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1.
Nurs Forum ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942307

RESUMO

Gaslighting is an insidious, pernicious form of bullying that is gaining notoriety in nursing academia anecdotally. Attempting to identify the behaviors associated with gaslighting are difficult because of the subtle nature with which gaslighting is performed by the perpetrator. Traditional tools/models used for identifying bullying and horizontal violence are not sensitive enough to pick up gaslighting behaviors. Perpetual lies and mistruths, vexatious or frivolous complaints, praise and positive reinforcement, the use of blame or mobbing, and coercion are some of the tactics a gaslighter will use to create confusion and chaos for the gaslightee. The psychological harm for the gaslightee can lead to self-doubt, hypervigilance, depression, anxiety, addiction, and suicidal ideation as well as the physical symptoms associated with stress. Left with very few choices the gaslightee either adheres to the behavior or leaves. It is important to raise awareness and perhaps education and training of this form of bullying behavior because of the deleterious effects it has personally and professionally.

2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic medications may increase risk of dementia and stroke, but prospective studies in healthy older people are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Compare risk of incident dementia and stroke by anticholinergic burden among initially healthy older people. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Primary care (Australia and USA). PARTICIPANTS: 19,114 community-dwelling participants recruited for the ASPREE trial, aged 70+ years (65+ if US minorities) without major cardiovascular disease, dementia diagnosis, or Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score below 78/100. MEASUREMENTS: Baseline anticholinergic exposure was calculated using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) score. Dementia was adjudicated using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders volume IV criteria, and stroke using the World Health Organization definition. RESULTS: At baseline, 15,000 participants (79%) had an ACB score of zero, 2930 (15%) a score of 1-2, and 1184 (6%) a score of ≥ 3 (indicating higher burden). After a median follow-up of 4.7 years and adjusting for baseline covariates, a baseline ACB score of ≥ 3 was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.06, 2.35), or dementia (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01, 1.82), especially of mixed etiology (adjusted HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.06, 2.21). Results were similar for those exposed to moderate/highly anticholinergic medications. LIMITATIONS: Residual confounding and reverse causality are possible. Assessment of dose or duration was not possible. CONCLUSIONS: High anticholinergic burden in initially healthy older people was associated with increased risk of incident dementia and ischemic stroke. A vascular effect may underlie this association. These findings highlight the importance of minimizing anticholinergic exposure in healthy older people.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(2): 895-904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been shown to predict adverse health outcome in the general population. OBJECTIVE: We examined the cross-sectional association between HRQoL and cognitive performance at baseline. Next, we explored whether baseline HRQoL predicted 5-year incident cognitive decline and dementia and whether there were gender differences. METHODS: 19,106 community-dwelling participants from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial, aged 65-98 years, free of major cognitive impairments, and completed the HRQoL 12-item short-form (SF-12) at baseline (2010-2014), were followed until June 2017. The physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) of SF-12 were calculated. The cognitive tests were assessed at baseline, year 1, 3, 5, and 7 or close-out visit. Cognitive decline was defined as > 1.5 SD drop from baseline on any of the cognitive tests. Dementia was adjudicated according to DSM-IV criteria. Linear and Cox proportional-hazards regressions were used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations respectively. RESULTS: At baseline, higher PCS and MCS were associated with better cognition. Over a median 4.7-year follow-up, higher MCS was associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia (12% and 15% respectively, per 10-unit increase) and a 10-unit higher PCS was associated with a 6% decreased risk of cognitive decline. PCS did not predict dementia incidence. Findings were not different by gender. CONCLUSION: Our study found that higher HRQoL, in particular MCS, predicted a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia over time in community-dwelling older people.

4.
Qual Life Res ; 30(4): 1037-1048, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389487

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous research has demonstrated that lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, especially in-patient groups. The association of HRQoL with all-cause mortality in community samples requires further investigation. This study aimed to examine whether HRQoL predicts all-cause mortality in older healthy community-dwelling people from Australia and the United States (U.S.) enrolled in the Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial. We also explored whether this association varies by gender or country. METHOD: A prospective cohort of 19,106 individuals aged 65-98 years, who were without a dementia diagnosis or a known major life-limiting disease, and completed the 12-item short-form-HRQoL at recruitment (2010-2014). They were followed until June 2017. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to determine the association between the physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) of HRQoL and all-cause mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours and clinical measures. Hazards ratios were estimated for every 10-unit increase in PCS or MCS. RESULTS: There were 1052 deaths over a median 4.7-years (interquartile range 3.6-5.7) of follow-up, with 11.9 events per 1000 person-years. Higher PCS was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77, 0.89) in the entire sample, while higher MCS was associated with lower mortality among U.S. participants only (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63, 0.95). Gender differences in the association of either PCS or MCS with mortality were not observed. CONCLUSION: Our large study provides evidence that HRQoL is inversely associated with all-cause mortality among initially healthy older people.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504953

RESUMO

Late-life depression is common and often inadequately managed using existing therapies. Depression is also associated with increased markers of inflammation, suggesting a potential role for anti-inflammatory agents. ASPREE-D is a sub-study of ASPREE, a large multi-centre, population-based, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin vs placebo in older Australian and American adults (median follow-up: 4.7 years) of whom 1879 were depressed at baseline. Participants were given 100 mg daily dose of aspirin or placebo. Depressive symptoms were assessed annually using the validated, self-rated short version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. There was a significant increase in depressive scores (0.6; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9; χ2 (1) = 10.37; p = 0.001) and a decreased score in the mental health component of a quality of life scale (-0.7; 95% CI -1.4 to -0.1; χ2 (1) = 4.74; p = 0.029) in the aspirin group compared to the placebo group. These effects were greater in the first year of follow-up and persisted throughout the study, albeit with small to very small effect sizes. This study failed to demonstrate any benefit of aspirin in the long-term course of depression in this community-dwelling sample of older adults over a 5-year period, and identified an adverse effect of aspirin in the course of depression in those with pre-existing depressive symptoms.

6.
Epigenomics ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300824

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate whether genes implicated in dementia pathogenesis are differently methylated in peripheral blood. Materials & methods: Participants included 160 cognitively healthy individuals aged 70+ years: 73 who were subsequently diagnosed with dementia and 87 controls matched on age, gender, education, smoking and baseline cognition. A total of 49 participants also provided blood samples at diagnosis. Blood DNA methylation of APOE, APP, BDNF, PIN1, SNCA and TOMM40 was examined. Results: A total of 56 of 299 probes were differentially methylated in dementia compared with controls and 39 probes prior to diagnosis. The greatest effect size was in APP (cg19423170, Δ-8.32%, adjusted p = 0.009 at diagnosis; cg19933173, Δ-4.18%, adjusted p < 0.0001 prediagnosis). Conclusion: Genes implicated in dementia pathogenesis show differential blood methylation in dementia, even prior to diagnosis.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular events, dementia and cancer can contribute to physical disability with activities of daily living (ADL). It is unclear whether low-dose aspirin reduces this burden in aging populations. In a secondary analysis, we now examine aspirin's effects on incident and persistent ADL disability within a primary prevention aspirin trial in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The ASPREE (ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) trial of daily 100mg aspirin versus placebo recruited 19,114 healthy adults aged 70+ years (65+ years if U.S. minority) in Australia and the U.S. Six basic ADLs were assessed every six months. Incident ADL disability was defined as inability or severe difficulty with ≥1 ADL; persistence was confirmed if the same ADL disability remained after six months. Proportional hazards modelling compared time to incident or persistent ADL disability for aspirin versus placebo; death without prior disability was a competing risk. RESULTS: Over a median 4.7 years, incident ADL disability was similar in those receiving aspirin (776/9525) and placebo (787/9589) with walking, bathing, dressing and transferring the most commonly reported. Only 24% of incident ADL disability progressed to persistent. Persistent ADL disability was lower in the aspirin group (4.3 versus 5.3 events/1000py; HR=0.81, 95% CI:0.66-1.00), with bathing and dressing the most common ADL disabilities in both groups. Following persistent ADL disability there were more deaths in the aspirin group (24 versus 12). DISCUSSION: Low-dose aspirin in initially healthy older people did not reduce risk of incident ADL disability, although there was evidence of reduced persistent ADL disability.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis Rep ; 4(1): 313-323, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024939

RESUMO

Background: Processing speed, which can be assessed using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), is central to many brain functions. Processing speed declines with advanced age but substantial impairments are indicative of brain injury or disease. Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide SDMT normative data for older community-dwelling individuals in the U.S. and Australia. Methods: The ASPREE trial recruited 19,114 relatively healthy older men and women in Australia and the U.S. from the general community. All participants were without a diagnosis of dementia and with a Modified Mini-Mental State examination score of 78 or more at enrolment. The SDMT was administered at baseline as part of a neuropsychological test battery. Results: The median age of participants was 74 years (range 65-99), and 56% were women. The median years of education was 12. Ethno-racial differences in SDMT performance were observed and normative data were thus presented separately for 16,289 white Australians, 1,082 white Americans, 891 African-Americans, and 316 Hispanic/Latinos. There were consistent positive associations found between SDMT and education level, and negative associations between SDMT and age. Mean scores for women were consistently higher than men with the exception of Hispanic/Latinos aged ≥70 years. Conclusion: This study provides comprehensive SDMT normative data for whites (Australian and U.S.), Hispanic/Latinos, and African-Americans, according to gender, age, and education level. These norms can be used clinically as reference standards to screen for cognitive impairments in older individuals.

9.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(10): 1042-1053, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to minimize medication risks among older adults include avoidance of potentially inappropriate medications. Contemporary analysis of medication use in community-dwelling older people compared with the general population is lacking. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 19,114 community-dwelling adults in Australia and the United States aged 70 years or older (65 years or older for U.S. minorities) without histories of major cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, or disability participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin: ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly study. Measurements Prescribed baseline medications obtained by self-report and medical record review were grouped by World Health Organization Anatomic and Therapeutic Chemical category. Potentially inappropriate medications were defined using a modified American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria. Polypharmacy was defined as 5 or more medications, and hyperpolypharmacy defined as 10 or more medications. Cross-sectional descriptive statistics and adjusted odds ratios were computed. RESULTS: The median number of prescription medications per participant was three, regardless of age. Women had a higher medication prevalence. Cardiovascular drugs (primarily antihypertensives) were the most commonly reported (64%). Overall, 39% of the cohort reported taking at least one potentially inappropriate medication, with proton-pump inhibitors being the most commonly reported (21.2% of cohort). Of the cohort, 27% had polypharmacy, and 2% hyperpolypharmacy. Age 75 years or older, less than 12 years of education, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, frailty, gastrointestinal complaint, and depressive symptoms were associated with an increased likelihood of potentially inappropriate medications and polypharmacy. For almost all medication classes, prevalence was equivalent or lower than the general older population. CONCLUSION: Overall medication burden and polypharmacy are low in older adults free of major cardiovascular disease, disability, and cognitive impairment. The prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications is higher than previously reported and similar to more vulnerable populations as a result of the introduction of proton-pump inhibitors to the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria. Longitudinal follow-up is required to further understand the balance of benefits and risks for potentially inappropriate medications and polypharmacy in community-dwelling older people.

11.
J Aging Health ; : 898264320952914, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912103

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the prevalence, location and impact of moderate to severe pain experienced on most days in community-dwelling older (≥70 years) adults who were ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) clinical trial participants. Methods: Cross-sectional ASPREE Longitudinal Study of Older Persons (ALSOP) data were collected from self-reported questionnaires administered to 16,439 ASPREE participants. Results: Of 14,155 respondents, 41% of males (n = 2651/6475) and 50% of females (n = 3803/7680) reported experiencing pain on most days. One quarter of respondents reported experiencing pain on most days that was moderate or severe in intensity (n = 3560/14,155), commonly located in the lower back, knees and upper back. Of those reporting moderate or severe pain, 51% reported taking analgesic medication on most days (n = 1812/3560), almost one-third also reported regular interference with sleep (29%, n = 1024/3560), walking (35%, n = 1239/3560) and daily activities (41%, n = 1467/3560). Discussion: Lower back, knee or upper back pain is a common accompaniment of ageing.

12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 28: 102434, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) characteristics before and after hemodialysis initiation and their longitudinal associations with global cognitive function in older adults. METHODS: A cohort of 17 older end-stage renal disease patients anticipating standard thrice-weekly hemodialysis and a group of 11 age- and sex-matched healthy control volunteers were recruited for brain perfusion imaging studies using arterial spin labeling. Hemodialysis patients participated in a prospective longitudinal study using brain magnetic resonance imaging and global cognitive assessment using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) at two time points: baseline, 2.9 ± 0.9 months before, and follow-up, 6.4 ± 2.4 months after hemodialysis initiation. Healthy controls were imaged once using the same protocol. CBF analyses were performed globally in grey and white matter and regionally in the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex. Covariate-adjusted linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analyses (significance: p < 0.05; marginal significance: p < 0.1). RESULTS: At baseline, global and regional CBF was significantly higher in hemodialysis patients than in healthy controls. However, after approximately 6 months of hemodialysis, CBF declined substantially in hemodialysis patients, and became comparable to those in healthy controls. Specifically, in the hemodialysis patients, CBF declined non-significantly globally for grey and white matter and significantly regionally in the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex. Marginally significant associations were observed between 3MS scores and regional CBF measurements in the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex at baseline and follow-up, and between longitudinal changes. CONCLUSION: The significant decline in CBF after hemodialysis initiation and the observed association between longitudinal changes in regional CBF and 3MS scores suggest that decreased brain perfusion may contribute to the observed cognitive decline.

13.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920022

RESUMO

The role of aspirin for primary prevention in older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. Therefore, post hoc analysis of the randomized controlled trial ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) was undertaken comparing 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin daily against matching placebo. Participants were community dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in Australia, 65 years and older in the United States, all free of a history of dementia or cardiovascular disease and of any disease expected to lead to death within five years. CKD was defined as present at baseline if either eGFR under 60mL/min/1.73m2 or urine albumin to creatinine ratio 3 mg/mmol or more. In 4758 participants with and 13004 without CKD, the rates of a composite endpoint (dementia, persistent physical disability or death), major adverse cardiovascular events and clinically significant bleeding in the CKD participants were almost double those without CKD. Aspirin's effects as estimated by hazard ratios were generally similar between CKD and non-CKD groups for dementia, persistent physical disability or death; major adverse cardiovascular events and clinically significant bleeding. Thus, in our analysis aspirin did not improve outcomes in older people while increasing the risk of bleeding, with mostly consistent effects in participants with and without CKD.

14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 96: 106095, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a leading cause of death globally. Given the elevated risk of cancer with age and an ageing population, it is important to understand the changing burden of cancer in older populations. The ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) study randomised healthy older individuals to 100 mg aspirin or placebo, with clinical outcomes and disability-free survival endpoints. Detailed baseline data provides a rare opportunity to explore cancer burden in a uniquely healthy older population. METHODS: At study enrolment (2010-2014), self-reported personal cancer history, cancer type and cancer risk factor data were sought from 19,114 participants (Australia, n = 16,703; U.S., n = 2411). Eligible participants were healthy, free of major diseases and expected to survive 5 years. RESULTS: Nearly 20% of enrolling ASPREE participants reported a prior cancer diagnosis; 18% of women and 22% of men, with women diagnosed younger (16% vs 6% of diagnoses <50 years). Cancer prevalence increased with age. Prevalence of prostate and breast cancer history were higher in U.S. participants; melanoma and colorectal cancer were higher in Australian participants. Cancer history prevalence was not associated with contemporary common risk factors nor previous aspirin use, but was associated with poor health ratings in men. Blood and breast cancer history were more common with past aspirin use. CONCLUSIONS: Personal cancer history in healthy older ASPREE participants was as expected for the most common cancer types in the respective populations, but was not necessarily aligned with known risk factors. We attribute this to survivor bias, likely driven by entry criteria. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN83772183) and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01038583).

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (RCT) of daily low-dose aspirin (100 mg) in older adults, showed an increase in all-cause mortality, primarily due to cancer. In contrast prior RCTs, mainly involving younger individuals, demonstrated a delayed cancer benefit with aspirin. We now report a detailed analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: 19,114 Australian and U.S. community-dwelling participants aged 70+ years (U.S. minorities 65+ years) without cardiovascular disease, dementia or physical disability were randomized and followed for a median of 4.7 years. Fatal and non-fatal cancer events, a prespecified secondary endpoint, were adjudicated based on clinical records. RESULTS: 981 cancer events occurred in the aspirin and 952 in the placebo groups. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for all incident cancers (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.14), hematological cancer (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.30), or all solid cancers (HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.15), including by specific tumor type. However, aspirin was associated with an increased risk of incident cancer that had metastasized (HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.43) or was stage 4 at diagnosis (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.45), and with higher risk of death for cancers that presented at stages 3 (HR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.03 to 4.33) or 4 (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.64). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, aspirin treatment had an adverse effect on later stages of cancer evolution. These findings suggest that in older persons, aspirin may accelerate the progression of cancer and thus, suggest caution with its use in this age group.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(32): 8621-8628, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786723

RESUMO

The fragrant bolete, Suillus punctipes (Peck) Singer, is an edible mushroom with a unique aroma reminiscent of mushroom and citrus peel with an undertone of apricot. Thirty-five odorants were identified using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Fourteen odorants including those with flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥64 were quantitated using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Some odorants with high OAVs included 1-octen-3-one (OAV 164368), 1-octen-3-ol (OAV 3421), linalool (OAV 812), and nonanal (OAV 487). An odor simulation model was prepared closely matching the aroma of the mushroom. Omissions experiments revealed that 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, (2E)-oct-2-enal, linalool, δ-dodecalactone, and a mixture of three aldehydes, octanal, nonanal, and decanal, were essential odorants for the aroma profile. Enantiomeric ratios were determined for several odorants employing chiral chromatography. The results from this study lay the groundwork for future studies in the aroma chemistry of S. punctipes and other mushrooms from the Suillus genus.

17.
J Hypertens ; 38(12): 2527-2536, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The AHA/ACC-2017 hypertension guideline recommends an age-independent target blood pressure (BP) of less than 130/80 mmHg. In an elderly cohort without established cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline, we determined the impact of this guideline on the prevalence of hypertension and associated CVD risk. METHODS: Nineteen thousand, one hundred and fourteen participants aged at least 65 years from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) study were grouped by baseline BP: 'pre-2017 hypertensive' (BP ≥140/90 mmHg and/or on antihypertensive drugs); 'reclassified hypertensive' (normotensive by pre-2017 guidelines; hypertensive by AHA/ACC-2017 guideline), and 'normotensive' (BP <130 and <80 mmHg). For each group, we evaluated CVD risk factors, predicted 10-year CVD risk using the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) risk equation, and reported observed CVD event rates during a median 4.7-year follow-up. RESULTS:: Overall, 74.4% (14 213/19 114) were 'pre-2017 hypertensive'; an additional 12.3% (2354/19 114) were 'reclassified hypertensive' by the AHA/ACC-2017 guideline. Of those 'reclassified hypertensive', the majority (94.5%) met criteria for antihypertensive treatment although 29% had no other traditional CVD risk factors other than age. Further, a relatively lower mean 10-year predicted CVD risk (18% versus 26%, P < 0.001) and lower CVD rates (8.9 versus 12.1/1000 person-years, P = 0.01) were observed in 'reclassified hypertensive' compared with 'pre-2017 hypertensive'. Compared with 'normotensive', a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for CVD events of 1.60 (1.26-2.02) for 'pre-2017 hypertensive' and 1.26 (0.93-1.71) for 'reclassified hypertensive' was observed. CONCLUSION: Applying current CVD risk calculators in the elderly 'reclassified hypertensive', as a result of shifting the BP threshold lower, increases eligibility for antihypertensive treatment but documented CVD rates remain lower than hypertensive patients defined by pre2017 BP thresholds.

18.
Gut ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of robust data on significant gastrointestinal bleeding in older people using aspirin. We calculated the incidence, risk factors and absolute risk using data from a large randomised, controlled trial. DESIGN: Data were extracted from an aspirin versus placebo primary prevention trial conducted throughout 2010-2017 ('ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE)', n=19 114) in community-dwelling persons aged ≥70 years. Clinical characteristics were collected at baseline and annually. The endpoint was major GI bleeding that resulted in transfusion, hospitalisation, surgery or death, adjudicated independently by two physicians blinded to trial arm. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 4.7 years (88 389 person years), there were 137 upper GI bleeds (89 in aspirin arm and 48 in placebo arm, HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.66, p<0.01) and 127 lower GI bleeds (73 in aspirin and 54 in placebo arm, HR 1.36, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.94, p=0.08) reflecting a 60% increase in bleeding overall. There were two fatal bleeds in the placebo arm. Multivariable analyses indicated age, smoking, hypertension, chronic kidney disease and obesity increased bleeding risk. The absolute 5-year risk of bleeding was 0.25% (95% CI 0.16% to 0.37%) for a 70 year old not on aspirin and up to 5.03% (2.56% to 8.73%) for an 80 year old taking aspirin with additional risk factors. CONCLUSION: Aspirin increases overall GI bleeding risk by 60%; however, the 5-year absolute risk of serious bleeding is modest in younger, well individuals. These data may assist patients and their clinicians to make informed decisions about prophylactic use of aspirin. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ASPREE. NCT01038583.

19.
Case Reports Hepatol ; 2020: 8850000, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832173

RESUMO

Biliary complications following liver transplant are common. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are the main techniques used to diagnose and treat biliary complications; however, these techniques have limits to the depth of visualization. In this report, we present five cases of orthotopic liver transplant patients with biliary complications that underwent ERCP- or MRCP-guided cholangioscopy with the SpyGlass™ DS Direct Visualization System (SDDVS). The SDDVS allowed for the visualization of the morphological characteristics of biliary strictures, and images collected using the SDDVS allowed for four of the cases to be treated endoscopically. Our findings suggest that cholangioscopy with the SDDVS is a promising method to guide the endoscopic treatment of biliary complications after liver transplantation.

20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(36): 9768-9775, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840362

RESUMO

The American Matsutake, Tricholoma magnivelare (Peck) Redhead, is an edible wild mushroom with a distinctive aroma described as mushroom and spice with subtle floral and citrus nuances. In this study, a total of 36 odorants were identified from T. magnivelare using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and aroma extract dilution analysis. Stable isotope dilution assays were performed to quantitate 14 odorants with flavor dilution factors ≥64. Odorants with high odor activity values (OAVs) included 1-octen-3-one (OAV 2125), linalool (OAV 650), (2E,4E)-nona-2,4-dienal (OAV 304), and 1-octen-3-ol (OAV 206). An odor simulation model matched the odor profile of the fresh mushroom. Omission studies showed that linalool, hexanal, (2E,4E)-nona-2,4-dienal, methyl (E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoate, and 1-octen-3-one or 1-octen-3-ol were essential to the aroma of T. magnivelare. Chiral chromatography showed that α-pinene was a scalemic mixture of 34% (R)-(+) to 66% (S)-(-), while 1-octen-3-ol was present as 95% (R)-(-) to 5% (S)-(+), and linalool was 96% (R)-(-) to 4% (S)-(+). These results establish the base for future investigations into the aroma chemistry of other members of the genus Tricholoma.

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