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1.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 61, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of adolescents remain largely unmet. For instance, over 20 million female adolescents in need of, a modern contraceptive method are not using any. This study determined the factors associated with utilization of modern contraceptives among female adolescents in Uganda. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted using the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) 2016 data of 4, 264 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select study participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with modern contraceptive utilization. All our analyses were done using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: The prevalence of modern contraceptive utilization among female adolescents was 9.4% (401/4264: (95% CI: 8.6-10.3). The odds of contraceptive utilisation were 1.6 times (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09-2.34) higher among married adolescents compared to unmarried adolescents. Adolescents whose age at first birth was less than 15 years (AOR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.01-3.99) were twice more likely to utilize a modern contraceptive compared to those whose age at first birth was above 15 years. Women belonging to the Central region (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.01-3.69) and those in the middle wealth quintile (AOR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.06-3.46) were 93% and 91% more likely to utilize a modern contraceptive compared to those in the Northern region and those in the poorest wealth index respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of modern contraceptive utilization was 9.4%. The findings show the need for designing targeted interventions due to differences in adolescents according to their wealth index, regions and marital status.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245989, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561141

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral bicarbonate solution is known to improve both maternal and perinatal outcomes among women with abnormal labour (dystocia). Its effectiveness and safety among women with obstructed labour is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect and safety of a single-dose preoperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate on maternal and fetal blood lactate and clinical outcomes among women with obstructed labour (OL) in Mbale hospital. METHODS: We conducted a double blind, randomised controlled trial from July 2018 to September 2019. The participants were women with OL at term (≥37 weeks gestation), carrying a singleton pregnancy with no other obstetric emergency, medical comorbidity or laboratory derangements. INTERVENTION: A total of 477 women with OL were randomized to receive 50ml of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (238 women) or 50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride (239 women). In both the intervention and controls arms, each participant was preoperatively given a single dose intravenous bolus. Every participant received 1.5 L of normal saline in one hour as part of standard preoperative care. OUTCOME MEASURES: Our primary outcome was the mean difference in maternal venous blood lactate at one hour between the two arms. The secondary outcomes were umbilical cord blood lactate levels at birth, neonatal sepsis and early neonatal death upto 7 days postnatal, as well as the side effects of sodium bicarbonate, primary postpartum hemorrhage, maternal sepsis and mortality at 14 days postpartum. RESULTS: The median maternal venous lactate was 6.4 (IQR 3.3-12.3) in the intervention and 7.5 (IQR 4.0-15.8) in the control group, with a statistically non-significant median difference of 1.2 mmol/L; p-value = 0.087. Vargha and Delaney effect size was 0.46 (95% CI 0.40-0.51) implying very little if any effect at all. CONCLUSION: The 4.2g of preoperative intravenous sodium bicarbonate was safe but made little or no difference on blood lactate levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR201805003364421.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e041723, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, predictors and case fatality risk of hypothermia among neonates in Lira district, Northern Uganda. SETTING: Three subcounties of Lira district in Northern Uganda. DESIGN: This was a community-based cross-sectional study nested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Mother-baby pairs enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial. An axillary temperature was taken during a home visit using a lithium battery-operated digital thermometer. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of hypothermia. Hypothermia was defined as mild if the axillary temperature was 36.0°C to <36.5°C, moderate if the temperature was 32.0°C to <36.0°C and severe hypothermia if the temperature was <32.0°C. The secondary outcome measure was the case fatality risk of neonatal hypothermia. Predictors of moderate to severe hypothermia were determined using a generalised estimating equation model for the Poisson family. RESULTS: We recruited 1330 neonates. The prevalence of hypothermia (<36.5°C) was 678/1330 (51.0%, 95% CI 46.9 to 55.1). Overall, 32% (429/1330), 95% CI 29.5 to 35.2 had mild hypothermia, whereas 18.7% (249/1330), 95% CI 15.8 to 22.0 had moderate hypothermia. None had severe hypothermia. At multivariable analysis, predictors of neonatal hypothermia included: home birth (adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR, 1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.6); low birth weight (aPR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.3) and delayed breastfeeding initiation (aPR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.5). The case fatality risk ratio of hypothermic compared with normothermic neonates was 2.0 (95% CI 0.60 to 6.9). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of neonatal hypothermia was very high, demonstrating that communities in tropical climates should not ignore neonatal hypothermia. Interventions designed to address neonatal hypothermia should consider ways of reaching neonates born at home and those with low birth weight. The promotion of early breastfeeding initiation and skin-to-skin care could reduce the risk of neonatal hypothermia. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrial.gov as NCT02605369.

4.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1859823, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446087

RESUMO

Background: Perinatal mortality in Uganda remains high at 38 deaths/1,000 births, an estimate greater than the every newborn action plan (ENAP) target of ≤24/1,000 births by 2030. To improve perinatal survival, there is a need to understand the persisting risk factors for death. Objective: We determined the incidence, risk factors, and causes of perinatal death in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Methods: This was a community-based prospective cohort study among pregnant women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Female community volunteers identified pregnant women in each household who were recruited at ≥28 weeks of gestation and followed until 50 days postpartum. Information on perinatal survival was gathered from participants within 24 hours after childbirth and at 7 days postpartum. The cause of death was ascertained using verbal autopsies. We used generalized estimating equations of the Poisson family to determine the risk factors for perinatal death. Results: Of the 1,877 women enrolled, the majority were ≤30 years old (79.8%), married or cohabiting (91.3%), and had attained only a primary education (77.7%). There were 81 perinatal deaths among them, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 43/1,000 births [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 35, 53)], of these 37 were stillbirths (20 deaths/1,000 total births) and 44 were early neonatal deaths (23 deaths/1,000 live births). Birth asphyxia, respiratory failure, infections and intra-partum events were the major probable contributors to perinatal death. The risk factors for perinatal death were nulliparity at enrolment (adjusted IRR 2.7, [95% CI: 1.3, 5.6]) and maternal age >30 years (adjusted IRR 2.5, [95% CI: 1.1, 5.8]). Conclusion: The incidence of perinatal death in this region was higher than had previously been reported in Uganda. Risk factors for perinatal mortality were nulliparity and maternal age >30 years. Pregnant women in this region need improved access to care during pregnancy and childbirth.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to infant prophylaxis has been associated with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV. However, the factors associated have not been well characterised in different settings. This study describes barriers and enablers of adherence to infant prophylaxis among 6-week-old HIV exposed infants in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted from 2018-2020 at the PMTCT clinic at Lira Regional Referral Hospital and included 472 mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited, followed up at delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain data on socio-demographic, reproductive-related, HIV-related characteristics and adherence. Data were analysed using Stata to estimate adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regression models to ascertain barriers and enablers of adherence to infant nevirapine prophylaxis. RESULTS: Barriers to infant adherence are maternal characteristics including: younger age (≤20 years adjusted risk ratio (ARR) = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), missing a viral load test during pregnancy (ARR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and not receiving nevirapine syrup for the baby after childbirth (ARR = 6.2; 95% CI: 5.1-7.6). Enablers were: having attained ≥14 years of schooling (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), taking a nevirapine-based regimen (ARR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), long-term ART (≥ 60 months ARR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), accompanied by a husband to hospital during labour and childbirth (ARR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4-0.7) and labour starting at night (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.8). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Despite mothers receiving nevirapine syrup from the health workers for the infant, non-adherence rates still prevail at 14.8%. The health system needs to consider giving HIV infected pregnant women the nevirapine syrup before birth to avoid delays and non-adherence. There is need to pay particular attention to younger women and those who recently started ART.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy (ASBP) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as pyelonephritis, preterm or low birth weight delivery if untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, the isolated bacterial agents, and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Mbale Hospital. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study in which 587 pregnant women with no symptoms and signs of urinary tract infection were recruited from January to March 2019. Mid-stream clean catch urine samples were collected from the women using sterile containers. The urine samples were cultured using standard laboratory methods. The bacterial colonies were identified and antibiotic sensitivity was done using disc diffusion method. Chi squared tests and logistic regression were done to identify factors associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of the 587 pregnant women, 22 (3.75%) tested positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Women aged 20-24 years were less likely to have ASBP when compared to women aged less than 20 years (AOR = 0.14, 95%CI 0.02-0.95, P = 0.004). The most common isolates in descending order were E. coli (n = 13, 46.4%) and S.aureus (n = 9, 32.1%). Among the gram negative isolates, the highest sensitivity was to gentamycin (82.4%) and imipenem (82.4%). The gram positive isolates were sensitive to gentamycin (90.9%) followed by imipenem (81.8%). All the isolates were resistant to sulphamethoxazole with trimethoprim (100%). Multidrug resistance was 82.4% among gram negative isolates and 72.4% among the gram positive isolates. CONCLUSION: There was high resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics. There is need to do urine culture and sensitivity from women with ASBP so as to reduce the associated complications.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriúria/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriúria/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228856, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040542

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obstructed labour (OL) is an important clinical and public health problem because of the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for OL and its associated obstetric squeal are usually context specific. No epidemiological study has documented the risk factors for OL in Eastern Uganda. This study was conducted to identify the risk factors for OL in Mbale Hospital. OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for OL in Mbale Regional Referral and Teaching Hospital, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a case control study with 270 cases of women with OL and 270 controls of women without OL. We consecutively enrolled eligible cases between July 2018 and February 2019. For each case, we randomly selected one eligible control admitted in the same 24-hour period. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews and a review of patient notes. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for OL. RESULTS: The risk factors for OL were, being a referral from a lower health facility (AOR 6.80, 95% CI: 4.20-11.00), prime parity (AOR 2.15 95% CI: 1.26-3.66) and use of herbal medicines in active labour (AOR 2.72 95% CI: 1.49-4.96). Married participants (AOR 0.59 95% CI: 0.35-0.97) with a delivery plan (AOR 0.56 95% CI: 0.35-0.90) and educated partners (AOR 0.57 95% CI: 0.33-0.98) were less likely to have OL. In the adjusted analysis, there was no association between four or more ANC visits and OL, adjusted odds ratio [(AOR) 0.96 95% CI: 0.57-1.63)]. CONCLUSIONS: Prime parity, use of herbal medicines in labour and being a referral from a lower health facility were identified as risk factors. Being married with a delivery plan and an educated partner were protective of OL. Increased frequency of ANC attendance was not protective against obstructed labour.


Assuntos
Distocia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distocia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e026675, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To improve maternal and fetal outcomes among patients with obstructed labour (OL) in low-resource settings, the associated electrolyte and metabolic derangements must be adequately corrected. Oral fluid intake during labour and preoperative intravenous fluid replacement following OL corrects the associated dehydration and electrolyte changes, but it does not completely reverse the metabolic acidosis, that is, a cause of intrapartum birth asphyxia and a risk factor for primary postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony. Sodium bicarbonate is a safe, effective, cheap and readily available acid buffer, that is widely used by sportspeople to improve performance. It also appears to improve fetal and maternal outcomes in abnormally progressing labour. However, its effects on maternal and fetal outcomes among patients with OL is unknown. We aim at establishing the effect of a single-dose preoperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate on maternal and fetal lactate levels and clinical outcomes among patients with OL. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a double blind, randomised controlled clinical phase IIb trial. We will randomise 478 patients with OL to receive either 50 mL of placebo with standard preoperative infusion of normal saline (1.5 L) or 4.2 g of sodium bicarbonate solution (50 mL of 50 mmol/L) with the preoperative infusion of normal saline (1.5 L). The primary outcome will be mean lactate levels in maternal capillary blood at 1 hour after study drug administration and in the arterial cord blood at birth. We will use the intention-to-treat analysis approach. Secondary outcomes will include safety, maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality up to 14 days postpartum. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Makerere University School of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee and Uganda National Council for Science and Technology have approved the protocol. Each participant will give informed consent at enrollment. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PACTR201805003364421.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Distocia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta
9.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2017: 9264571, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28280293

RESUMO

Background. A 2013 Cochrane review concluded that the choice of antibiotics for prophylaxis in PROM is not clear. In Uganda, a combination of oral erythromycin and amoxicillin is the 1st line for prophylaxis against ascending infection. Our aim was to establish the current cervicovaginal bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods. Liquor was collected aseptically from the endocervical canal and pool in the posterior fornix of the vagina using a pipette. Aerobic cultures were performed on blood, chocolate, and MacConkey agar and incubated at 35-37°C for 24-48 hrs. Enrichment media were utilized to culture for GBS and facultative anaerobes. Isolates were identified using colonial morphology, gram staining, and biochemical analysis. Sensitivity testing was performed via Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and dilution method. Pearson's chi-squared (χ2) test and the paired t-test were applied, at a P value of 0.05. Results. Thirty percent of the cultures were positive and over 90% were aerobic microorganisms. Resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and ceftriaxone was 44%, 95%, 96%, and 24%, respectively. Rupture of membranes (>12 hrs), late preterm, and term PROM were associated with more positive cultures. Conclusion. The spectrum of bacteria associated with PROM has not changed, but resistance to erythromycin and ampicillin has increased.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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