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1.
ChemistryOpen ; 8(9): 1204-1208, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523608

RESUMO

The synthesis of a Cu4(OH)4 cube which is coordinated by four molecules of the dipyridyl ligand 1,6-[di(pyridin-4-yl)hex-3-ene] is reported. This compound has a trans double bond which restricts the conformational freedom of the ligand and favours coordination within a unique copper cube. The structure was solved by an X-Ray single crystal structure determination and low temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements examined its magnetic properties. The cube classification corresponds to the type I classification of Mergehenn and Haase and the short/long distribution of Cu ⋅⋅⋅ Cu separations in the cube as defined by Ruiz. The magnetic susceptibility measurements show paramagnetic behaviour down to 50 K but below this the copper cube shows weak ferromagnetic exchange interactions. The low temperature magnetic susceptibility characteristics are examined in detail then modelled and compared to other similar Cu4O4 copper cubes.

2.
Heliyon ; 5(7): e01900, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372522

RESUMO

Research indicates that adverse childhood experiences play a causal role in the development of poor health and social outcomes in adulthood. Despite this, research suggests that such experiences go undetected since spontaneous disclosure is unlikely, and practitioners are unlikely to ask. A project was developed in which practitioners were trained to routinely enquire about adversity in their daily practice. Four pilot services took part that worked directly and indirectly with children and young people, many of whom were exposed to multiple adverse experiences. The aim of this study was to construct an understanding of the experiences of these practitioners. Seven interviews were conducted, and the data was analysed using thematic analysis. The emerging themes were: change in knowledge, perception and practice; the emotional impact of hearing and responding to disclosures; confidence in asking and responding appropriately; making sense of the impact for clients; how and when to ask. Findings indicate that participants' change toward more adverse-experience-informed formulations of clients' difficulties ensure commitment to routine enquiry and changes in referral patterns and therapeutic practice. Suggestions are made with regard to the practicalities of routine enquiry and how services can best support practitioners who are embedding this skill into their practice.

3.
N Z Med J ; 132(1498): 79-89, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295240

RESUMO

AIM: To examine socio-demographic trends in doctor and nurse utilisation rates for invoiced consultations across Comprehensive Care Primary Health Organisation (PHO). METHOD: De-identified enrolled patient information and Service Utilisation Reporting data for invoiced consultations were extracted from all general practices for January 2013-December 2016. Utilisation rates were calculated using the number of enrolled patients as the denominator. RESULTS: Data for 3,657,873 invoiced consultations across 66 general practices were analysed, including 2,941,624 doctor and 716,249 nurse consultations. Average utilisation rates were 3.1 visits per patient year for doctors and 0.7 visits for nurses, with considerable variability between practices. Utilisation rates were higher for females (3.3 visits for doctors; 0.8 for nurses), older adults (5.0-6.9; 1.3-1.6 visits) and patients residing in the most socially deprived quintile (3.3; 1.6 visits). European patients had the highest doctor utilisation rates (3.2 visits), while Maori and Pacific patients had the highest nurse utilisation rates (1.1 and 1.3 visits, respectively). CONCLUSION: Females, older adults and people residing in socially deprived areas utilise primary care more frequently according to invoiced consultation data. Analysis of all other consultations, including immunisations, Accident Corporation Claims and non-billed services is needed to more accurately capture utilisation rates, particularly for nurses, to better inform national decision-making, workforce planning and funding assumptions.


Assuntos
Assistência Integral à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermagem de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
4.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-8, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although peer support has received research attention within different health related contexts, there is limited research considering individuals who have experienced an amputation. In particular, the peer mentoring role is under-explored. Therefore, this research aimed to explore the experiences of participants delivering peer support interventions to individuals with lower limb loss. METHODS: Eight people who acted as peer mentors for people with limb loss took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Two overarching themes were identified from the data: "Developing a Helpful Self", in which the personal value and meaning of being a peer mentor is presented, and "Connecting with Vulnerability", which addresses the emotional challenges of peer mentoring and the impact of these on wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest positive experiences of providing support, including increased hope, resilience and a sense of belonging and connection to others. However, peer mentors experienced challenges related to uncertainty and doubt about their mentoring abilities and with developing and maintaining resilience in the role. Recommendations include the development of training packages and increased clarity for volunteers of the peer mentor role. Implications for rehabilitation It is important to define clearly the role of a peer mentor and the responsibilities this involves. Peer mentors should be provided with support and training to increase their confidence and ability to act appropriately when encountering distress. It is important to provide transparent guidelines and procedures to support peer mentors to minimize concerns over risk and safety. Feedback regarding how effective the support offered is and how it could be improved should be provided.

5.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-8, 2019 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712447

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rehabilitative care for children with limb difference often includes the provision and use of an artificial (or prosthetic) limb. Of key influence in this process is how parents experience and respond to their child's limb difference and prosthesis use. However, research on this is lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the experiences of parenting a child with limb difference who had been provided with an artificial limb. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews took place with seven parents. Interview data was recorded, transcribed and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: The analysis identified four themes: (1) managing the initial emotional experience through the development of coping resources; (2) opportunities through prosthesis use and its relationship with "normality"; (3) managing and making sense of social reactions toward their child; (4) the intrinsic role of support: developing a collective connection and enabling shared knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted salient aspects to parents' experiences and sense-making that can inform clinical support. Emotional support, the management of social responses, and the holistic co-ordination of healthcare support with peer support networks are discussed. Healthcare professionals involved in the prosthetic rehabilitation process should look to explore these meanings to help support the management of the child's prosthesis use. Implications for rehabilitation Understanding the sense-making of parents is important in effective service provision for children with limb difference. Service provision for children with limb difference should consider the support needs of parents. Working with limb difference charities and voluntary organizations could help services develop needed parent-to-parent support networks.

6.
Acad Emerg Med ; 26(5): 491-500, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigators have identified important racial identity/ethnicity-based differences in some aspects of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) care and outcomes (time to presentation, symptoms, receipt of coronary angiography/revascularization, repeat revascularization, mortality). Patient-based differences such as pathophysiology and treatment-seeking behavior account only partly for these outcome differences. We sought to investigate whether there are racial identity/ethnicity-based variations in the initial emergency department (ED) triage and care of patients with suspected ACS in Canadian hospitals. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled ED patients with suspected ACS from one university-affiliated and two community hospitals. Trained research assistants administered a standardized interview to gather data on symptoms, treatment-seeking patterns, and self-reported racial/ethnic identity: "white," South Asian" (SA), "Asian," or "Other." Clinical parameters were obtained through chart review. The primary outcome was door-to-electrocardiogram (D2ECG) time. ECG times were log-transformed and two linear regression models, controlling for important demographic, system, and clinical factors, were fit. RESULTS: Of 448 participants, 214 (48%) reported white identity, 115 (26%) SA, 83 (19%) Asian, and 36 (8%) "Other." Asian respondents were younger and more likely to report initial discomfort as "low" and be accompanied by family; respondents identifying as "Other" were more likely to report initial discomfort as "high." There was no difference in D2ECG time between white participants and all other groups, but there were statistically significant differences by sex: women had longer D2ECG times than men. Exploring more specific racial identities revealed similar findings: no significant differences between the white, SA, Asian, and other groups, while sex (women had 13.4% [95% confidence interval, 0.81%-27.57%] longer D2ECG times) remained statistically significantly different in the adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Although racial/ethnicity-based differences in aspects of ACS care have been previously identified, we found no differences in the current study of early ED care in a Canadian urban setting. However, female patients experience longer D2ECG times, and this may be a target for process improvements.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etnologia , Idoso , Colúmbia Britânica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Disabil Rehabil ; 41(24): 2940-2948, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987955

RESUMO

Primary purpose: Child acquired brain injury has significant impact on the family, including siblings. This study aimed to explore siblings' experiences of their relationship with their brother or sister with acquired brain injury in order to make recommendations for health professionals working with this population.Research design: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five siblings of children with acquired brain injury aged between 9 and 12 years and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.Results: The analysis resulted in four themes: (i) Coping with "a nightmare that you live"; (ii) Disconnection from family relationships; (iii) My sibling is different but "still the same underneath all this thing"; and (iv) Changing togetherness.Conclusions: The siblings in this study experienced a high level of distress with the near loss of their brother or sister. This was followed by difficulty in adjusting to the physical and psychological changes in their injured sibling and the impact on their sibling role and relationship. The changes were experienced alongside disruption to family relationships. Important clinical implications include the inclusion of siblings in their injured sibling's care and the provision of information and support for this group.Implications for RehabilitationSiblings of children with an acquired brain injury experience significant challenges while trying to adapt to their changing sibling relationship and feelings of disconnection with their family.This study highlights a need to work systemically with families of childhood brain injury and recognize siblings' important role in their family unit and therefore involve them in their brother/sister's care and rehabilitation.This study also highlights a need to support siblings to cope with the trauma and provide information to validate and understand their experience.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 648: 681-692, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125850

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the distribution and concentrations of a range of neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs) and other insecticides, fungicides, biocides and selected herbicides in watersheds that drain into the lower Great Lakes in Ontario, Canada. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were deployed in 18 watersheds during late May to late June of 2016. Grab samples were also collected in 7 of these watersheds. There was generally good agreement between the time-weighted average concentrations of pesticides estimated from the POCIS and the concentrations detected in grab samples. The NNIs, thiamethoxam, clothianidin and imidacloprid, were present in several watersheds at concentrations that exceeded the Canadian Water Quality Guideline for imidacloprid of 0.23 µg/L. The new generation insecticides, flonicamid and flupyradifurone were also detected in some watersheds, which is the first report of these pesticides in the peer-reviewed literature. Atrazine, 2,4-D, dicamba, carbendazim, thiophanate methyl and several azole-based fungicides were also widely detected. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) indicated that a high proportion (i.e. >80%) of the watersheds could be discriminated from each other on the basis of the pattern of pesticides detected in surface waters, and the proportion of field crops in the watershed.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(26): 14214-14225, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534766

RESUMO

Acetaldehyde cations (CH3CHO+) were prepared using single-photon vacuum ultraviolet ionization of CH3CHO in a molecular beam and the fragmentation dynamics explored over the photolysis wavelength range 390-210 nm using velocity-map ion imaging and photofragment yield (PHOFY) spectroscopy. Four fragmentation channels are characterized: CH3CHO+→ C2H3O+ + H (I), CH3CHO+→ HCO+ + CH3 (II), CH3CHO+→ CH3+ + HCO (III), CH3CHO+→ CH4+ + CO (IV). Channels (I), (II), and (IV) are observed across the full photolysis wavelength range while channel (III) is observed only at λ < 317 nm. Maximum fragment ion yields are obtained at ∼250 nm. Ion images were recorded over the range 316-228 nm, which corresponds to initial excitation to the B[combining tilde]2A' and C[combining tilde]2A' states of CH3CHO+. The speed and angular distributions are distinctly different for each detected ion and show evidence of both statistical and dynamical fragmentation pathways. At longer wavelengths, fragmentation via channel (I) leads to modest translational energies (ET), consistent with dissociation over a small barrier and production of highly internally excited CH3CO+. Additional components with EINT greater than the CH3CO+ secondary dissociation threshold appear at shorter wavelengths and are assigned to fragmentation products of vinyl alcohol cation or oxirane cation formed by isomerization of energized CH3CHO+. The ET distribution observed for channel (III) products peaks at zero but is notably colder than that predicted by phase space theory, particularly at longer photolysis wavelengths. The colder-than-statistical ET distributions are attributed to contributions from secondary fragmentation of energized CH3CO+ formed via channel (I), which are attenuated by CH3CHO+ isomerization at shorter wavelengths. Fragmentation via channels (II) and (IV) results in qualitatively similar outcomes, with evidence of isotropic statistical components at low-ET and anisotropic components due to excited state dynamics at higher ET.

10.
J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil ; 68(4): 140-147, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To measure the Accommodative Convergence (PD)/Accommodation ratio (D) (AC/A) in a cohort of visually normal participants using common clinical methods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: AC/A ratios of 50 visually normal subjects were measured using the distance gradient (DG), near gradient (NG), gradient using synoptophore, (SG) and heterophoria (H) methods in line with current clinical practice. RESULTS: Median AC/A ratios for NG, DG, SG, and H were 2.0 (IQR 2.0), 1.0 (IQR 0.6), 1.0 (IQR 0.6), and 5.0 (IQR 1.7), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in ratios calculated between all methods in the same subjects (p < 0.05). There were differences in DG vs NG, DG vs H, SG vs H, and NG vs H (p < 0.05); only DG vs SG did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Lens power toleration was found to affect AC/A ratio in DG (p < 0.05) and latent deviation was significantly associated with (p < 0.05) AC/A ratio in NG. CONCLUSION: Calculated AC/A ratios in this cohort were lower than historically cited normal (3-5:1) in all gradient methods. There were differences in AC/A values in the same subjects calculated with different gradient methods, indicating that these methods are not interchangeable and a universal normal range should not be applied for all methods.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Convergência Ocular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Cristalino/fisiologia , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
11.
Body Image ; 27: 109-117, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243123

RESUMO

Self-disgust is an emotion schema negatively affecting people's body image and is triggered by bodily imperfections and deviations from the "normal" body envelope. In this study, we explore the idea that "normalising" the body in those with limb amputations via the prosthesis would be linked to reduced self-directed disgust. An international clinical community sample (N = 83) with mostly lower limb amputations completed measures about their demographics, prosthesis, adjustment, body image disturbance, psychological distress, and self-directed disgust in a survey design. Consistent with the "normalising" hypothesis, correlation and bootstrapped regression models revealed, first, that frequency of prosthesis use was significantly and negatively associated with physical self-disgust. Second, prosthesis use significantly mediated the exogenous effect of time since amputation on physical self-disgust. These results emphasise the psychological value of the prosthesis beyond its functional use, and stress its importance in normalising the body envelope in those with limb amputations, which may in turn promote psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Amputados/psicologia , Membros Artificiais , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Asco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Amputação/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Chemosphere ; 202: 506-513, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587231

RESUMO

Because of the persistence and solubility of neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs), there is concern that these compounds may contaminate sources of drinking water. The objective of this project was to evaluate the distribution of NNIs in raw and treated drinking water from selected municipalities that draw their water from the lower Great Lakes in areas of southern Ontario, Canada where there is high intensity agriculture. Sites were monitored using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) and by collecting grab samples at six drinking water treatment plants. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin and imidacloprid were detected in both POCIS and grab samples of raw water. The frequency of detection of NNIs was much lower in treated drinking water, but some compounds were still detected at estimated concentrations in the low ng L-1 range. Thiamethoxam was detected in one grab sample of raw drinking water at a mean concentration of 0.28 µg L-1, which is above the guidelines for drinking water recommended in some jurisdictions, including the European Union directive on pesticide levels <0.1 µg L-1 in water intended for human consumption. Further work is required to determine whether contamination of sources of drinking water with this class of insecticides is a global problem in agricultural regions.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Água Potável/química , Neonicotinoides/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Guanidinas/análise , Humanos , Nitrocompostos/análise , Ontário , Oxazinas/análise , Tiametoxam , Tiazóis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(4): 2457-2469, 2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313039

RESUMO

The photodissociation dynamics of acetone has been investigated using velocity-map ion imaging and photofragment excitation (PHOFEX) spectroscopy across a range of wavelengths spanning the first absorption band (236-308 nm). The radical products of the Norrish Type I dissociation, methyl and acetyl, as well as the molecular product ketene have been detected by single-photon VUV ionization at 118 nm. Ketene appears to be formed with non-negligible yield at all wavelengths, with a maximum value of Φ ≈ 0.3 at 280 nm. The modest translational energy release is inconsistent with dissociation over high barriers on the S0 surface, and ketene formation is tentatively assigned to a roaming pathway involving frustrated dissociation to the radical products. Fast-moving radical products are detected at λ ≤ 305 nm with total translational energy distributions that extend to the energetic limit, consistent with dissociation occurring near-exclusively on the T1 surface following intersystem crossing. At energies below the T1 barrier a statistical component indicative of S0 dissociation is observed, although dissociation via the S1/S0 conical intersection is absent at shorter wavelengths, in contrast to acetaldehyde. The methyl radical yield is enhanced over that of acetyl in PHOFEX spectra at λ ≤ 260 nm due to the onset of secondary dissociation of internally excited acetyl radicals. Time-resolved ion imaging experiments using picosecond duration pulses at 266 nm find an appearance time constant of τ = 1490 ± 140 ps for CH3 radicals formed on T1. The associated rate is representative of S1 → T1 intersystem crossing. At 284 nm, CH3 is formed on T1 with two distinct timescales: a fast <10 ns component is accompanied by a slower component with τ = 42 ± 7 ns. A two-step mechanism involving fast internal conversion, followed by slower intersystem crossing (S1 → S0 → T1) is proposed to explain the slow component.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(1): 258-268, 2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286244

RESUMO

Reactions of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) with a series of alcohols have been studied in a flash photolysis flow reactor. Laser photolysis of diiodomethane at 355 nm in the presence of molecular oxygen was used to produce CH2OO, and the absolute number densities were determined as a function of delay time from analysis of broadband transient absorption spectra obtained using a pulsed LED. The kinetics for the reactions of CH2OO with methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions at 295 K, yielding rate constants of (1.4 ± 0.4) × 10-13 cm3 s-1, (2.3 ± 0.6) × 10-13 cm3 s-1, and (1.9 ± 0.5) × 10-13 cm3 s-1, respectively. Complementary ab initio calculations were performed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//CCSD/cc-pVDZ level of theory to characterize stationary points on the reaction enthalpy and free energy surfaces and to elucidate the thermochemistry and mechanisms. The reactions proceed over free energy barriers of ∼8 kcal mol-1 to form geminal alkoxymethyl hydroperoxides: methoxymethyl hydroperoxide (MMHP), ethoxymethyl hydroperoxide (EMHP), and isopropoxymethyl hydroperoxide (PMHP). The experimental and theoretical results are compared to reactions of CH2OO with other hydroxylic compounds, such as water and carboxylic acids, and trends in reactivity are discussed.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(46): 31039-31053, 2017 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160321

RESUMO

Photolysis of geminal diiodoalkanes in the presence of molecular oxygen has become an established route to the laboratory production of several Criegee intermediates, and such compounds also have marine sources. Here, we explore the role that the trihaloalkane, chlorodiiodomethane (CHI2Cl), may play as a photolytic precursor for the chlorinated Criegee intermediate ClCHOO. CHI2Cl has been synthesized and its UV absorption spectrum measured; relative to that of CH2I2 the spectrum is shifted to longer wavelength and the photolysis lifetime is calculated to be less than two minutes. The photodissociation dynamics have been investigated using DC slice imaging, probing ground state I and spin-orbit excited I* atoms with 2 + 1 REMPI and single-photon VUV ionization. Total translational energy distributions are bimodal for I atoms and unimodal for I*, with around 72% of the available energy partitioned in to the internal degrees of freedom of the CHICl radical product, independent of photolysis wavelength. A bond dissociation energy of D0 = 1.73 ± 0.11 eV is inferred from the wavelength dependence of the translational energy release, which is slightly weaker than typical C-I bonds. Analysis of the photofragment angular distributions indicate dissociation is prompt and occurs primarily via transitions to states of A'' symmetry. Complementary high-level MRCI calculations, including spin-orbit coupling, have been performed to characterize the excited states and confirm that states of A'' symmetry with highly mixed singlet and triplet character are predominantly responsible for the absorption spectrum. Transient absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure the absorption spectrum of ClCHOO produced from the reaction of CHICl with O2 over the range 345-440 nm. The absorption spectrum, tentatively assigned to the syn conformer, is at shorter wavelengths relative to that of CH2OO and shows far weaker vibrational structure.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(22): 14276-14288, 2017 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537300

RESUMO

Time-resolved ion imaging measurements have been performed to explore the photochemistry of acetaldehyde at photolysis wavelengths spanning the range 265-328 nm. Ion images recorded probing CH3 radicals with single-photon VUV ionization show different dissociation dynamics in three distinct wavelength regions. At the longest photolysis wavelengths, λ > 318 nm, CH3 radicals are formed over tens of nanoseconds with a speed distribution that is consistent with statistical unimolecular dissociation on the S0 surface following internal conversion. In the range 292 nm ≤ λ ≤ 318 nm, dissociation occurs almost exclusively on the T1 surface following intersystem crossing and passage over a barrier, leading to the available energy being partitioned primarily into photofragment recoil. The CH3 speed distributions become bimodal at λ < 292 nm. In addition to the translationally fast T1 products, a new translationally slow, but non-statistical, component appears and grows in importance as the photolysis wavelength is decreased. Photofragment excitation (PHOFEX) spectra of CH3CHO obtained probing CH3 and HCO products are identical across the absorption band, indicating that three-body fragmentation is not responsible for the non-statistical slow component. Rather, translationally slow products are attributed to dissociation on S0, accessed via a conical intersection between the S1 and S0 surfaces at extended C-C distances. Time-resolved ion images of CH3 radicals measured using a picosecond laser operating at a photolysis wavelength of 266 nm show that product formation on T1 and S0via the conical intersection occurs with time constants of 240 ps and 560 ps, respectively.

17.
Burns ; 43(4): 757-765, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069342

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the experiences of mothers who had attended their child's burn dressing changes. Participants were recruited from a burns unit based within a children's hospital. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with five mothers of children under the age of five who had undergone a series of dressing changes taking place on the burns unit. The interview guide explored parents' experience of initial and subsequent dressing changes. Participants were prompted to explore their expectations, thoughts, feelings and behaviours associated with these experiences. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The analysis identified four themes: 'needing to fulfil the responsibilities associated with being a mother'; 'emotional synchrony between mother and child'; 'being informed and knowing what to expect'; and 'the importance of establishing rapport with nurses performing dressing changes'. Findings from this research can inform services to help optimise mothers' experiences of dressing changes in this stage of pediatric burn care.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Bandagens , Queimaduras/terapia , Mães , Relações Profissional-Família , Adulto , Unidades de Queimados , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Poder Psicológico , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
Aging Ment Health ; 21(9): 917-925, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27159114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Due to the lack of existing literature, the current research explored experiences of same-sex partner bereavement in women over the age of 60. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were identified which elaborated the experiences of older women who had lost a same-sex partner: (1) being left alone encapsulated feelings of isolation and exclusion; (2) navigating visibility centred on how homophobia led to a lack of recognition of the women's grief; and (3) finding new places to be authentic related women's need for new relationships in which they could be themselves. The findings indicate that existing models of partner bereavement may provide useful frameworks when seeking to understand the experiences of older women who have lost their same-sex partners. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that in addition to the experiences of partner bereavement noted in research with heterosexual widows, older women who lose same-sex partners may face particular challenges, which can impact upon psychological well-being and adjustment to loss. These challenges appear to result from past and current homophobic and heterosexist attitudes within the UK culture. A range of interventions at individual, group, health service, and societal levels may be beneficial in improving the psychological well-being of older women who lose a same-sex partner.


Assuntos
Luto , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Homofobia/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Viuvez/psicologia
19.
Disabil Rehabil ; 39(19): 1976-1982, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27667639

RESUMO

PURPOSE: End stage heart failure and transplant present great opportunities and challenges for patients of all ages. However, young adulthood may present additional specific challenges associated with the development of identity, career and romantic relationships. Despite recognition of greater mortality rates in young adults, consideration of the experience of transplant during this life stage has been largely overlooked in the literature. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of heart transplant in young adults. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with nine participants across three transplant services in the United Kingdom and the data subject to interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Analysis identified three themes. "Separating from illness" and "working toward normality" involved limiting the influence of illness on identity, as well as reengaging with typical functioning in young adulthood. "Integrating transplant into identity" involved acknowledging the influence of living with a shortened life expectancy. CONCLUSIONS: The need for support that recognizes specific challenges of transplant as a young adult is discussed (e.g. the development of age specific end of life pathways, improved communication between transplant recipients, their families and teams), including consideration of the impact of societal discourses (e.g. gift of life) which provided additional challenges for patients. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Heart transplant presents specific challenges according to the recipient's life stage. The needs of young adult recipients should be considered. Transplant professionals should consider providing opportunities for peer support and addressing the identities and values of young adult transplant recipients during rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transplante de Coração/psicologia , Transplante de Coração/reabilitação , Autoimagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychol Health ; 32(2): 204-220, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27845569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the psychological experiences of receiving a kidney transplant from a deceased donor and to examine resulting implications for renal services. DESIGN: A qualitative design was utilised within an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) framework. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six adults (male = 5, mean age = 45 yrs) on their experiences of receiving a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. All participants had their transplant within the preceding 21 months. Data were analysed using IPA. RESULTS: The four elicited themes incorporate recipients' positive feelings about receiving a transplant, mainly arising from the newfound freedom that this entails, in addition to strong feelings of gratitude towards their donors. They also capture challenges, such as the uncertainty of living with a transplanted kidney, and highlight the increased dependence on others throughout the transplant process. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate a range of psychological, social and occupational experiences for participants. It is concluded that optimal care in renal services would incorporate a holistic approach to pre and post-transplant care; identifying and supporting the needs of transplant recipients. A biopsychosocial model of care may enhance service user well-being. Potential areas of future research are explored.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/psicologia , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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