and reproductive factors in relation to esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite for 476,160 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox models. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 220 esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), 195 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 243 gastric cardia (GC) and 373 gastric noncardia (GNC) cancers were diagnosed. Body mass index (BMI) was associated with EA in men (BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5-25 kg/m2 : HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25-3.03) and women (HR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.15-6.19); however, adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attenuated these associations. After mutual adjustment for BMI and HC, respectively, WHR and waist circumference (WC) were associated with EA in men (HR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.99-6.06 for WHR >0.96 vs. <0.91; HR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52-4.72 for WC >98 vs. <90 cm) and women (HR = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.35-14.33 for WHR >0.82 vs. <0.76; HR = 5.67, 95% CI: 1.76-18.26 for WC >84 vs. <74 cm). WHR was also positively associated with GC in women, and WC was positively associated with GC in men. Inverse associations were observed between parity and EA (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-0.99; >2 vs. 0) and age at first pregnancy and GNC (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.91; >26 vs. <22 years); whereas bilateral ovariectomy was positively associated with GNC (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.04-3.36). These findings support a role for hormonal pathways in upper gastrointestinal cancers.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development. METHODS: Serum levels of IGF1 and other proteins were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 level associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12; P=3.3 x 10-4). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P =4.2 x 10-5). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in IGFBP3 (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652358

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that a metabolic profile associated with obesity may be a more relevant risk factor for some cancers than adiposity per se. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an indicator of overall body metabolism and may be a proxy for the impact of a specific metabolic profile on cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of predicted BMR with incidence of 13 obesity-related cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). BMR at baseline was calculated using the WHO/FAO/UNU equations and the relationships between BMR and cancer risk were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 141,295 men and 317,613 women, with a mean follow-up of 14 years were included in the analysis. Overall, higher BMR was associated with a greater risk for most cancers that have been linked with obesity. However, among normal weight participants, higher BMR was associated with elevated risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio per 1-standard deviation change in BMR [HR1-SD ]: 2.46; 95% CI 1.20; 5.03) and distal colon cancer (HR1-SD : 1.33; 95% CI 1.001; 1.77) among men and with proximal colon (HR1-SD : 1.16; 95% CI 1.01; 1.35), pancreatic (HR1-SD : 1.37; 95% CI 1.13; 1.66), thyroid (HR1-SD : 1.65; 95% CI 1.33; 2.05), postmenopausal breast (HR1-SD : 1.17; 95% CI 1.11; 1.22) and endometrial (HR1-SD : 1.20; 95% CI 1.03; 1.40) cancers in women. These results indicate that higher BMR may be an indicator of a metabolic phenotype associated with risk of certain cancer types, and may be a useful predictor of cancer risk independent of body fatness.

6.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479109

RESUMO

Importance: Soft drinks are frequently consumed, but whether this consumption is associated with mortality risk is unknown and has been understudied in European populations to date. Objective: To examine the association between total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drink consumption and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study involved participants (n = 451 743 of the full cohort) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), an ongoing, large multinational cohort of people from 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom), with participants recruited between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2000. Excluded participants were those who reported cancer, heart disease, stroke, or diabetes at baseline; those with implausible dietary intake data; and those with missing soft drink consumption or follow-up information. Data analyses were performed from February 1, 2018, to October 1, 2018. Exposure: Consumption of total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Total mortality and cause-specific mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for other mortality risk factors. Results: In total, 521 330 individuals were enrolled. Of this total, 451 743 (86.7%) were included in the study, with a mean (SD) age of 50.8 (9.8) years and with 321 081 women (71.1%). During a mean (range) follow-up of 16.4 (11.1 in Greece to 19.2 in France) years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Higher all-cause mortality was found among participants who consumed 2 or more glasses per day (vs consumers of <1 glass per month) of total soft drinks (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.22; P < .001), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P = .004), and artificially sweetened soft drinks (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.35; P < .001). Positive associations were also observed between artificially sweetened soft drinks and deaths from circulatory diseases (≥2 glasses per day vs <1 glass per month; HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.30-1.78; P < .001) and between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and deaths from digestive diseases (≥1 glass per day vs <1 glass per month; HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24-2.05; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that consumption of total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks was positively associated with all-cause deaths in this large European cohort; the results are supportive of public health campaigns aimed at limiting the consumption of soft drinks.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1552-1555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of prospective data on the potential association of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and colorectal cancer risk. In this study, we assessed whether antibody responses to F. nucleatum are associated with colorectal cancer risk in prediagnostic serum samples in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: We applied a multiplex serology assay to simultaneously measure antibody responses to 11 F. nucleatum antigens in prediagnostic serum samples from 485 colorectal cancer cases and 485 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We observed neither a statistically significant colorectal cancer risk association for antibodies to individual F. nucleatum proteins nor for combined positivity to any of the 11 proteins (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.62-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses to F. nucleatum proteins in prediagnostic serum samples from a subset of colorectal cancer cases and matched controls within the EPIC study were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Our findings in prospectively ascertained serum samples contradict the existing literature on the association of F. nucleatum with colorectal cancer risk. Future prospective studies, specifically detecting F. nucleatum in stool or tissue biopsies, are needed to complement our findings.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434255

RESUMO

Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well studied in humans. We investigated 1307 functional and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; individually, and by gene/pathway) in 86 vitamin D-related genes in 1420 incident CRC cases matched to controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We also evaluated the association between these SNPs and circulating 25(OH)D in a subset of controls. We confirmed previously reported CRC risk associations between SNPs in the VDR, GC, and CYP27B1 genes. We also identified additional associations with 25(OH)D, as well as CRC risk, and several potentially novel SNPs in genes related to vitamin D transport and action (LRP2, CUBN, NCOA7, and HDAC9). However, none of these SNPs were statistically significant after Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) multiple testing correction. When assessed by a priori defined functional pathways, tumor growth factor ß (TGFß) signaling was associated with CRC risk (P ≤ 0.001), with most statistically significant genes being SMAD7 (PBH = 0.008) and SMAD3 (PBH = 0.008), and 18 SNPs in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding sites (P = 0.036). The 25(OH)D-gene pathway analysis suggested that genetic variants in the genes related to VDR complex formation and transcriptional activity are associated with CRC depending on 25(OH)D levels (interaction P = 0.041). Additional studies in large populations and consortia, especially with measured circulating 25(OH)D, are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438550

RESUMO

Prior research explored reasons for tobacco use among pregnant Alaska Native (AN) women but did not address the postpartum period. This study followed up with AN women one to three years postpartum who had participated in a prenatal smoking cessation intervention study (Motivate Alaska Women (MAW) Phase 3) and had consented to be re-contacted for future studies. Of 47 eligible women, 32 (68%) participated. A semi-structured phone interview was conducted a mean of 2.0 years after delivery (range 1.6-2.8). Measures assessed self-reported tobacco use status in the 12 months after delivery, at 12 months postpartum, and at the time of the interview; reasons for maintaining abstinence, continued use, or relapse; and included the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Negative Affect (NA) scale. Content analysis was used to generate themes from open-ended response items. Tobacco use was reported by 23 women (72%) at delivery, 30 (94%) within the 12 months after delivery, 27 (84%) at 12 months postpartum, and 29 (91%) at the time of the interview. Among nine women not using tobacco at delivery, seven (78%) relapsed during the 12 months after delivery. Of the 29 current tobacco users, 28 (97%) smoked cigarettes. Twenty-seven participants (84%) reported stress and 15 (52%) indicated addiction as reasons for continuing, starting, or resuming tobacco use. Types of stressors were related to parenting and traumatic experiences. Among current tobacco users, mean NA score (18.7) was significantly higher (p = 0.01) than the normative mean (14.8), but no differences were detected for PSS score. In this sample of AN women, postpartum tobacco use was highly prevalent, and stress was a primary reason that women endorsed for using tobacco. These preliminary results have several practice and research implications for exploring ways to support non-tobacco use among postpartum AN women.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Alaska , Feminino , Humanos , Percepção , Recidiva , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bile acids have been proposed to promote colon carcinogenesis. However, there are limited prospective data on circulating bile acid levels and colon cancer risk in humans. METHODS: Associations between pre-diagnostic plasma levels of 17 primary, secondary and tertiary bile acid metabolites (conjugated and unconjugated) and colon cancer risk were evaluated in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Bile acid levels were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry in samples from 569 incident colon cancer cases and 569 matched controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer risk across quartiles of bile acid concentrations. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between colon cancer risk and plasma levels of 7 conjugated bile acid metabolites, i.e. primary bile acids glycocholic acid (ORQuartile 4 vs. Quartile 1=2.22,95 % confidence interval[CI]=1.52, 3.26), taurocholic acid (OR = 1.78, 95%CI=1.23, 2.58), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.13, 2.48), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.62, 95%CI=1.11-2.36), and glycohyocholic acid (OR = 1.65, 95%CI=1.13, 2.40) as well as the secondary bile acids glycodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.12, 2.54) and taurodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.54, 95%CI=1.02, 2.31). By contrast, unconjugated bile acids and tertiary bile acids were not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study showed that pre-diagnostic levels of certain conjugated primary and secondary bile acids were positively associated with risk of colon cancer. Our findings support experimental data to suggest that a high bile acid load is colon cancer promotive.

11.
Br J Nurs ; 28(13): 842-847, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: advanced clinical practitioners (ACPs) are expected to be competent in their holistic assessment and management of individuals, which includes those with both physical and mental health problems. A mental health component was introduced within a generic advanced practitioner programme to support the development of mental health skills required by advanced clinical practitioners in training (ACPiTs). AIMS: this research investigated the efficacy of content specific to mental health within an MSc ACP generic programme. METHODS: a single case study approach was adopted, which used a purposive sample of 10 ACPiTs to explore personal beliefs and experiences using semistructured interviews. Verbatim transcription was undertaken followed by content and thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Themes emerged included communication skills, and increased competence and self-awareness. CONCLUSION: insights provided by the ACPiTs showed they recognised the value of mental health teaching and exposure within their training programme in advancing their knowledge and skillset and, ultimately, increasing confidence in their clinical practice.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/educação , Competência Clínica , Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Comunicação , Humanos , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoeficácia
12.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2019: 8654741, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275902

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in pregnant women is of concern as it presents a health threat not only to the mother, but also to her infant. A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate HCV testing and exposure in women who delivered infants between 2013 and 2016 at a referral hospital in Alaska. Multiple risk behaviors were evaluated, including drug dependency or abuse (drug abuse), tobacco use, alcohol dependency or abuse, and late presentation to prenatal care. Of the 2856 women who delivered between 2013 and 2016, 470 (16.5%) were tested for HCV during pregnancy and 1356 (47.5%) were tested at any time prior to delivery (including pregnancy); 62 (2.2%) were positive for HCV antibodies. Of the 162 women with a documented history of drug abuse, 95 (58.6%) were tested for HCV during pregnancy and 143 (88.3%) were tested at any time prior to delivery (including pregnancy); 30 (18.5%) were positive for HCV antibodies. Forty-nine women (34%) with a documented history of drug abuse who were not previously known to be HCV positive were not tested for HCV during their pregnancy. In conclusion, approximately 2% of pregnant women in the study population were known to have been exposed to HCV by the time of their delivery. One-third of women with documented drug abuse did not have an HCV test during pregnancy, revealing gaps in HCV testing of pregnant women. Further studies are needed to understand the full costs and benefits of risk-based screening versus universal screening in this and other populations.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1089-1092, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the potential effect of social inequality on pancreatic cancer risk in Western Europe, by reassessing the association within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study, including a larger number of cases and an extended follow-up. METHODS: Data on highest education attained were gathered for 459,170 participants (70% women) from 10 European countries. A relative index of inequality (RII) based on adult education was calculated for comparability across countries and generations. Cox regression models were applied to estimate relative inequality in pancreatic cancer risk, stratifying by age, gender, and center, and adjusting for known pancreatic cancer risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1,223 incident pancreatic cancer cases were included after a mean follow-up of 13.9 (±4.0) years. An inverse social trend was found in models adjusted for age, sex, and center for both sexes [HR of RII, 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.59], which was also significant among women (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.05-1.92). Further adjusting by smoking intensity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, prevalent diabetes, and physical activity led to an attenuation of the RII risk and loss of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The present reanalysis does not sustain the existence of an independent social inequality influence on pancreatic cancer risk in Western European women and men, using an index based on adult education, the most relevant social indicator linked to individual lifestyles, in a context of very low pancreatic cancer survival from (quasi) universal public health systems. IMPACT: The results do not support an association between education and risk of pancreatic cancer.

14.
Mol Aspects Med ; 69: 2-9, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233770

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence changes with time and by variations in diet and lifestyle, as evidenced historically by migrant studies and recently by extensive epidemiologic evidence. The worldwide heterogeneity in CRC incidence is strongly suggestive of etiological involvement of environmental exposures, particularly lifestyle and diet. It is established that physical inactivity, obesity and some dietary factors (red/processed meats, alcohol) are positively associated with CRC, while healthy lifestyle habits show inverse associations. Mechanistic evidence shows that lifestyle and dietary components that contribute to energy excess are linked with increased CRC via metabolic dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, bacterial dysbiosis and breakdown of gut barrier integrity while the reverse is apparent for components associated with decreased risk. This chapter will review the available evidence on lifestyle and dietary factors in CRC etiology and their underlying mechanisms in CRC development. This short review will also touch upon available information on potential gene-environment interactions, molecular sub-types of CRC and anatomical sub-sites within the colorectum.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is an unclear association between intake of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the association between fish consumption, dietary and circulating levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs, and ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA with CRC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Dietary intake of fish (total, fatty/oily, lean/white) and n-3 LC-PUFA were estimated by food frequency questionnaires given to 521,324 participants in the EPIC study; among these, 6291 individuals developed CRC (median follow up, 14.9 years). Levels of phospholipid LC-PUFA were measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples from a sub-group of 461 CRC cases and 461 matched individuals without CRC (controls). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs), respectively, with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Total intake of fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; Ptrend = .005), fatty fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; Ptrend = .009), and lean fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; Ptrend = .016) were inversely associated with CRC incidence. Intake of total n-3 LC-PUFA (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; Ptrend = .010) was also associated with reduced risk of CRC, whereas dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA was associated with increased risk of CRC (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.45; Ptrend < .001). Plasma levels of phospholipid n-3 LC-PUFA was not associated with overall CRC risk, but an inverse trend was observed for proximal compared with distal colon cancer (Pheterogeneity = .026). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of dietary patterns of participants in the EPIC study, we found regular consumption of fish, at recommended levels, to be associated with a lower risk of CRC, possibly through exposure to n-3 LC-PUFA. Levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma were not associated with CRC risk, but there may be differences in risk at different regions of the colon.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 807-816, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are observational data suggesting an inverse association between circulating concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. However, causality is uncertain and few studies have investigated this association by tumour receptor status. We aimed to investigate these associations under the causal framework of Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: We used summary association estimates extracted from published genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for SHBG and breast cancer, to perform two-sample MR analyses. Summary statistics were available for 122 977 overall breast cancer cases, of which 69 501 were estrogen receptor positive (ER+ve) and 21 468 were ER-ve, and 105 974 controls. To control for potential horizontal pleiotropy acting via body mass index (BMI), we performed multivariable inverse-variance weighted (IVW) MR as the main analysis, with the robustness of this approach further tested in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The multivariable IVW MR analysis indicated a lower risk of overall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90, 0.98; P: 0.006) and ER+ve (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.97; P: 0.003) breast cancer, and a higher risk of ER-ve disease (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.18; P: 0.047) per 25 nmol/L higher SHBG levels. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of the main analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We corroborated the previous literature evidence coming from observational studies for a potentially causal inverse association between SHBG concentrations and risk of ER+ve breast cancer, but our findings also suggested a potential novel positive association with ER-ve disease that warrants further investigation, given the low prior probability of being true.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 145(5): 1238-1244, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131883

RESUMO

Previous epidemiological studies evaluated endogenous sex hormone levels and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk have yielded inconsistent results. Also, it is unknown if consumption of dietary isoflavones may influence the endogenous sex hormones and CRC relationships. We conducted a nested case-control study within the JPHC Study Cohort II wherein 11,644 women provided blood samples at the 5-year follow-up survey. We selected two matched controls for each case from the cohort (185 CRC cases and 361 controls). Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between circulating sex hormone levels and CRC risk. Comparing extreme tertiles, circulating testosterone levels were positively associated with CRC risk (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.11-3.99, p for trend = 0.03). Levels of estradiol, SHBG, and progesterone were not associated with CRC risk. In a subgroup analysis by dietary isoflavone intake, SHBG levels were positively associated with CRC risk among those with low total isoflavone intake (p for trend = 0.03), with a statistically nonsignificant inverse association among those with high total isoflavone intake (p for trend = 0.22; p for interaction = 0.002). Endogenous levels of testosterone were positively associated with CRC among postmenopausal women. The association of endogenous SHBG with CRC development may be altered by the level of dietary isoflavone intake.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Progesterona/sangue , Risco , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the previous studies on diet and colorectal cancer were based on diets consumed during the 1990s. METHODS: We used Cox-regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for colorectal cancer by dietary factors in the UK Biobank study. Men and women aged 40-69 years at recruitment (2006-10) reported their diet on a short food-frequency questionnaire (n = 475 581). Dietary intakes were re-measured in a large sub-sample (n = 175 402) who completed an online 24-hour dietary assessment during follow-up. Trends in risk across the baseline categories were calculated by assigning re-measured intakes to allow for measurement error and changes in intake over time. RESULTS: During an average of 5.7 years of follow-up, 2609 cases of colorectal cancer occurred. Participants who reported consuming an average of 76 g/day of red and processed meat compared with 21 g/day had a 20% [95% confidence interval (CI): 4-37] higher risk of colorectal cancer. Participants in the highest fifth of intake of fibre from bread and breakfast cereals had a 14% (95% CI: 2-24) lower risk of colorectal cancer. Alcohol was associated with an 8% (95% CI: 4-12) higher risk per 10 g/day higher intake. Fish, poultry, cheese, fruit, vegetables, tea and coffee were not associated with colorectal-cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of red and processed meat at an average level of 76 g/d that meets the current UK government recommendation (≤90 g/day) was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Alcohol was also associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, whereas fibre from bread and breakfast cereals was associated with a reduced risk.

19.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027226

RESUMO

Selenoprotein genetic variations and suboptimal selenium (Se) levels may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We examined the association between CRC risk and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein and Se metabolic pathway genes. Illumina Goldengate assays were designed and resulted in the genotyping of 1040 variants in 154 genes from 1420 cases and 1421 controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Multivariable logistic regression revealed an association of 144 individual SNPs from 63 Se pathway genes with CRC risk. However, regarding the selenoprotein genes, only TXNRD1 rs11111979 retained borderline statistical significance after adjustment for correlated tests (PACT = 0.10; PACT significance threshold was P < 0.1). SNPs in Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-signaling genes (FRZB, SMAD3, SMAD7) from pathways affected by Se intake were also associated with CRC risk after multiple testing adjustments. Interactions with Se status (using existing serum Se and Selenoprotein P data) were tested at the SNP, gene, and pathway levels. Pathway analyses using the modified Adaptive Rank Truncated Product method suggested that genes and gene x Se status interactions in antioxidant, apoptosis, and TGF-beta signaling pathways may be associated with CRC risk. This study suggests that SNPs in the Se pathway alone or in combination with suboptimal Se status may contribute to CRC development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Genótipo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Selenoproteínas/genética
20.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 22(2): 67-71, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mendelian randomisation (MR) is a technique that aims to assess causal effects of exposures on disease outcomes. The paper aims to present the main assumptions that underlie MR, the statistical methods used to estimate causal effects and how to account for potential violations of the key assumptions. METHODS: We discuss the key assumptions that should be satisfied in an MR setting. We list the statistical methodologies used in two-sample MR when summary data are available to estimate causal effects (ie, Wald ratio estimator, inverse-variance weighted and maximum likelihood method) and identify/adjust for potential violations of MR assumptions (ie, MR-Egger regression and weighted Median approach). We also present statistical methods and graphical tools used to evaluate the presence of heterogeneity. RESULTS: We use as an illustrative example of a published two-sample MR study, investigating the causal association of body mass index with three psychiatric disorders (ie, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and major depressive disorder). We highlight the importance of assessing the results of all available methods rather than each method alone. We also demonstrate the impact of heterogeneity in the estimation of the causal effects. CONCLUSIONS: MR is a useful tool to assess causality of risk factors in medical research. Assessment of the key assumptions underlying MR is crucial for a valid interpretation of the results.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Causalidade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Transtornos Mentais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética
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