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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(3): 435-436, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138873
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e033009, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with locally advanced disease often require multimodality treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy is offered to patients with high-risk pathological features postsurgery. While cure rates are improved, overall survival remains suboptimal and treatment has a significant negative impact on quality of life.Cell cycle checkpoint kinase inhibition is a promising method to selectively potentiate the therapeutic effects of chemoradiation. Our hypothesis is that combining chemoradiation with a WEE1 inhibitor will affect the biological response to DNA damage caused by cisplatin and radiation, thereby enhancing clinical outcomes, without increased toxicity. This trial explores the associated effect of WEE1 kinase inhibitor adavosertib (AZD1775). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This phase I dose-finding, open-label, multicentre trial aims to determine the highest safe dose of AZD1775 in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy preoperatively (group A) as a window of opportunity trial, and in combination with postoperative cisplatin-based chemoradiation (group B).Modified time-to-event continual reassessment method will determine the recommended dose, recruiting up to 21 patients per group. Primary outcomes are recommended doses with predefined target dose-limiting toxicity probabilities of 25% monitored up to 42 days (group A), and 30% monitored up to 12 weeks (group B). Secondary outcomes are disease-free survival times (groups A and B). Exploratory objectives are evaluation of pharmacodynamic (PD) effects, identification and correlation of potential biomarkers with PD markers of DNA damage, determine rate of resection status and surgical complications for group A; and quality of life in group B. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research Ethics Committee, Edgbaston, West Midlands (REC reference 16/WM/0501) initial approval received on 18/01/2017. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and presentation at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN76291951 and NCT03028766.

3.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 33(2)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102900

RESUMO

SUMMARYClinical microbiology is experiencing revolutionary advances in the deployment of molecular, genome sequencing-based, and mass spectrometry-driven detection, identification, and characterization assays. Laboratory automation and the linkage of information systems for big(ger) data management, including artificial intelligence (AI) approaches, also are being introduced. The initial optimism associated with these developments has now entered a more reality-driven phase of reflection on the significant challenges, complexities, and health care benefits posed by these innovations. With this in mind, the ongoing process of clinical laboratory consolidation, covering large geographical regions, represents an opportunity for the efficient and cost-effective introduction of new laboratory technologies and improvements in translational research and development. This will further define and generate the mandatory infrastructure used in validation and implementation of newer high-throughput diagnostic approaches. Effective, structured access to large numbers of well-documented biobanked biological materials from networked laboratories will release countless opportunities for clinical and scientific infectious disease research and will generate positive health care impacts. We describe why consolidation of clinical microbiology laboratories will generate quality benefits for many, if not most, aspects of the services separate institutions already provided individually. We also define the important role of innovative and large-scale diagnostic platforms. Such platforms lend themselves particularly well to computational (AI)-driven genomics and bioinformatics applications. These and other diagnostic innovations will allow for better infectious disease detection, surveillance, and prevention with novel translational research and optimized (diagnostic) product and service development opportunities as key results.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 251-263, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863682

RESUMO

AIMS: Kidney impairment has been associated with worse outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF), although recent studies challenge this association. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel biomarker of kidney tubular injury. Its prognostic role in AHF has not been evaluated in large cohorts. The present study aimed to determine if serum NGAL (sNGAL) or urine NGAL (uNGAL) is superior to creatinine for predicting short-term outcomes in AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted in an international, multicentre, prospective cohort consisting of 927 patients with AHF. Admission and peak values of sNGAL, uNGAL and uNGAL/urine creatinine (uCr) ratio were compared to admission and peak serum creatinine (sCr). The composite endpoints were death, initiation of renal replacement therapy, heart failure (HF) readmission and any emergent HF-related outpatient visit within 30 and 60 days, respectively. The mean age of the cohort was 69 years and 62% were male. The median length of stay was 6 days. The composite endpoint occurred in 106 patients and 154 patients within 30 and 60 days, respectively. Serum NGAL was more predictive than uNGAL and the uNGAL/uCr ratio but was not superior to sCr [area under the curve: admission sNGAL 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.67, and 0.59, 95% CI 0.54-0.65; peak sNGAL: 0.60, 95% CI 0.54-0.66, and 0.57, 95% CI 0.52-0.63; admission sCr: 0.60, 95% CI 0.54-0.64, and 0.59, 95% CI 0.53-0.64; peak sCr: 0.61, 95% CI 0.55-0.67, and 0.59, 95% CI 0.54-0.64, at 30 and 60 days, respectively]. NGAL was not predictive of the composite endpoint in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Serum NGAL outperformed uNGAL but neither was superior to admission or peak sCr for predicting adverse events.

5.
Intensive Care Med ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multi-organ dysfunction in critical illness is common and frequently involves the lungs and kidneys, often requiring organ support such as invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), renal replacement therapy (RRT) and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: A consensus conference on the spectrum of lung-kidney interactions in critical illness was held under the auspices of the Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) in Innsbruck, Austria, in June 2018. Through review and critical appraisal of the available evidence, the current state of research, and both clinical and research recommendations were described on the following topics: epidemiology, pathophysiology and strategies to mitigate pulmonary dysfunction among patients with acute kidney injury and/or kidney dysfunction among patients with acute respiratory failure/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, emphasis was put on patients receiving organ support (RRT, IMV and/or ECMO) and its impact on lung and kidney function. CONCLUSION: The ADQI 21 conference found significant knowledge gaps about organ crosstalk between lung and kidney and its relevance for critically ill patients. Lung protective ventilation, conservative fluid management and early recognition and treatment of pulmonary infections were the only clinical recommendations with higher quality of evidence. Recommendations for research were formulated, targeting lung-kidney interactions to improve care processes and outcomes in critical illness.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(12): 1553-1560, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769140

RESUMO

AIMS: In acute heart failure (AHF), relationships between changes in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and worsening renal function (WRF) and its prognostic implications have not been fully determined. We investigated the relationship between WRF and a decrease in BNP with in-hospital and 1-year mortality in AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Acute Kidney Injury NGAL Evaluation of Symptomatic heart faIlure Study (AKINESIS) was a prospective, international, multicentre study of AHF patients. Severe WRF (sWRF) was a sustained increase of ≥44.2 µmol/L (0.5 mg/dL) or ≥50% in creatinine, non-severe WRF (nsWRF) was a non-sustained increase of ≥26.5 µmol/L (0.3 mg/dL) or ≥50% in creatinine, and WRF with clinical deterioration was nsWRF with renal replacement therapy, inotrope use, or mechanical ventilation. Decreased BNP was defined as a ≥30% reduction in the last measured BNP compared to admission BNP. Among 814 patients, the incidence of WRF was not different between patients with or without decreased BNP (nsWRF: 33% vs. 31%, P = 0.549; sWRF: 11% vs. 9%, P = 0.551; WRF with clinical deterioration: 8% vs. 10%, P = 0.425). Decreased BNP was associated with better in-hospital and 1-year mortality regardless of WRF, while WRF was associated with worse outcomes only in patients without decreased BNP. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, decreased BNP, sWRF, and WRF with clinical deterioration were significantly associated with 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased BNP was associated with better in-hospital and long-term outcomes. WRF was only associated with adverse outcomes in patients without decreased BNP.

7.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(12): 924-932, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important adverse outcome after major surgery. Peri-operative goal-directed haemodynamic therapy (GDT) may improve outcomes by reducing complications such as AKI. OBJECTIVE: To determine if GDT was associated with a reduced incidence of postoperative AKI according to specific renal biomarkers. DESIGN: Prospective substudy of the OPTIMISE trial, a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing peri-operative GDT to usual patient care. SETTING: Four UK National Health Service hospitals. PATIENTS: A total of 287 high-risk patients aged at least 50 years undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was AKI defined as urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipase (NGAL) at least 150 ng ml 24 and 72 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were between-group differences in NGAL measurements and NGAL : creatinine ratios 24 and 72 h after surgery and AKI stage 2 or greater according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS: In total, 20 of 287 patients (7%) experienced postoperative AKI of KDIGO grade 2 or 3 within 30 days. The proportion of patients with urinary NGAL at least 150 ng ml 24 or 72 h after surgery was similar in the two groups [GDT 31/144 (21.5%) patients vs. usual patient care 28/143 (19.6%) patients; P = 0.88]. Absolute values of urinary NGAL were also similar at 24 h (GDT 53.5 vs. usual patient care 44.1 ng ml; P = 0.38) and 72 h (GDT 45.1 vs. usual patient care 41.1 ng ml; P = 0.50) as were urinary NGAL : creatinine ratios at 24 h (GDT 45 vs. usual patient care 43 ng mg; P = 0.63) and 72 h (GDT 66 vs. usual patient care 63 ng mg; P = 0.62). The incidence of KDIGO-defined AKI was also similar between the groups [GDT 9/144 (6%) patients vs. usual patient care 11/143 (8%) patients; P = 0.80]. CONCLUSION: In this trial, GDT did not reduce the incidence of AKI amongst high-risk patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. This may reflect improving standards in usual patient care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: OPTIMISE Trial Registration ISRCTN04386758.

8.
Biology (Basel) ; 8(3)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394859

RESUMO

Twenty-five marine cyanobacteria isolated from Irish coasts were characterized based on their morphological characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isoenzyme banding patterns were used to differentiate two morphologically ambiguous isolates. In this study, six new cyanobacteria-specific primers were designed, and a 16S rRNA gene of twenty-five morphologically diverse cyanobacteria was successfully PCR amplified (1198-1396 bps). Assembled 16S rRNA sequences were used both for a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis for genus-level identification and to generate a phylogenetic tree, which yielded two major clusters: One with morphologically homogenous cyanobacteria and the other with morphologically very diverse cyanobacteria. Kamptonema okenii and Tychonema decoloratum were isolated from a single field sample of Ballybunion and were originally identified as the same 'Oscillatoria sp.' based on preliminary morphological observations. However, an alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences and SOD and MDH isoenzyme banding pattern analyses helped in differentiating the morphologically-indistinguishable 'Oscillatoria sp.'. Finally, after a re-evaluation of their morphological characters using modern taxonomic publications, the originally identified 'Oscillatoria sp.' were re-identified as Kamptonema okenii and Tychonema decoloratum, thus supporting the polyphasic approach of cyanobacteria characterization.

10.
Cureus ; 11(4): e4511, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259120

RESUMO

Gustilo and Anderson type IIIB open tibia fractures are associated with high rates of surgical site infection, wound complications, and flap failure. Controversy surrounds the optimal timing and method of wound management prior to flap coverage. No studies to date have investigated the use of negative pressure wound therapy with instillation and dwell for open type IIIB tibia fractures. We present a single case of an open type IIIB tibia fracture that was managed with 21 days of circumferentially applied negative pressure wound therapy with instillation and dwell prior to flap coverage. Our results suggest that negative pressure wound therapy with instillation and dwell may minimize infection risk, decrease wound size, and allow for delayed soft tissue coverage.

11.
Am J Nephrol ; 50(1): 19-28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Dublin Acute Biomarker Group Evaluation (DAMAGE) Study is a prospective 2-center observational study investigating the utility of urinary biomarker combinations for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) in a heterogeneous adult intensive care unit (ICU) population. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether serial urinary biomarker measurements, in combination with a simple clinical model, could improve biomarker performance in the diagnostic prediction of severe AKI and clinical outcomes such as death and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). METHODS: Urine was collected daily from patients admitted to the ICU, for a total of 7 post-admission days. Urine biomarker concentrations (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], α-glutathione S-transferase [GST], π-GST, kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP], Cystatin C, creatinine, and albumin) were measured. Urine biomarkers were combined with a clinical prediction of AKI model, to determine ability to predict AKI (any stage, within 2 days or 7 days of ICU admission), or a -30-day composite clinical outcome (RRT - or death). RESULTS: A total of 257 (38%) patients developed AKI within 7 days of ICU admission. Of those who developed AKI, 106 (41%) patients met stage 3 AKI within 7 days of ICU admission and 208 patients of the entire study cohort (31%) met the composite clinical endpoint of in-hospital mortality or RRT within 30 days of ICU admission. The addition of urinary NGAL/albumin to the clinical model modestly improved the prediction of AKI, in particular severe stage 3 AKI (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.9 from 0.87, p = 0.369) and the prediction of 30-day RRT or death (AUC 0.83 from 0.79, p = 0.139). CONCLUSION: A clinical model incorporating severity of illness, patient demographics, and chronic illness with currently available clinical biomarkers of renal function was strongly predictive of development of AKI and associated clinical outcomes in a heterogeneous adult ICU population. The addition of urinary NGAL/albumin to this simple clinical model improved the prediction of severe AKI, need for RRT and death, but not at a statistically or clinically significant level, when compared to the clinical model alone.

12.
J Card Fail ; 25(8): 654-665, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worsening renal function (WRF) during acute heart failure (AHF) occurs frequently and has been associated with adverse outcomes, though this association has been questioned. WRF is now evaluated by function and injury. We evaluated whether urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is superior to creatinine for prediction and prognosis of WRF in patients with AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a multicenter, international, prospective cohort of patients with AHF requiring IV diuretics. The primary outcome was whether uNGAL predicted development of WRF, defined as a sustained increase in creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL or ≥50% above first value or initiation of renal replacement therapy, within the first 5 days. The main secondary outcome was a composite of in-hospital adverse events. We enrolled 927 patients (mean 68.5 years of age, 62% men). The primary outcome occurred in 72 patients (7.8%). The first, peak and the ratio of uNGAL to urine creatinine (area under curves (AUC) ≤ 0.613) did not have diagnostic utility over the first creatinine (AUC 0.662). There were 235 adverse events in 144 patients. uNGAL did not predict (AUCs ≤ 0.647) adverse clinical events better than creatinine (AUC 0.695). CONCLUSIONS: uNGAL was not superior to creatinine for predicting WRF or adverse in-hospital outcomes and cannot be recommended for WRF in AHF.

13.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 18(4): 129-135, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969238

RESUMO

As SCUBA diving continues to rapidly grow in the United States and worldwide, physicians should have a fundamental working knowledge to provide care for an injured diver. SCUBA divers are faced with many hazards at depths that are normally well compensated for at sea level. Pressure gradients, changes in the partial pressure of inhaled gases and gas solubility can have disastrous effects to the diver if not managed properly. Many safety measures in SCUBA diving are governed by the laws of physics, but some have come under scrutiny. This has prompted increased research concerning in water recompression and flying after diving. This article will give physicians an understanding of the dangers divers encounter and the current treatment recommendations. We will also explore some controversies in diving medicine.


Assuntos
Barotrauma , Mergulho/fisiologia , Medicina Esportiva , Aeronaves , Doença da Descompressão , Gases , Humanos , Pressão Parcial
14.
Acta Oncol ; 58(8): 1187-1196, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032694

RESUMO

Background: Prior reports have raised concerns that a prophylactic gastrostomy may be detrimental to long-term swallow function. This study evaluates patient-reported swallow function following chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma in relation to the use of a prophylactic gastrostomy or nasogastric (NG) tube as required. Material and methods: The MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) was posted to 204 disease-free patients at least 2 years following chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma between 2010 and 2014. Results: Overall, 181/204 (89%) patients returned questionnaire at a median of 34 months post-treatment. 97/181 (54%) and 84/181 (46%) were managed with an approach of a prophylactic gastrostomy or NG tube as required, respectively. A prophylactic gastrostomy was associated with higher rates of enteral feeding (92% vs. 58%, p < .001), lower median percentage weight loss (7.0% vs. 9.4%, p < .001), increased duration of enteral feed (median 3.3 vs. 1.1 months, p < .001). There was no significant difference in patient-reported swallow function measured by MDADI summary scores and subscales for patients managed with an approach of prophylactic gastrostomy or NG as required. Duration of enteral feed correlated negatively with composite MDADI scores. A subgroup of 116/181 (64%) patients were documented as having been offered a choice of enteral feeding approach and therefore can be considered to represent clinical equipoise; there were no significant differences in MDADI scores according to route. Conclusions: Despite concern regarding the use of a prophylactic gastrostomy in prior studies, the approaches of using a prophylactic gastrostomy or an NG tube as required to support patients during/after chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma were associated with similar long-term swallow outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Intubação Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Nutrição Enteral/instrumentação , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gastrostomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal/instrumentação , Intubação Gastrointestinal/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Cardiorenal Med ; 9(3): 168-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the performance of a rapid fluorescent indicator technique for measuring plasma volume (PV). METHODS: This was an open-label, observational evaluation of a two-component intravenous visible fluorescent dye technique to rapidly measure PV in 16 healthy subjects and 16 subjects with chronic kidney disease (8 stage 3 and 8 stage 4 CKD), at 2 clinical research sites. The method consisted of a single intravenous injection of 12 mg of a large 150-kDa carboxy-methyl dextran conjugated to a fluorescent rhodamine-derived dye as the PV marker (PVM), and 35 mg of a small 5-kDa carboxy-methyl dextran conjugated to fluorescein, the renal clearance marker. Dye concentrations were quantified 15 min after the injections for initial PV measurements using the indicator-dilution principle. Additional samples were taken over 8 h to evaluate the stability of the PVM as a determinant of PV. Blood volumes (BV) were calculated based on PV and the subject's hematocrit. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the plasma concentration data taken over several days using noncompartmental methods (Phoenix WinNonlin®). Linear correlation and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare visible fluorescent injectate-measured PV compared to Nadler's formula for estimating PV. Finally, 8 healthy subjects received 350 mL infusion of a 5% albumin solution in normal saline over 30 min and a repeat PV determination was then carried out. RESULTS: PV and BV varied according to weight and body surface area, with PV ranging from 2,115 to 6,234 mL and 28.6 to 41.9 mL/kg when weight adjusted. Both parameters were stable for > 6 h with repeated plasma measurements of the PVM. There was no difference between healthy subjects and CKD subjects. Overall, there was general agreement with Nadler's estimation formula for the mean PV in subjects. A 24-h repeat dose measurement in 8 healthy subjects showed PV variability of 98 ± 121 mL (mean = 3.8%). Additionally, following an intravenous bolus of 350 mL of a 5% albumin solution in normal saline in 8 healthy subjects, the mean (SD) measured increase in PV was 356 (±50.0) mL post-infusion. There were no serious adverse events reported during the study. CONCLUSIONS: This minimally invasive fluorescent dye approach safely allowed for rapid, accurate, and reproducible determination of PV, BV, and dynamic monitoring of changes following fluid administration.


Assuntos
Verde de Indocianina/farmacocinética , Volume Plasmático/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Corantes/farmacocinética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(1): 12-21, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683035

RESUMO

Sepsis is a serious clinical problem and estimated to be responsible for 18 million annual deaths worldwide. Therefore, the use and the rapid processing of blood cultures are important for the transition from empiric therapy to directed therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the best blood culture practices in Turkey. We have examined the collection practices and techniques at four different hospitals, and a total of 165.443 blood culture bottles were evaluated (2013-2015). At the preanalytical phase most of the data which were important and which could support hospital quality systems/practices were not entered into the HIS and EpiCenter system. At the analytical phase loading of the bottles and removal of positive bottles primarily occurred between 6:00 and 9:00 AM but the positivity rate of the bottles showed a homogeneous distribution throughout the day. In other words, there were significant delays at processing positive blood culture bottles related to laboratory workers. The effect of education regarding best practices, transition from single bottle to two bottle cultures was successful in all hospitals. Single bottle usage decreased below 10% in all hospitals. Significantly more positive cultures were detected at multiple cultures when compared with the single bottle collection practice. In retrospective patient records, it was seen that all the laboratories reported the results of Gram staining to the clinics. However, these data were not recorded to the EpiCenter. The contamination rates of Ankara Numune Hospital and Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine Hospital are 6.2% and 5.4% respectively, contamination rates were not reported in other hospitals. The most common isolates detected in blood cultures were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The mean time for the detection of these organisms were less than 20 hours in the aerobic bottle and anaerobic bottles. A total of 79.6% of facultative anaerobic isolates were detected in both bottles; 9.8% were detected only in the aerobic bottles; 10.6% of the isolates were detected only in the anaerobic bottles. As a result, the educational efforts in Turkey have met with success for transition from collecting single bottle blood culture sets to two bottle blood cultures. However, further efforts are needed to increase the number of blood culture sets collected during a 24 hours' period. In addition, errors at the preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical periods (taking samples, loading bottles into the system and processing positive blood cultures) should be eliminated.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Hemocultura , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura/métodos , Hemocultura/normas , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia
17.
JAMA ; 320(19): 1998-2009, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357272

RESUMO

Importance: Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) adversely affects long-term kidney outcomes and survival. Administration of the detoxifying enzyme alkaline phosphatase may improve kidney function and survival. Objective: To determine the optimal therapeutic dose, effect on kidney function, and adverse effects of a human recombinant alkaline phosphatase in patients who are critically ill with sepsis-associated AKI. Design, Setting, and Participants: The STOP-AKI trial was an international (53 recruiting sites), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, adaptive phase 2a/2b study in 301 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of sepsis and AKI. Patients were enrolled between December 2014 and May 2017, and follow-up was conducted for 90 days. The final date of follow-up was August 14, 2017. Interventions: In the intention-to-treat analysis, in part 1 of the trial, patients were randomized to receive recombinant alkaline phosphatase in a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg (n = 31), 0.8 mg/kg (n = 32), or 1.6 mg/kg (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30), once daily for 3 days, to establish the optimal dose. The optimal dose was identified as 1.6 mg/kg based on modeling approaches and adverse events. In part 2, 1.6 mg/kg (n = 82) was compared with placebo (n = 86). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the time-corrected area under the curve of the endogenous creatinine clearance for days 1 through 7, divided by 7 to provide a mean daily creatinine clearance (AUC1-7 ECC). Incidence of fatal and nonfatal (serious) adverse events ([S]AEs) was also determined. Results: Overall, 301 patients were enrolled (men, 70.7%; median age, 67 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 59-73]). From day 1 to day 7, median ECC increased from 26.0 mL/min (IQR, 8.8 to 59.5) to 65.4 mL/min (IQR, 26.7 to 115.4) in the recombinant alkaline phosphatase 1.6-mg/kg group vs from 35.9 mL/min (IQR, 12.2 to 82.9) to 61.9 mL/min (IQR, 22.7 to 115.2) in the placebo group (absolute difference, 9.5 mL/min [95% CI, -23.9 to 25.5]; P = .47). Fatal adverse events occurred in 26.3% of patients in the 0.4-mg/kg recombinant alkaline phosphatase group; 17.1% in the 0.8-mg/kg group, 17.4% in the 1.6-mg/kg group, and 29.5% in the placebo group. Rates of nonfatal SAEs were 21.0% for the 0.4-mg/kg recombinant alkaline phosphatase group, 14.3% for the 0.8-mg/kg group, 25.7% for the 1.6-mg/kg group, and 20.5% for the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients who were critically ill with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury, human recombinant alkaline phosphatase compared with placebo did not significantly improve short-term kidney function. Further research is necessary to assess other clinical outcomes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02182440.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatase Alcalina/administração & dosagem , Creatinina/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Idoso , Fosfatase Alcalina/efeitos adversos , Fosfatase Alcalina/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Estado Terminal , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sepse/complicações
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099517

RESUMO

Background: Complete ascertainment of the true rates of acute kidney injury (AKI) and emerging trends are essential for planning of preventive strategies within health systems. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2005 to 2014 using data from regional laboratory information systems to determine incidence rates of AKI and severity Stages 1-3 in the Irish health system. Multivariable models were developed to explore annual trends and the contributions of demographic factors, clinical measures, geographic factors and location of medical supervision expressed as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: From 2005 to 2014, incidence rates of AKI increased from 6.1% (5.8-6.3) to 13.2% (12.7-13.8) per 100 patient-years in men and from 5.0% (4.8-5.2) to 11.5% (11.0-12.0) in women, P < 0.001. Stage 1 AKI accounted for the greatest growth in incidence, from 4.4% (95% CI 4.3-4.6) in 2005 to 10.1% (95% CI 9.8-10.5) in 2014 (P < 0.001 for trend). Compared with 2005, patients in 2014 were more likely to experience AKI [OR 4.53 (95% CI 4.02-5.1) for Stage 1, OR 5.22 (4.16-6.55) for Stage 2 and OR 4.11 (3.05-5.54) for Stage 3], adjusting for changing demographic and clinical profiles. Incidence rates of AKI increased in all locations of medical supervision during the period of observation, but were greatest for inpatient [OR 19.11 (95% CI 17.69-20.64)] and emergency room settings [OR 5.97 (95% CI 5.56-6.42)] compared with a general practice setting (referent). Conclusion: Incidence rates of AKI have increased substantially in the Irish health system, which were not accounted for by changing demographic patterns, clinical profiles or location of medical supervision.

20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 56(12)2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135230

RESUMO

The rapid identification of blood culture isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results play critical roles for the optimal treatment of patients with bloodstream infections. Whereas others have looked at the time to detection in automated culture systems, we examined the overall time from specimen collection to actionable test results. We examined four points of time, namely, blood specimen collection, Gram stain, organism identification (ID), and AST reports, from electronic data from 13 U.S. hospitals for the 11 most common, clinically significant organisms in septic patients. We compared the differences in turnaround times and the times from when specimens were collected and the results were reported in the 24-h spectrum. From January 2015 to June 2016, 165,593 blood specimens were collected, of which, 9.5% gave positive cultures. No matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used during the study period. Across the 10 common bacterial isolates (n = 6,412), the overall median (interquartile range) turnaround times were 0.80 (0.64 to 1.08), 1.81 (1.34 to 2.46), and 2.71 (2.46 to 2.99) days for Gram stain, organism ID, and AST, respectively. For all positive cultures, approximately 25% of the specimens were collected between 6:00 a.m. and 11:59 a.m. In contrast, more of the laboratory reporting times were concentrated between 6:00 a.m. and 11:59 a.m. for Gram stain (43%), organism ID (78%), and AST (82%), respectively (P < 0.001). The overall average turnaround times from specimen collection for Gram stain, organism ID, and AST were approximately 1, 2, and 3 days, respectively. The laboratory results were reported predominantly in the morning hours. Laboratory automation and work flow optimization may play important roles in reducing the microbiology result turnaround time.


Assuntos
Hemocultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Laboratórios Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Automação Laboratorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Manejo de Espécimes , Coloração e Rotulagem , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Fluxo de Trabalho
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