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1.
Adv Nutr ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724299

RESUMO

Mushrooms are rich in bioactive compounds. The potential health benefits associated with mushroom intake have gained recent research attention. We thus conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between mushroom intake and risk of cancer at any site. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify relevant studies on mushroom intake and cancer published from 1 January, 1966, up to 31 October, 2020. Observational studies (n = 17) with RRs, HRs, or ORs and 95% CIs of cancer risk for ≥2 categories of mushroom intake were eligible for the present study. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. Higher mushroom consumption was associated with lower risk of total cancer (pooled RR for the highest compared with the lowest consumption groups: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.78; n = 17). Higher mushroom consumption was also associated with lower risk of breast cancer (pooled RR for the highest compared with the lowest consumption groups: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.81; n = 10) and nonbreast cancer (pooled RR for the highest compared with the lowest consumption groups: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.97; n = 13). When site-specific cancers were examined, a significant association with mushroom consumption was only observed with breast cancer; this could be due to the small number of studies that were conducted with other cancers. There was evidence of a significant nonlinear dose-response association between mushroom consumption and the risk of total cancer (P-nonlinearity = 0.001; n = 7). Limitations included the potential for recall and selection bias in case-control designs, which comprised 11 out of the 17 studies included in this meta-analysis, and the large variation in the adjustment factors used in the final models from each study. The association between higher mushroom consumption and lower risk of cancer, particularly breast cancer, may indicate a potential protective role for mushrooms in the diet.

2.
J Breath Res ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271515

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and has a poor prognosis. To develop a non-invasive method for lung cancer early detection, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was explored in this study. EBC samples were collected from lung cancer patients (n=10) and healthy controls (n=10), and a proteomic study was performed to identify potential biomarkers. A data-independent acquisition (DIA) approach was applied for the EBC proteomics, and 1151 proteins were identified. Compared to the control group, ten proteins were significantly upregulated in the lung cancer group. The GO analysis showed these proteins mostly located in the organelle, and the KEGG results revealed that the proteins were mainly related to organismal systems and human disease. And S100A11, ANXA1, ENO1, and FABP5 might play a vital role in the EBC proteome. In summary, we demonstrated that the DIA-based quantification method was efficient in performing proteomic analysis in individual EBC samples, and some of the proteins might be novel biomarkers for lung cancer.

3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Food and Drug Administration issued an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking for setting a product standard for nicotine levels in cigarettes, with an emphasis on minimally or non-addicting very low nicotine content (VLNC). METHODS: A 33-week, two-arm, double-blind randomized trial conducted in Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA and Washington, DC, USA included adult daily cigarette smokers (≥5 cigarettes per day) with less than a college degree, and who had no plans to quit within the next 6 months. Participants were randomized to either Reduced Nicotine Content (RNC) study cigarettes tapered every 3 weeks to a final VLNC (0.2 mg/cigarette) for six weeks or to Usual Nicotine Content (UNC) study cigarettes (11.6 mg/cigarette). Outcomes included acceptability of study cigarettes measured by attrition (primary outcome), compliance, reduction in cigarette dependence and tobacco biomarkers, and post-intervention cessation. RESULTS: The RNC (n= 122) vs. UNC (n=123) group had higher attrition (adjusted Hazard Ratio 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99-5.81). At the end of the intervention, cotinine levels were 50% lower in the RNC group (mean group difference -137 ng/mL; 95% CI -172, -102). The RNC group smoked fewer CPD (-4.1; 95% CI -6.44, -1.75) and had lower carbon monoxide levels (-4.0 ppm; 95% CI -7.7, -0.4). Forty seven percent (29/62) of the RNC group were biochemically-confirmed compliant with smoking VLNC cigarettes (mean cotinine= 8.9 ng/ml). At three month follow-up, only compliant VLNC smokers quit with an assisted quit attempt (N=6/22, 27%). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a VLNC standard in cigarettes. IMPLICATIONS: Differential dropout and noncompliance indicate some smokers had difficulty transitioning to cigarettes with reduced nicotine. These smokers will benefit from supplemental nicotine in medicinal or noncombustible tobacco products if a nicotine reduction standard is established. Other smokers in the study were able to successfully transition to VLNC cigarettes exclusively and substantially reduced their exposure to nicotine.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993116

RESUMO

In 2018, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking to reduce nicotine in tobacco products to produce a minimally addictive or nonaddictive effect, but there was a research gap in the subjective responses of reduced-nicotine-content cigarettes. We compared the responses of the modified cigarette evaluation questionnaire (mCEQ) and cigarette-liking scale (CLS) between the gradually reduced nicotine content (RNC) group and the usual nicotine content (UNC) group. Linear mixed-effects models for repeated measures were used to analyze and compare the change over time for the mCEQ and CLS across the two treatment groups (RNC and UNC). We found that the change over time for the mCEQ and CLS was significant between the RNC and the UNC treatment groups at the beginning of visit 6 with 1.4 mg nicotine/cigarette. At visits 8 and 9, the RNC group reported significantly lower satisfaction scores compared to UNC. Subscale analysis showed that smoking satisfaction decreased in RNC while other measures, such as cigarette enjoyment, did not change. Understanding the impact of nicotine reduction on cigarette subjective responses through evaluation and liking scales would provide valuable information to the FDA on nicotine reduction policies for cigarettes.

5.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between height and risk of gastric cancer has been studied in several epidemiological studies with contrasting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between adult height and gastric cancer within a large pooled analysis of case-control studies members of the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium. METHODS: Data from 18 studies members of the StoP consortium were collected and analyzed. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between 10-cm increase in height and risk of gastric cancer. Age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, social class, geographical area and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status were included in the regression model. Resulting estimates were then pooled with random-effect model. Analyses were conducted overall and in strata of selected variables. RESULTS: A total of 7562 cases and 19 033 controls were included in the analysis. The pooled OR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.87-1.05). A sensitivity analysis was performed restricting the results to the studies with information on H. pylori status, resulting in an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.79-1.20). CONCLUSION: Our study does not support a strong and consistent association between adult height and gastric cancer.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1456-1463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

7.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 33(7): 1791-1797, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363856

RESUMO

Free radicals and nicotine are components of cigarette smoke that are thought to contribute to the development of smoking-induced diseases. China has the largest number of smokers in the world, yet little is known about the yields of tobacco smoke constituents in different Chinese brands of cigarettes. In this study, gas-phase and particulate-phase free radicals as well as nicotine yields were quantified in mainstream cigarette smoke from five popular Chinese brands and two research cigarettes (3R4F and 1R6F). Mainstream smoke was generated under International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking regimens using a linear smoking machine. Levels of free radicals and nicotine were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection, respectively. Under the ISO puffing regimen, Chinese brand cigarettes produced an average of 3.0 ± 1.2 nmol/cig gas-phase radicals, 118 ± 44.7 pmol/cig particulate-phase radicals, and 0.6 ± 0.2 mg/cig nicotine. Under the CI puffing regimen, Chinese brand cigarettes produced an average of 5.6 ± 1.2 nmol/cig gas-phase radicals, 282 ± 92.1 pmol/cig particulate-phase radicals, and 2.1 ± 0.4 mg/cig nicotine. Overall, both gas- and particulate-phase free radicals were substantially lower compared to the research cigarettes under both regimens, whereas no significant differences were observed for nicotine levels. When Chinese brands were compared, the highest free radical and nicotine yields were found in "LL" and "BS" brands, while lowest levels were found in "YY". These results suggested that the lower radical delivery by Chinese cigarettes compared to United States reference cigarettes may be associated with reductions in oxidant-related harm.

8.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(8): 649-660, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434808

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was the 7th most common malignancy worldwide in 2018 and despite therapeutic advances, the overall survival rate for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; ∼50%) has remained unchanged for decades. The most common types are OSCC and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC, survival rate ∼85%). Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor of HNSCC. In the developed world, the incidence of OSCC is declining as a result of tobacco cessation programs. However, OPSCC, which is also linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, is on the rise and now ranks as the most common HPV-related cancer. The current state of knowledge indicates that HPV-associated disease differs substantially from other types of HNSCC and distinct biological differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC have been identified. Although risk factors have been extensively discussed in the literature, there are multiple clinically relevant questions that remain unanswered and even unexplored. Moreover, existing approaches (e.g., tobacco cessation, vaccination, and chemoprevention) to manage and control this disease remain a challenge. Thus, in this review, we discuss potential future basic research that can assist in a better understanding of disease pathogenesis which may lead to novel and more effective preventive strategies for OSCC and OPSCC.

9.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 33(7): 1882-1887, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432464

RESUMO

With conventional cigarettes, the burning cone reaches temperatures of >900 °C, resulting in the production of numerous toxicants and significant levels of highly reactive free radicals. In attempts to eliminate combustion while still delivering nicotine and flavorings, a newer alternative tobacco product has emerged known as "heat-not-burn" (HnB). These products heat tobacco to temperatures of 250-350 °C depending on the device allowing for the volatilization of nicotine and flavorants while potentially limiting the production of combustion-related toxicants. To better understand how the designs of these new products compare to conventional cigarettes and different styles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), we measured and partially characterized their production of free radicals. Smoke or aerosols were trapped by a spin trap phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) and analyzed for free radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Free radical polarity was assessed by passing the aerosol or smoke through either a polar or nonpolar trap prior to being spin trapped with PBN. Particulate-phase radicals were detected only for conventional cigarettes. Gas-phase free radicals were detected in smoke/aerosol from all products with levels for HnB (IQOS, Glo) (12 pmol/puff) being similar to e-cigs (Juul, SREC, box mod e-cig) and hybrid devices (Ploom) (5-40 pmol/puff) but 50-fold lower than conventional cigarettes (1R6F). Gas phase radicals differed in polarity with HnB products and conventional cigarettes producing more polar radicals compared to those produced from e-cigs. Free radical production should be considered in evaluating the toxicological profile of nicotine delivery products and identification of the radicals is of paramount importance.

10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 19: 100248, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140669

RESUMO

Background: An average adult American consumes sulfur amino acids (SAA) at levels far above the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and recent preclinical data suggest that higher levels of SAA intake may be associated with a variety of aging-related chronic diseases. However, there are little data regarding the relationship between SAA intake and chronic disease risk in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between consumption of SAA and risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. Methods: The sample included 11,576 adult participants of the Third National Examination and Nutritional Health Survey (NHANES III) Study (1988-1994). The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disease risk score (composite risk factor based on blood cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glycated hemoglobin, insulin, and eGFR). Group differences in risk score by quintiles of energy-adjusted total SAA, methionine (Met), and cysteine (Cys) intake were determined by multiple linear regression after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, and dietary factors. We further examined for associations between SAA intake and individual risk factors. Findings: Mean SAA consumption was > 2.5-fold higher than the EAR. After multivariable adjustment, higher intake of SAA, Met, and Cys were associated with significant increases in composite cardiometabolic disease risk scores, independent of protein intake, and with several individual risk factors including serum cholesterol, glucose, uric acid, BUN, and insulin and glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.01). Interpretation: Overall, our findings suggest that diets lower in SAA (close to the EAR) are associated with reduced risk for cardiometabolic diseases. Low SAA dietary patterns rely on plant-derived protein sources over meat derived foods. Given the high intake of SAA among most adults, our findings may have important public health implications for chronic disease prevention. Funding: This study does not have any funding.

11.
J Addict Med ; 14(5): 409-414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The time to first cigarette (TTFC) of the day has been identified as the best single-item indicator of nicotine dependence. However, TTFC has not been extensively used in clinical settings and is not a criterion for tobacco use disorder, perhaps due to a lack of information about TTFC's predictive value. This review provides a synthesis of the accumulating literature on TTFC's relationships with nicotine dependence, identify gaps, and inform future clinical and epidemiologic research of potential uses of TTFC. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science ISI databases. We identified 16 articles examining the relation between TTFC and negative outcomes associated with high levels of nicotine addiction and Tobacco Use Disorders (eg, high levels of nicotine and toxicant exposure, progressive use over time, failed cessation, head-and-neck cancers). RESULTS: Earlier TTFC was consistently associated with greater likelihood of cessation failure and relapse, and higher levels of biomarkers of tobacco exposure. Several of these associations were found among both adult and adolescent smokers, and remained even after accounting for smoking behaviors (eg, cigarettes/day). CONCLUSIONS: Earlier TTFC is a key indicator of greater nicotine dependence. Knowledge of a smoker's TTFC may allow clinicians to accurately inform smokers of health risks and assign greater resources during cessation attempts. Smokers may be able to use TTFC to self-select cessation aids and accurately assess their unique smoking-related health risks. TTFC may be a better item than cigarettes/day for accurately quantifying dependence and risk in epidemiologic studies.

12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(4): 330-342, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781743

RESUMO

Head and neck cancer (HNC) risk prediction models based on risk factor profiles have not yet been developed. We took advantage of the large database of the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium, including 14 US studies from 1981-2010, to develop HNC risk prediction models. Seventy percent of the data were used to develop the risk prediction models; the remaining 30% were used to validate the models. We used competing-risk models to calculate absolute risks. The predictors included age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, alcohol drinking intensity, cigarette smoking duration and intensity, and/or family history of HNC. The 20-year absolute risk of HNC was 7.61% for a 60-year-old woman who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day for over 20 years, consumed 3 or more alcoholic drinks per day, was a high school graduate, had a family history of HNC, and was non-Hispanic white. The 20-year risk for men with a similar profile was 6.85%. The absolute risks of oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers were generally lower than those of oral cavity and laryngeal cancers. Statistics for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.70 or higher, except for oropharyngeal cancer in men. This HNC risk prediction model may be useful in promoting healthier behaviors such as smoking cessation or in aiding persons with a family history of HNC to evaluate their risks.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 19(1): 133-150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265848

RESUMO

This investigation evaluated the effectiveness and challenges of multiple recruitment methods, described as proactive, reactive, and combination methods, among adult African American smokers (N = 527) from economically disadvantaged urban communities enrolled to test progressively reduced nicotine content investigational cigarettes. The study evaluated success using descriptive statistics to measure the volume of phone calls and percentage of eligible participants per method. Reactive and combination strategies effectively prompted participants to call about the study. Combination methods yielded the highest eligibility rates. Findings demonstrate the unique recruitment successes within this population across a range of recruitment methods and may inform improved methods to recruit and engage African Americans in clinical trials.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 671-681, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919464

RESUMO

Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is a strong risk factor for incidence and premature mortality from several cancers. Our study aimed at quantifying the association between SEP and gastric cancer (GC) risk through an individual participant data meta-analysis within the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project". Educational level and household income were used as proxies for the SEP. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across levels of education and household income by pooling study-specific ORs through random-effects meta-analytic models. The relative index of inequality (RII) was also computed. A total of 9,773 GC cases and 24,373 controls from 25 studies from Europe, Asia and America were included. The pooled OR for the highest compared to the lowest level of education was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44-0.84), while the pooled RII was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.29-0.69). A strong inverse association was observed both for noncardia (OR 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.70) and cardia GC (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.22-0.99). The relation was stronger among H. pylori negative subjects (RII 0.14, 95% CI, 0.04-0.48) as compared to H. pylori positive ones (RII 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), in the absence of a significant interaction (p = 0.28). The highest household income category showed a pooled OR of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89), while the corresponding RII was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.72). Our collaborative pooled-analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between SEP indicators and GC risk. Our data call for public health interventions to reduce GC risk among the more vulnerable groups of the population.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(2): 273-279, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892637

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Spectrum research cigarettes have been developed with varying nicotine content for use in studies evaluating the effects of a regulatory policy reducing the permissible nicotine content in cigarettes. This study aimed to characterize the nicotine pharmacokinetic profile of Spectrum cigarettes. METHODS: Twelve daily smokers attended four sessions and had blood nicotine, exhaled carbon monoxide, and subjective effects measured before and after smoking either a single cigarette of their preferred brand or high (10.9 mg/cigarette), medium (3.2 mg/cigarette), or low (0.2 mg/cigarette) nicotine content Spectrum research cigarettes, in a double-blind design with order counterbalanced. RESULTS: The boost in blood nicotine concentration was dose-dependent, with a boost of 0.3, 3.9, and 17.3 ng/mL for low-, medium-, and high-nicotine content Spectrum cigarettes. The high dose Spectrum had a similar nicotine boost to the "preferred brand" cigarettes (19 ng/mL). Subjects took longer puffs on the low nicotine cigarettes, but smoked these cigarettes faster than other cigarette types. High nicotine Spectrum cigarettes reduced the urge to smoke more than other cigarette types. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that Spectrum research cigarettes produce blood nicotine absorption in a dose-dependent manner, and therefore, are appropriate for use in studies of nicotine reduction in cigarettes. IMPLICATIONS: This is the first study to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of Spectrum reduced nicotine content research cigarettes following an overnight abstinence. These data could provide evidence to regulatory agencies about the effects of reduced nicotine cigarettes when considering regulations on tobacco reduction.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/sangue , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/sangue , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S26-S28, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867647

RESUMO

In this commentary, we review results from laboratory studies and randomized clinical trials that have examined the effects of very low-nicotine-content cigarette use in smokers with mental health conditions and socioeconomic disadvantages. On the basis of scientific evidence to date, we conclude that a reduced-nicotine standard for cigarettes would likely reduce cigarette smoking in these populations, without increasing psychiatric symptoms or compensatory smoking.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Nicotina , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Produtos do Tabaco
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 63: 101615, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). However, less is known about the potential impact of exposure to tobacco at an early age on HNC risk. METHODS: We analyzed individual-level data on ever tobacco smokers from 27 case-control studies (17,146 HNC cases and 17,449 controls) in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Without adjusting for tobacco packyears, we observed that younger age at starting tobacco use was associated with an increased HNC risk for ever smokers (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.97). However, the observed association between age at starting tobacco use and HNC risk became null after adjusting for tobacco packyears (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.19). In the stratified analyses on HNC subsites by tobacco packyears or years since quitting, no difference in the association between age at start and HNC risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pooled analysis suggest that increased HNC risks observed with earlier age at starting tobacco smoking are largely due to longer duration and higher cumulative tobacco exposures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 108: 104454, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470076

RESUMO

As the number of regular smokers has decreased over the last decade, the prevalence of light (<10 cigarettes per day) and non-daily smokers has increased. As the FDA continues to develop regulations for tobacco products, understanding factors related to toxin exposure in all smokers is essential. The present study evaluated the relation between the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), as measured by its metabolite, and patterns of heavy smoking (>10 cigarettes per day), light smoking and non-daily smoking and the time to the first cigarette of the day (TTFC), a robust predictor of nicotine addiction, cessation failure, sleep disruption and other health indicators. Findings from a sample of 352 smokers suggest that among intermittent, non-daily and light daily smokers, TTFC of the day was associated with higher levels of NNK metabolite, an effect which was mediated by urinary cotinine levels, but not by the number of cigarettes smoked per day. This suggests these groups of smokers may be puffing each cigarette more intensely, thus increasing nicotine and toxin exposure, despite fewer overall cigarettes. These findings provide further information regarding toxicant exposure associated with lower-frequency smoking and has implications for future regulatory research approaches with lowered nicotine cigarettes and other tobacco products.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/urina , Nitrosaminas/urina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumantes , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(5): 397-404, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between head and neck cancer (HNC) risk and occupations. METHODS: We harmonized data on occupations in a pooled analysis of 8839 HNC cases and 13,730 controls in International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations of occupations and HNC risk. Population attributable fraction (PAF) for occupations was calculated using the formula PEC × (OR - 1)/OR. RESULTS: Trend of increasing HNC risk was found with increasing duration of employment for many occupations, including cooks (OR = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.68), cleaners (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.69), painters (OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.35). The PAF for a priori occupations was 14.5% (95% CI 7.1% to 21.9%) for HNC. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations between certain occupations and HNC risks, including for subsites, with a duration-response relationship.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Oral Oncol ; 94: 47-57, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at re-evaluating the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between the combined (or joint) effect of intensity and duration of cigarette smoking and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). We explored this issue considering bivariate spline models, where smoking intensity and duration were treated as interacting continuous exposures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We pooled individual-level data from 33 case-control studies (18,260 HNC cases and 29,844 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. In bivariate regression spline models, exposures to cigarette smoking intensity and duration (compared with never smokers) were modeled as a linear piecewise function within a logistic regression also including potential confounders. We jointly estimated the optimal knot locations and regression parameters within the Bayesian framework. RESULTS: For oral-cavity/pharyngeal (OCP) cancers, an odds ratio (OR) >5 was reached after 30 years in current smokers of ∼20 or more cigarettes/day. Patterns of OCP cancer risk in current smokers differed across strata of alcohol intensity. For laryngeal cancer, ORs >20 were found for current smokers of ≥20 cigarettes/day for ≥30  years. In former smokers who quit ≥10  years ago, the ORs were approximately halved for OCP cancers, and ∼1/3 for laryngeal cancer, as compared to the same levels of intensity and duration in current smokers. CONCLUSION: Referring to bivariate spline models, this study better quantified the joint effect of intensity and duration of cigarette smoking on HNC risk, further stressing the need of smoking cessation policies.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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