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Cancer Res ; 80(19): 4129-4144, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816860


Therapeutic checkpoint antibodies blocking programmed death receptor 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling have radically improved clinical outcomes in cancer. However, the regulation of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells is still poorly understood. Here we show that intratumoral copper levels influence PD-L1 expression in cancer cells. Deep analysis of the The Cancer Genome Atlas database and tissue microarrays showed strong correlation between the major copper influx transporter copper transporter 1 (CTR-1) and PD-L1 expression across many cancers but not in corresponding normal tissues. Copper supplementation enhanced PD-L1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in cancer cells and RNA sequencing revealed that copper regulates key signaling pathways mediating PD-L1-driven cancer immune evasion. Conversely, copper chelators inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 and EGFR and promoted ubiquitin-mediated degradation of PD-L1. Copper-chelating drugs also significantly increased the number of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T and natural killer cells, slowed tumor growth, and improved mouse survival. Overall, this study reveals an important role for copper in regulating PD-L1 and suggests that anticancer immunotherapy might be enhanced by pharmacologically reducing intratumor copper levels. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings characterize the role of copper in modulating PD-L1 expression and contributing to cancer immune evasion, highlighting the potential for repurposing copper chelators as enhancers of antitumor immunity. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT:

Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Cobre/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/fisiologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quelantes/farmacologia , Transportador de Cobre 1/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Trietilenofosforamida/farmacologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
Cancer Res ; 79(21): 5652-5667, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501192


MYCN is a major driver for the childhood cancer, neuroblastoma, however, there are no inhibitors of this target. Enhanced MYCN protein stability is a key component of MYCN oncogenesis and is maintained by multiple feedforward expression loops involving MYCN transactivation target genes. Here, we reveal the oncogenic role of a novel MYCN target and binding protein, proliferation-associated 2AG4 (PA2G4). Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that MYCN occupies the PA2G4 gene promoter, stimulating transcription. Direct binding of PA2G4 to MYCN protein blocked proteolysis of MYCN and enhanced colony formation in a MYCN-dependent manner. Using molecular modeling, surface plasmon resonance, and mutagenesis studies, we mapped the MYCN-PA2G4 interaction site to a 14 amino acid MYCN sequence and a surface crevice of PA2G4. Competitive chemical inhibition of the MYCN-PA2G4 protein-protein interface had potent inhibitory effects on neuroblastoma tumorigenesis in vivo. Treated tumors showed reduced levels of both MYCN and PA2G4. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for PA2G4 as a cofactor in MYCN-driven neuroblastoma and highlight competitive inhibition of the PA2G4-MYCN protein binding as a novel therapeutic strategy in the disease. SIGNIFICANCE: Competitive chemical inhibition of the PA2G4-MYCN protein interface provides a basis for drug design of small molecules targeting MYC and MYCN-binding partners in malignancies driven by MYC family oncoproteins.

Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neuroblastoma/genética , Peixe-Zebra
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 17(9): 709-17, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17700360


BACKGROUND: Although several studies have shown that drug metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms may influence the impact of therapy in childhood leukemia, no comprehensive investigations have been carried out in children with neuroblastoma. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the genes encoding phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes associated with the risk of relapse or death in a cohort of 209 children with neuroblastoma. METHODS: Real-time PCR allelic discrimination was used to characterize the presence of polymorphisms in DNA from children with neuroblastoma. Three broad gene categories were examined: cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase and N-acetyltransferase. Cumulative event-free survival was computed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The influence of selected factors on event-free survival was tested using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: As previously reported, amplification of MYCN (hazards ratio=4.25, 95% confidence interval=2.76-6.56, P<0.001), unfavorable stage (hazard ratio=4.14, 95% confidence interval=2.3-7.47, P<0.001) or age more than 1 year at diagnosis (hazard ratio=1.86, 95% confidence interval=1.19-2.92, P=0.007) were all associated with an increased risk of relapse or death. Carriers of a NAT1*11 allele variant were significantly less likely to relapse or die compared with those with NAT1*10 or other NAT1 allele variants (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, children who were GSTM1 null were more likely to relapse or die during follow-up after adjusting for MYCN amplification, stage and age at diagnosis (hazard ratio=1.6, 95% confidence interval=1.02-2.9, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that the NAT1*11 variant and the GSTM1 wild-type genotype contribute to a more favorable outcome in patients treated for neuroblastoma and are the first to demonstrate a relationship between NAT1 and GSTM1 genotypes in childhood neuroblastoma.

Neuroblastoma/enzimologia , Neuroblastoma/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Adolescente , Alelos , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Primers do DNA/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Isoenzimas/genética , Masculino , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Farmacogenética , Polimorfismo Genético , Prognóstico
Eur J Cancer ; 43(9): 1467-75, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17449239


Overexpression of the human MYCN oncogene driven by a tyrosine hydroxylase promoter causes tumours in transgenic mice that recapitulate the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. To establish an in vitro model to study this process, a series of isogenic cell lines were developed from these MYCN-driven murine tumours. Lines were established from tumours arising in homozygous and hemizygous MYCN transgenic mice. Hemizygous tumours gave rise to cell lines growing only in suspension. Homozygous tumours gave rise to similar suspension lines as well as morphologically distinct substrate-adherent lines characteristic of human S-type neuroblastoma cells. FISH analysis demonstrated selective MYCN transgene amplification in cell lines derived from hemizygous mice. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis confirmed a range of neuroblastoma-associated genetic changes in the various lines, in particular, gain of regions syntenic with human 17q. These isogenic lines together with the transgenic mice thus represent valuable models for investigating the biological characteristics of aggressive neuroblastoma.

Neuroblastoma/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc , Transplante de Neoplasias , Ploidias