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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215115

RESUMO

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is generally viewed as a complex trait with multiple genetic and environmental contributions. In 70% of cases, CL/P presents as an isolated feature and/or deemed nonsyndromic. In the remaining 30%, CL/P is associated with multisystem phenotypes or clinically recognizable syndromes, many with a monogenic basis. Here we report the identification, via exome sequencing, of likely pathogenic variants in two genes that encode interacting proteins previously only linked to orofacial clefting in mouse models. A variant in GDF11 (encoding growth differentiation factor 11), predicting a p.(Arg298Gln) substitution at the Furin protease cleavage site, was identified in one family that segregated with CL/P and both rib and vertebral hypersegmentation, mirroring that seen in Gdf11 knockout mice. In the second family in which CL/P was the only phenotype, a mutation in FST (encoding the GDF11 antagonist, Follistatin) was identified that is predicted to result in a p.(Cys56Tyr) substitution in the region that binds GDF11. Functional assays demonstrated a significant impact of the specific mutated amino acids on FST and GDF11 function and, together with embryonic expression data, provide strong evidence for the importance of GDF11 and Follistatin in the regulation of human orofacial development.

2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(6): 704-716, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172578

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is a hallmark of complex traits, and genetic studies of such traits may focus on them as a single diagnostic entity or by analyzing specific components. For example, in orofacial clefting (OFC), three subtypes-cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP) have been studied separately and in combination. To further dissect the genetic architecture of OFCs and how a given associated locus may be contributing to distinct subtypes of a trait we developed a framework for quantifying and interpreting evidence of subtype-specific or shared genetic effects in complex traits. We applied this technique to create a "cleft map" of the association of 30 genetic loci with three OFC subtypes. In addition to new associations, we found loci with subtype-specific effects (e.g., GRHL3 [CP], WNT5A [CLP]), as well as loci associated with two or all three subtypes. We cross-referenced these results with mouse craniofacial gene expression datasets, which identified additional promising candidate genes. However, we found no strong correlation between OFC subtypes and expression patterns. In aggregate, the cleft map revealed that neither subtype-specific nor shared genetic effects operate in isolation in OFC architecture. Our approach can be easily applied to any complex trait with distinct phenotypic subgroups.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1101-1112, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850703

RESUMO

We aimed to identify novel deletions and variants of TP63 associated with orofacial clefting (OFC). Copy number variants were assessed in three OFC families using microarray analysis. Subsequently, we analyzed TP63 in a cohort of 1072 individuals affected with OFC and 706 population-based controls using molecular inversion probes (MIPs). We identified partial deletions of TP63 in individuals from three families affected with OFC. In the OFC cohort, we identified several TP63 variants predicting to cause loss-of-function alleles, including a frameshift variant c.569_576del (p.(Ala190Aspfs*5)) and a nonsense variant c.997C>T (p.(Gln333*)) that introduces a premature stop codon in the DNA-binding domain. In addition, we identified the first missense variants in the oligomerization domain c.1213G>A (p.(Val405Met)), which occurred in individuals with OFC. This variant was shown to abrogate oligomerization of mutant p63 protein into oligomeric complexes, and therefore likely represents a loss-of-function allele rather than a dominant-negative. All of these variants were inherited from an unaffected parent, suggesting reduced penetrance of such loss-of-function alleles. Our data indicate that loss-of-function alleles in TP63 can also give rise to OFC as the main phenotype. We have uncovered the dosage-dependent functions of p63, which were previously rejected.

4.
Biol Res Nurs ; 21(2): 157-165, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined genomic variation potentially associated with the cortisol stress response in children having a painful medical procedure. DESIGN: Children 4-10 years old having a peripheral intravenous line inserted provided saliva samples for evaluation of the cortisol response as a biological measure of distress: two on the day of the procedure and two at home on a nonstressful day for comparison values. Children and biological parents also provided samples for genotyping of variants with known or suspected association with the cortisol stress response. Analysis included child-only association and family-based transmission disequilibrium tests (TDTs). RESULTS: Genotype and phenotype data on the cortisol stress response were available from 326 children for child-only association analyses and 376 complete family trios for TDTs. Children were 50% female, an average of 7.5 years old, and mostly (83%) White/non-Hispanic. We identified four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) potentially associated with the cortisol stress response: rs1176744 ( HTR3B), rs10062367 ( CRHBP), rs634479 ( OPRM1), and rs8030107 ( NTRK3). Family-based analysis identified a two-SNP haplotype in HTR1B suggestive for association with the cortisol response (rs6296, rs11568817). Allelic TDTs identified rs7897947 ( NFKB2) as potentially related to cortisol response. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide preliminary evidence for genes potentially important in cortisol response to an acute stressor in children in the serotonin, dopamine, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathways, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and the inflammatory response. Combined with analyses of related phenotypes and clinical data, these results could help identify patients at increased risk of adverse responses to painful medical procedures who might benefit from tailored interventions.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Hidrocortisona/genética , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Masculino , Pais , Fenótipo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 467-474, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582786

RESUMO

Genome-wide scans have shown that common risk alleles for orofacial clefts (OFC) tend to be located in noncoding regulatory elements and cumulatively explain only part of the heritability of OFCs. Low-frequency variants may account for some of the "missing" heritability. Therefore, we scanned low-frequency variants located within putative craniofacial enhancers to identify novel OFC risk variants and implicate new regulatory elements in OFC pathogenesis. Analyses were performed in a multiethnic sample of 1,995 cases of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), 221 cases with cleft palate (CP) only, and 1,576 unaffected controls. One hundred and nineteen putative craniofacial enhancers identified from ChIP-Seq studies in craniofacial tissues or cell lines contained multiple low-frequency (0.01-1%) variants, which we genotyped in participants using a custom Illumina panel. Two complementary statistical approaches, sequence kernel association test and combined multivariate and collapsing, were used to test association of the aggregated low-frequency variants across each enhancer region with CL/P and CP. We discovered a significant association between CP and a branchial arch enhancer near FOXP1 (mm60; p-value = .0002). Additionally, we observed a suggestive association between CL/P and a forebrain enhancer near FOXE1 (hs1717; p-value = .001). These findings suggest that low-frequency variants in craniofacial enhancer regions contribute to the complex etiology of nonsyndromic OFCs.

6.
J Perinatol ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a commonly observed condition in preterm infants. Prior studies have suggested a role for genetics in determining spontaneous ductal closure. Using samples from a large neonatal cohort we tested the hypothesis that common genetic variations are associated with PDA in extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants (n = 1013) enrolled at NICHD Neonatal Research Network sites were phenotyped for PDA. DNA was genotyped for 1634 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from candidate genes. Analyses were adjusted for ancestral eigenvalues and significant epidemiologic variables. RESULTS: SNPs in several genes were associated with the clinical diagnosis of PDA and with surgical ligation in extremely preterm neonates diagnosed with PDA (p < 0.01). None of the associations were significant after correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: We identified several common genetic variants associated with PDA. These findings may inform further studies on genetic risk factors for PDA in preterm infants.

7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(7): 664-672, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277614

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is the most common craniofacial birth defect in humans and is notable for its apparent sexual dimorphism where approximately twice as many males are affected as females. The sources of this disparity are largely unknown, but interactions between genetic and sex effects are likely contributors. We examined gene-by-sex (G × S) interactions in a worldwide sample of 2,142 NSCL/P cases and 1,700 controls recruited from 13 countries. First, we performed genome-wide joint tests of the genetic (G) and G × S effects genome-wide using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model and adjusting for 18 principal components of ancestry. We further interrogated loci with suggestive results from the joint test ( p < 1.00 × 10 -5 ) by examining the G × S effects from the same model. Out of the 133 loci with suggestive results ( p < 1.00 × 10 -5 ) for the joint test, we observed one genome-wide significant G × S effect in the 10q21 locus (rs72804706; p = 6.69 × 10 -9 ; OR = 2.62 CI [1.89, 3.62]) and 16 suggestive G × S effects. At the intergenic 10q21 locus, the risk of NSCL/P is estimated to increase with additional copies of the minor allele for females, but the opposite effect for males. Our observation that the impact of genetic variants on NSCL/P risk differs for males and females may further our understanding of the genetic architecture of NSCL/P and the sex differences underlying clefts and other birth defects.


Assuntos
Alelos , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Caracteres Sexuais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epistasia Genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246882

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated how sharing of rare variants (RVs) in distant affected relatives can be used to identify variants causing a complex and heterogeneous disease. This approach tested whether single RVs were shared by all sequenced affected family members. However, as with other study designs, joint analysis of several RVs (e.g., within genes) is sometimes required to obtain sufficient statistical power. Further, phenocopies can lead to false negatives for some causal RVs if complete sharing among affected is required. Here, we extend our methodology (Rare Variant Sharing, RVS) to address these issues. Specifically, we introduce gene-based analyses, a partial sharing test based on RV sharing probabilities for subsets of affected relatives and a haplotype-based RV definition. RVS also has the desirable feature of not requiring external estimates of variant frequency or control samples, provides functionality to assess and address violations of key assumptions, and is available as open source software for genome-wide analysis. Simulations including phenocopies, based on the families of an oral cleft study, revealed the partial and complete sharing versions of RVS achieved similar statistical power compared with alternative methods (RareIBD and the Gene-Based Segregation Test), and had superior power compared with the pedigree Variant Annotation, Analysis, and Search Tool (pVAAST) linkage statistic. In studies of multiplex cleft families, analysis of rare single nucleotide variants in the exome of 151 affected relatives from 54 families revealed no significant excess sharing in any one gene, but highlighted different patterns of sharing revealed by the complete and partial sharing tests.

10.
Bioinformatics ; 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084993

RESUMO

Motivation: De novo copy number deletions have been implicated in many diseases, but there is no formal method to date that identifies de novo deletions in parent-offspring trios from capture-based sequencing platforms. Results: We developed Minimum Distance for Targeted Sequencing (MDTS) to fill this void. MDTS has similar sensitivity (recall), but a much lower false positive rate compared to less specific CNV callers, resulting in amuch higher positive predictive value (precision). MDTS also exhibitedmuch better scalability. Availability: MDTS is freely available as open source software from the Bioconductor repository. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orofacial clefts are the most common malformations of the head and neck region. Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the etiology of these traits. METHODS: We recently conducted genotyping of individuals from the African population using the multiethnic genotyping array (MEGA) to identify common genetic variation associated with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts. The data cleaning of this dataset allowed for screening of annotated sex versus genetic sex, confirmation of identify by descent and identification of large chromosomal anomalies. RESULTS: We identified the first reported orofacial cleft case associated with paternal uniparental disomy (patUPD) on chromosome 22. We also identified a de novo deletion on chromosome 18. In addition to chromosomal anomalies, we identified cases with molecular karyotypes suggesting Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome and Triple X syndrome. CONCLUSION: Observations from our study support the need for genetic testing when clinically indicated in order to exclude chromosomal anomalies associated with clefting. The identification of these chromosomal anomalies and sex aneuploidies is important in genetic counseling for families that are at risk. Clinicians should share any identified genetic findings and place them in context for the families during routine clinical visits and evaluations.

12.
PLoS Genet ; 14(7): e1007394, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001343

RESUMO

Preterm birth is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the susceptibility to preterm birth, but despite many investigations, the genetic basis for preterm birth remain largely unknown. Our objective was to identify rare, possibly damaging, nucleotide variants in mothers from families with recurrent spontaneous preterm births (SPTB). DNA samples from 17 Finnish mothers who delivered at least one infant preterm were subjected to whole exome sequencing. All mothers were of northern Finnish origin and were from seven multiplex families. Additional replication samples of European origin consisted of 93 Danish sister pairs (and two sister triads), all with a history of a preterm delivery. Rare exonic variants (frequency <1%) were analyzed to identify genes and pathways likely to affect SPTB susceptibility. We identified rare, possibly damaging, variants in genes that were common to multiple affected individuals. The glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway was the most significant (p<1.7e-8) with genes containing these variants in a subgroup of ten Finnish mothers, each having had 2-4 SPTBs. This pathway was replicated among the Danish sister pairs. A gene in this pathway, heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1 like (HSPA1L), contains two likely damaging missense alleles that were found in four different Finnish families. One of the variants (rs34620296) had a higher frequency in cases compared to controls (0.0025 vs. 0.0010, p = 0.002) in a large preterm birth genome-wide association study (GWAS) consisting of mothers of general European ancestry. Sister pairs in replication samples also shared rare, likely damaging HSPA1L variants. Furthermore, in silico analysis predicted an additional phosphorylation site generated by rs34620296 that could potentially affect chaperone activity or HSPA1L protein stability. Finally, in vitro functional experiment showed a link between HSPA1L activity and decidualization. In conclusion, rare, likely damaging, variants in HSPA1L were observed in multiple families with recurrent SPTB.

13.
Hypertension ; 72(2): 408-416, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967039

RESUMO

The genetic susceptibility to preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific complication with significant maternal and fetal morbidity, has been poorly characterized. To identify maternal genes associated with preeclampsia risk, we assembled 498 cases and 1864 controls of European ancestry from preeclampsia case-control collections in 5 different US sites (with additional matched population controls), genotyped samples on a cardiovascular gene-centric array composed of variants from ≈2000 genes selected based on prior genetic studies of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and performed case-control genetic association analysis on 27 429 variants passing quality control. In silico replication testing of 9 lead signals with P<10-4 was performed in independent European samples from the SOPHIA (Study of Pregnancy Hypertension in Iowa) and Inova cohorts (212 cases, 456 controls). Multiethnic assessment of lead signals was then performed in samples of black (26 cases, 136 controls), Hispanic (132 cases, 468 controls), and East Asian (9 cases, 80 controls) ancestry. Multiethnic meta-analysis (877 cases, 3004 controls) revealed a study-wide statistically significant association of the rs9478812 variant in the pleiotropic PLEKHG1 gene (odds ratio, 1.40 [1.23-1.60]; Pmeta=5.90×10-7). The rs9478812 effect was even stronger in the subset of European cases with known early-onset preeclampsia (236 cases diagnosed <37 weeks, 1864 controls; odds ratio, 1.59 [1.27-1.98]; P=4.01×10-5). PLEKHG1 variants have previously been implicated in genome-wide association studies of blood pressure, body weight, and neurological disorders. Although larger studies are required to further define maternal preeclampsia heritability, this study identifies a novel maternal risk locus for further investigation.

14.
J Perinatol ; 38(7): 946, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941898

RESUMO

This Article was originally published under Nature Research's License to Publish, but has nowbeen made available under a [CC BY 4.0] license. The PDF and HTML versions of the Articlehave been modified accordingly.

15.
J Perinatol ; 38(8): 963-972, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if mid-pregnancy immune and growth-related molecular factors predict preterm birth (PTB) with and without (±) preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Included were 400 women with singleton deliveries in California in 2009-2010 (200 PTB and 200 term) divided into training and testing samples at a 2:1 ratio. Sixty-three markers were tested in 15-20 serum samples using multiplex technology. Linear discriminate analysis was used to create a discriminate function. Model performance was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Twenty-five serum biomarkers along with maternal age <34 years and poverty status identified >80% of women with PTB ± preeclampsia with best performance in women with preterm preeclampsia (AUC = 0.889, 95% confidence interval (0.822-0.959) training; 0.883 (0.804-0.963) testing). CONCLUSION: Together with maternal age and poverty status, mid-pregnancy immune and growth factors reliably identified most women who went on to have a PTB ± preeclampsia.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1143-1157, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805042

RESUMO

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NS-CL/P) is one of the most common human birth defects and is generally considered a complex trait. Despite numerous loci identified by genome-wide association studies, the effect sizes of common variants are relatively small, with much of the presumed genetic contribution remaining elusive. We report exome-sequencing results in 209 people from 72 multi-affected families with pedigree structures consistent with autosomal-dominant inheritance and variable penetrance. Herein, pathogenic variants are described in four genes encoding components of the p120-catenin complex (CTNND1, PLEKHA7, PLEKHA5) and an epithelial splicing regulator (ESRP2), in addition to the known CL/P-associated gene, CDH1, which encodes E-cadherin. The findings were also validated in a second cohort of 497 people with NS-CL/P, comprising small families and singletons with pathogenic variants in these genes identified in 14% of multi-affected families and 2% of the replication cohort of smaller families. Enriched expression of each gene/protein in human and mouse embryonic oro-palatal epithelia, demonstration of functional impact of CTNND1 and ESRP2 variants, and recapitulation of the CL/P spectrum in Ctnnd1 knockout mice support a causative role in CL/P pathogenesis. These data show that primary defects in regulators of epithelial cell adhesion are the most significant contributors to NS-CL/P identified to date and that inherited and de novo single gene variants explain a substantial proportion of NS-CL/P.

17.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 31(2): 216-218, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706825

RESUMO

Gorlin syndrome (GS) is a rare hereditary multisystem disorder caused by mutations in PTCH1, PTCH2, or SUFU. It is characterized by multiple anomalies and an increased risk of developing various tumors. Basal cell carcinoma is most common, and medulloblastoma (MB) is especially frequent in patients with SUFU mutations. MB treatment often includes radiation therapy in patients older than 3 years; however, such treatment is very toxic to patients with GS. Most reported cases of MB in patients with GS present after GS is diagnosed. We report a male toddler with multicentric posterior fossa tumor and calcifications along the falx cerebri, suggesting MB and GS. Pathology revealed nodular MB. His testing confirmed a germline SUFU mutation. His tumor resolved with three induction cycles of chemotherapy, but he died of respiratory failure due to infection at 20 months of age. Overlooking calcifications along the falx cerebri in children with MB can induce significant morbidity.

18.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 55(5): 736-742, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) are congenital anomalies of the face and have multifactorial etiology, with both environmental and genetic risk factors playing crucial roles. Though at least 40 loci have attained genomewide significant association with nonsyndromic CL/P, these loci largely reside in noncoding regions of the human genome, and subsequent resequencing studies of neighboring candidate genes have revealed only a limited number of etiologic coding variants. The present study was conducted to identify etiologic coding variants in GREM1, a locus that has been shown to be largely associated with cleft of both lip and soft palate. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We resequenced DNA from 397 sub-Saharan Africans with CL/P and 192 controls using Sanger sequencing. Following analyses of the sequence data, we observed 2 novel coding variants in GREM1. These variants were not found in the 192 African controls and have never been previously reported in any public genetic variant database that includes more than 5000 combined African and African American controls or from the CL/P literature. RESULTS: The novel variants include p.Pro164Ser in an individual with soft palate cleft only and p.Gly61Asp in an individual with bilateral cleft lip and palate. The proband with the p.Gly61Asp GREM1 variant is a van der Woude (VWS) case who also has an etiologic variant in IRF6 gene. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that there is low number of etiologic coding variants in GREM1, confirming earlier suggestions that variants in regulatory elements may largely account for the association between this locus and CL/P.

19.
Global Health ; 14(1): 13, 2018 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grand Challenges for international health and development initiatives have received substantial funding to tackle unsolved problems; however, evidence of their effectiveness in achieving change is lacking. A theory of change may provide a useful tool to track progress towards desired outcomes. The Saving Lives at Birth partnership aims to address inequities in maternal-newborn survival through the provision of strategic investments for the development, testing and transition-to-scale of ground-breaking prevention and treatment approaches with the potential to leapfrog conventional healthcare approaches in low resource settings. We aimed to develop a theory of change and impact framework with prioritised metrics to map the initiative's contribution towards overall goals, and to measure progress towards improved outcomes around the time of birth. METHODS: A theory of change and impact framework was developed retrospectively, drawing on expertise across the partnership and stakeholders. This included a document and literature review, and wide consultation, with feedback from stakeholders at all stages. Possible indicators were reviewed from global maternal-newborn health-related partner initiatives, priority indicator lists, and project indicators from current innovators. These indicators were scored across five domains to prioritise those most relevant and feasible for Saving Lives at Birth. These results informed the identification of the prioritised metrics for the initiative. RESULTS: The pathway to scale through Saving Lives at Birth is articulated through a theory of change and impact framework, which also highlight the roles of different actors involved in the programme. A prioritised metrics toolkit, including ten core impact indicators and five additional process indicators, complement the theory of change. The retrospective nature of this development enabled structured reflection of the program mechanics, allowing for inclusion of learning from the first four rounds of the program to inform implementation of subsequent rounds. CONCLUSIONS: While theories of change are more traditionally developed before program implementation, retrospective development can still be a useful exercise for multi-round programs like Saving Lives at Birth, where outputs from the development can be used to strengthen subsequent rounds. However, identifying a uniform set of prioritised metrics for use across the portfolio proved more challenging. Lessons learnt from this exercise will be relevant to the development of pathways to change across other Grand Challenges and global health platforms.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(4): 742-756, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309628

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of birth weight have focused on fetal genetics, whereas relatively little is known about the role of maternal genetic variation. We aimed to identify maternal genetic variants associated with birth weight that could highlight potentially relevant maternal determinants of fetal growth. We meta-analysed data on up to 8.7 million SNPs in up to 86 577 women of European descent from the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium and the UK Biobank. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and analyses of mother-child pairs to quantify the separate maternal and fetal genetic effects. Maternal SNPs at 10 loci (MTNR1B, HMGA2, SH2B3, KCNAB1, L3MBTL3, GCK, EBF1, TCF7L2, ACTL9, CYP3A7) were associated with offspring birth weight at P < 5 × 10-8. In SEM analyses, at least 7 of the 10 associations were consistent with effects of the maternal genotype acting via the intrauterine environment, rather than via effects of shared alleles with the fetus. Variants, or correlated proxies, at many of the loci had been previously associated with adult traits, including fasting glucose (MTNR1B, GCK and TCF7L2) and sex hormone levels (CYP3A7), and one (EBF1) with gestational duration. The identified associations indicate that genetic effects on maternal glucose, cytochrome P450 activity and gestational duration, and potentially on maternal blood pressure and immune function, are relevant for fetal growth. Further characterization of these associations in mechanistic and causal analyses will enhance understanding of the potentially modifiable maternal determinants of fetal growth, with the goal of reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with low and high birth weights.

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