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2.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387246

RESUMO

Human coronavirus-associated myocarditis is known, and a number of COVID-19-related myocarditis cases have been reported. The pathophysiology of COVID-19-related myocarditis is thought to be a combination of direct viral injury and cardiac damage due to the host's immune response. COVID-19 myocarditis diagnosis should be guided by insights from previous coronavirus and other myocarditis experience. The clinical findings include changes in ECG, cardiac biomarkers, and impaired cardiac function. When cardiac MRI is infeasible, cardiac CT angiography with delayed myocardial imaging may serve to exclude significant coronary artery disease and identify myocardial inflammatory patterns. Because many COVID-19 patients have cardiovascular comorbidities, myocardial infarction should be considered. Where the diagnosis remains uncertain, an endomyocardial biopsy may help identify active cardiac infection through viral genome amplification and possibly refine the treatment risks of systemic immunosuppression. Arrhythmias are not uncommon in the COVID-19 patients; however, its pathophysiology is still speculative. Nevertheless, clinicians should be vigilant to provide prompt monitoring and treatments. The long-term impact of COVID-19 myocarditis, including in the majority of mild cases remains unknown.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) little is known about the clinical impact of catheter ablation (CA) of septal ventricular tachycardia (VT) resulting in the collateral injury of the conduction system (CICS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-five consecutive patients with NICM underwent CA of septal VT. Outcomes in patients with no baseline conduction abnormalities who developed CICS (group 1, n = 28 [29%]) were compared to patients with no CICS (group 2, n = 17 [18%]) and to patients with preexisting conduction abnormalities or biventricular pacing (group 3, n = 50 [53%]). Group-1 patients were younger, had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and a lower prevalence of New York Heart Association III/IV class compared to group 3 while no significant differences were observed with group 2. After a median follow-up of 15 months, VT recurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 12% in group 2 (P = .94) and 32% in group 3 (P = .08) while death/transplant occurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 18% in group 2 (P = .69) and 28% in group 3 (P = .15). A worsening of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (median LVEF variation, -5%) was observed in group 1 compared to group 2 (median LVEF variation, 0%; P < .01) but not group-3 patients (median LVEF variation, -4%; P = .08) with a consequent higher need for new biventricular pacing in group 1 (43%) compared to group 2 (12%; P = .03) and group 3 (16%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NICM and septal substrate, sparing the abnormal substrate harboring the conduction system provides acceptable VT control while preventing a worsening of the systolic function.

4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(3): 272-281, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study describes the technique and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation via a superior approach in patients with interrupted or absent inferior vena cavas (IVCs). BACKGROUND: In patients with interrupted or absent IVCs, transseptal access cannot be obtained via standard femoral venous access. In these patients, alternative strategies are necessary to permit catheter ablation in the left atrium (LA). This study reports on the outcomes of AF ablation from a superior venous access with a radiofrequency (RF)-assisted transseptal puncture (TSP) technique. METHODS: This study identified patients with interrupted or absent IVCs who underwent AF ablation via a superior approach at 2 ablation centers from 2010 to 2019. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (mean age: 50.8 ± 11.2 years; 10 men; 10 with paroxysmal AF) with interrupted or absent IVCs underwent AF ablation with transseptal access via a superior approach. Successful TSP was performed either with a manually bent RF transseptal needle (early cases: n = 4) or using a RF wire (late cases: n = 11); this approach permitted LA mapping and ablation in all patients. Mean time required to perform single (n = 8) or double (n = 7) TSP was 16.1 ± 4.8 min, and mean total procedure time was 227.9 ± 120.7 min (fluoroscopy time: 57.0 ± 28.5 min). LA mapping and ablation were successfully performed in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation and who had a standard transseptal approach via femoral venous approach is impossible due to anatomic constraints, RF-assisted transseptal access via a superior approach can be an effective alternative strategy to permit LA mapping and ablation.

5.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(2): 221-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine clinical characteristics of procedural and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing catheter ablation (CA) of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OT-VAs) over 16 years. BACKGROUND: CA is an effective treatment strategy for OT-VAs. METHODS: Patients undergoing CA for OT-VAs from 1999 to 2015 were divided into 3 periods: 1999 to 2004 (early), 2005 to 2010 (middle), and 2011 to 2015 (recent). Successful ablation site (right ventricular OT, aortic cusps/left ventricular OT, or coronary venous system/epicardium), VA morphology (right bundle branch block or left bundle branch block), and acute and clinical success rates were assessed. RESULTS: Six hundred eighty-two patients (336 female) were included (early: n = 97; middle: n = 204; recent: n = 381). Over time there was increase in use of irrigated ablation catheters and electroanatomic mapping, and more VAs were ablated from the aortic cusp/left ventricular OT or coronary venous system/epicardium (14% vs. 45% vs. 56%; p < 0.0001). Acute procedural success was achieved in 585 patients (86%) and was similar between groups (82% vs. 84% vs. 88%; p = 0.27). Clinical success was also similar between groups (86% vs. 87% vs. 88%; p = 0.94), but more patients in earlier periods required repeat ablation (18% vs. 17% vs. 9%; p = 0.02). Overall complication rate was 2% (similar between groups). CONCLUSIONS: Over a 16-year period there was an increase in patients undergoing CA for OT-VTs, with more ablations performed at non-right ventricular outflow tract locations using electroanatomic mapping and irrigated-tip catheters. Over time, single procedure success has improved and complications have remained limited.

6.
Skeletal Radiol ; 49(6): 903-912, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the added value of serial 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake analysis in predicting clinical response to treatment in infectious spondylodiscitis (IS). We sought to analyze changes in quantitative FDG-PET/CT parameters among patients with clinical response or treatment failure and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of serial FDG-PET/CT and MRI in predicting treatment response in IS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 68 FDG-PET/CT examinations in 34 patients performed before and after at least 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. Serial MRI scans were available in 32 (94%) patients before and after treatment. FDG-avid lesions were quantified as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), partial-volume corrected lesion metabolic volume (LMV), and partial-volume corrected lesion metabolic activity (LMA). RESULTS: All FDG-PET/CT parameters significantly decreased in patients with clinical improvement (31/34, 91%, P < 0.001), while patients with disease progression did not show FDG-PET/CT improvement. FDG uptake decrease was similar between patients undergoing early assessment (< 6 weeks) compared with those performing FDG-PET/CT after 6 weeks of treatment. SUVmax, LMV, and LMA decrease over time was 39.0%, 97.4%, and 97.1%, respectively. In predicting clinical responses, SUVmax reduction > 15% and > 25% showed 94% and 89% sensitivity and 67% and 100% specificity compared with 37% and 50% of MRI, respectively. Low degree of agreement with clinical response was shown for MRI compared with FDG-PET/CT parameters using the Cohen kappa coefficient. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT monitoring is a valuable tool to predict clinical response to treatment in IS and has greater sensitivity and specificity compared with MRI.

7.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(12): 1162-1169, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) are the most common form of ventricular arrhythmia in the general population. While in most cases PVCs represent a primitive phenomenon with benign behavior, in a non-negligible proportion of subjects frequent PVCs may be epiphenomenon of underlying occult heart diseases, requiring special medical attention since they have been resulted linked to increased total and cardiac mortality. Nevertheless, PVCs themselves, when incessantly frequent, may be responsible for left ventricular dysfunction in otherwise normal heart. Aim of this narrative review is to update current knowledge on the general approach to patients with frequent PVCs on the basis of available data, with a special focus on the value of imaging. HYPOTHESIS: Routine diagnostic work-up not infrequently miss subtle concealed arrhythmic substrate, leading to erroneously refer to such arrhythmias as to "idiopathic". METHODS: Literature search of PVCs articles was conducted in PubMed and Scopus electronic database. RESULTS: Conflicting data arise from literature about the true clinical significance of idiopathic PVCs. There is growing body of data providing evidence that more advanced non-invasive imaging modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance, have an incremental diagnostic and prognostic value. On the other hand, in some cases the prognostic significance of isolated subtle myocardial structural abnormalities in patients with PVCs, still remains area of uncertainty. CONCLUSION: In selected subjects with PVCs and high-risk features for concealed arrhythmic substrate, traditional assessment to rule out the presence of heart disease, including surface ECG and transthoracic echocardiography, should be implemented with more advanced cardiovascular imaging modalities.

8.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(11): 2334-2343, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433089

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The majority of patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) present a perivalvular substrate that is either predominantly antero-septal (AS) or infero-lateral (IL), corresponding to specific ventricular tachycardia (VT) morphologies. The relative timing of far-field and near-field ventricular electrograms (EGMs) from stored implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) events of VT may be used to distinguish AS from IL VT in NICM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 48 patients with NICM with either a primarily AS (54%) or IL (56%) VT source undergoing catheter ablation between 2003 and 2018. Only patients with retrievable ICD-EGMs of spontaneous VT events which could be matched with VTs induced during the ablation procedure were included. A total of 56 VT events (52% AS origin and 48% IL origin) were analyzed, yielding a mean far-field to near-field interval of 31 ± 13 milliseconds for AS VTs and 47 ± 19 milliseconds for IL VTs (P = .001). At receiver operating characteristic analysis (AUC = 0.734), a far-field to near-field interval of ≥ 60 milliseconds ruled out AS VTs in 29 (100%) cases and diagnosed IL VTs with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 63%. An interval of ≤ 20 milliseconds ruled out IL VTs in 25 (93%) cases and diagnosed AS VTs with a PPV of 83% and NPV of 57%. Significant overlap between the two groups was observed among far-field to near-field intervals in between 20 milliseconds and 60 milliseconds. CONCLUSIONS: The relative timing of far-field and near-field EGMs from stored clinical ICD events of VT can be helpful to differentiate AS vs IL origin of VT in NICM.

9.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(7): 801-813, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the performance of established risk models in predicting outcomes after catheter ablation (CA) in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). BACKGROUND: A correct pre-procedural risk stratification of patients with NIDCM and VT undergoing CA is crucial. The performance of different pre-procedural risk stratification approaches to predict outcomes of CA of VT in patients with NIDCM is unknown. METHODS: The study compared the performance of 8 prognostic scores (SHFM [Seattle Heart Failure Model], MAGGIC [Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure], ADHERE [Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry], EFFECT [Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment-Heart Failure], OPTIMIZE-HF [Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure], CHARM [Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality], EuroSCORE [European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation], and PAINESD [Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Age > 60 Years, Ischemic Cardiomyopathy, New York Heart Association Functional Class III or IV, Ejection Fraction <25%, Presentation With VT Storm, Diabetes Mellitus]) for the endpoints of death/cardiac transplantation and VT recurrence in 282 consecutive patients (age 59 ± 15 years, left ventricular ejection fraction: 36 ± 13%) with NIDCM undergoing CA of VT. Discrimination and calibration of each model were evaluated through area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic curve and goodness-of-fit test. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 48 (interquartile range: 19-67) months, 43 patients (15%) died, 24 (9%) underwent heart transplantation, and 58 (21%) experienced VT recurrence. The prognostic accuracy of SHFM (AUC = 0.89; goodness-of-fit p = 0.68 for death/transplant and AUC = 0.77; goodness-of-fit p = 0.16 for VT recurrence) and PAINESD (AUC = 0.83; goodness-of-fit p = 0.24 for death/transplant and AUC = 0.68; goodness-of-fit p = 0.58 for VT recurrence) were significantly superior to that of other scores. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NIDCM and VT undergoing CA, the SHFM and PAINESD risk scores are powerful predictors of recurrent VT and death/transplant during follow-up, with similar performance and significantly superior to other scores. A pre-procedural calculation of the SHFM and PAINESD can be useful to predict outcomes.

10.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(7): 833-842, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize ventricular arrhythmia (VA) ablated from the basal inferoseptal left ventricular endocardium (BIS-LVe) and identify electrocardiographic characteristics to differentiate from inferobasal crux (IBC) VA. BACKGROUND: The inferior basal septum is an uncommon source of idiopathic VAs, which can arise from its endocardial or epicardial (crux) aspect. Because the latter are often targeted from the coronary venous system or epicardium, distinguishing between the 2 is important for successful ablation. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing ablation of idiopathic VA from the BIS-LVe or IBC from 2009 to 2018 were identified and clinical characteristics and electrocardiographs of VA were compared. RESULTS: Of 931 patients undergoing idiopathic VA ablation, Virginia was eliminated from the BIS-LVe in 19 patients (2%) (17 male, age 63.7 ± 9.2 years, LV ejection fraction: 45.0 ± 9.3%). QRS complexes typically manifested right bundle branch block morphology with "reverse V2 pattern break" and left superior axis (more negative in lead III than II). VA elimination was achieved after median of 2 lesions (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-6; range 1 to 20) (radiofrequency ablation time: 123 s [IQR: 75-311]). Compared with 7 patients with IBC VA (3 male, age 51.9 ± 20.1 years, LV ejection fraction: 51.4 ± 17.7%), BIS-LVe VA less frequently had initial negative forces (QS pattern) in leads II, III, and/or aVF (p < 0.001), R-S ratio <1 in lead V1 (p = 0.005), and notching in lead II (p = 0.006) were narrower (QRS duration: 178.2 ± 22.4 vs. 221.1 ± 41.9 ms; p = 0.04) and more frequently had maximum deflection index of <0.55 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The BIS-LVe region is an uncommon source of idiopathic VA. Distinguishing these from IBC VA is important for procedural planning and ablation success.

11.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(6): 719-727, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the impact of repeat catheter ablation (CA) prior to hospital discharge based on inducibility of clinical ventricular tachycardia (VT) during noninvasive programmed ventricular stimulation (NIPS). BACKGROUND: Inducibility of clinical VT during NIPS performed several days after CA identifies patients at high risk of recurrence. The impact of NIPS-guided repeat CA has not been reported. METHODS: Consecutive patients with structural heart disease undergoing CA of VT followed by NIPS were studied. Clinical VT was defined by comparison with 12-lead electrocardiograms and stored implantable cardioverter-defibrillator electrograms from spontaneous VT episodes. Among those with inducible clinical VT at NIPS, VT-free survival was compared between those in whom ablation was repeated (group 1) versus those in whom ablation was not repeated (group 2) prior to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Among 469 patients (64 ± 12 years of age; 85% males; 60% ischemic), 216 patients (46%) underwent NIPS 3 days (interquartile range: 2 to 4 days) after CA. Clinical VT was induced in 45 patients (21%). Among those 45, CA was repeated in 11 patients (24%). There were no significant differences in baseline clinical or index CA characteristics between groups 1 and 2. Over a median 36-month follow-up, only 1 patient (9%) in group 1 experienced VT recurrence compared to 24 patients (71%) in group 2 (p < 0.01). In univariate Cox regression, repeat CA guided by NIPS (hazard ratio: 0.07; 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.58; p = 0.01) was the only predictor of VT-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with inducible clinical VT during post-ablation NIPS, repeat CA was associated with significantly lower risk of subsequent recurrence.

12.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(8): 1174-1181, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with ischemic ventricular tachycardia (VT), substrate may be "protected" by the posteromedial papillary muscle (PMPM), explaining failure of endocardial-only ablation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the arrhythmogenic substrate and ablation approach in patients with ischemic VT mapped to the inferior left ventricle in which endocardial ablation failed because of inaccessible substrate underlying the PMPM. METHODS: We included 10 patients with recurrent ischemic VT, evidence of inferior scar, and failed endocardial ablation. In all patients, epicardial mapping was performed via a percutaneous (n = 9) or surgical (n = 1) approach, and VT elimination was achieved by ablation opposite to the PMPM. Clinical characteristics, electrocardiographic characteristics, and procedural data were analyzed. RESULTS: In all patients, intracardiac echocardiography showed hyperechoic scar below the PMPM, and 5 exhibited a pattern characterized by subendocardial basal scar that became intramural and epicardial at distal segments. In 4 patients, VT remained inducible despite endocardial scar isolation, manifested by the absence of electrograms, dissociated potentials, and/or exit block. Eleven inducible VTs were mapped to the epicardium underlying the PMPM: 8 had a right bundle branch block configuration with variable transition, while 3 exhibited left bundle branch block with negative concordance. An inferior QS pattern was present in 10 of 11 VTs. Noninducibility was achieved in 8 patients, and 7 patients remained arrhythmia-free after a mean follow-up of 27 ± 23 months. CONCLUSION: In patients with inferior ischemic scar, VT may arise from the area underneath the PMPM, limiting endocardial ablation. Intracardiac echocardiography accurately defines the substrate distribution, and an epicardial approach may eliminate VT. A pattern of "basal-endocardial/apical-epicardial" ischemic involvement is described.

13.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(9): 1414-1420, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation in structural heart disease have been reported to differ by sex. Whether this is due to differences in the underlying arrhythmogenic substrates among patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of arrhythmogenic substrates between women and men with NICM. METHODS: We analyzed 160 consecutive patients (26 women) with NICM who were undergoing VT ablation at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Of these 160 patients, 59 (13 women) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) before the ablation procedure. The arrhythmogenic substrate was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by CMR and/or detailed electroanatomic mapping. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in left ventricular scar percentage as defined by CMR (9.5% ± 7.8% in women vs 11.2% ± 8.6% in men; P = .5), endocardial bipolar voltage (<1.5 mV; 11.3% ± 19.3% in women vs 11.5% ± 16.3% in men; P = .4), endocardial unipolar voltage (<8.3 mV; 38.0% ± 30.8% in women vs 45.6% ± 30.9% in men; P = .2), or epicardial bipolar voltage (<1.0 mV; 21.5% ± 38.9% in women vs 10.7% ± 13.9% in men; P = .6). There were no significant differences in scar transmurality as defined by CMR (5 categories: endocardial, midwall, epicardial, transmural, and right ventricular endocardial). Similarly, there were no significant differences in scar distribution as defined by CMR or electroanatomic mapping (anteroseptal vs inferolateral). CONCLUSION: Scar percentage, transmurality, and distribution are similar between women and men with NICM.

14.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(6): 827-835, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common valve condition and has been associated with sudden cardiac death. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) from the papillary muscles (PMs) may play a role as triggers for ventricular fibrillation (VF) in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the electrophysiological substrate and outcomes of catheter ablation in patients with MVP and PM PVCs. METHODS: Of 597 patients undergoing ablation of ventricular arrhythmias during the period 2012-2015, we identified 25 patients with MVP and PVCs mapped to the PMs (64% female). PVC-triggered VF was the presentation in 4 patients and a fifth patient died suddenly during follow-up. The left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50.5% ± 11.8% and PVC burden was 24.4% ± 13.1%. A cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed in nine cases and areas of late gadolinium enhancement were found in four of them. A detailed LV voltage map was performed in 11 patients, three of which exhibited bipolar voltage abnormalities. Complete PVC elimination was achieved in 19 (76%) patients and a significant reduction in PVC burden was observed in two (8%). In patients in which the ablation was successful, the PVC burden decreased from 20.4% ± 10.8% to 6.3% ± 9.5% (P = 0.001). In 5/6 patients with depressed LVEF and successful ablation, the LV function improved postablation. No significant differences were identified between patients with and without VF. CONCLUSIONS: PM PVCs are a source of VF in patients with MVP and can induce PVC-mediated cardiomyopathy that reverses after PVC suppression. Catheter ablation is highly successful with more than 80% PVC elimination or burden reduction.

15.
PET Clin ; 14(2): 223-232, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826020

RESUMO

The increasing implementation of advanced cardiovascular imaging in the form of cardiac PET/CT has had a significant impact on the management of cardiac sarcoidosis, which continues to evolve. This review summarizes the role of PET/CT imaging in sarcoidosis with a specific focus on (1) indications, (2) patient preparation, (3) test performance, (4) study interpretation, (5) clinical relevance of findings, (6) comparison to alternative imaging modalities, and finally (7) introduction of areas of anticipated development and research.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/normas , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/tendências , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/tendências , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/tendências
16.
PET Clin ; 14(2): 281-291, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826025

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in patients with structural heart disease. In the last decade, advanced imaging modalities, such as cardiac MR and nuclear imaging, have progressively demonstrated to play a central role in the diagnosis and management of patients presenting with VAs. PET is acquiring a growing role thanks to its capability to assess different pathophysiologic aspects of the arrhythmogenic substrate by evaluating abnormal myocardial perfusion, presence of inflammation, myocardial viability, and sympathetic innervation. This review describes the principles and main clinical applications of PET imaging in the setting of VAs.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Recidiva , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(1): 28-38, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the substrate, procedural strategies, safety, and outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with aortic valve replacement (AVR). BACKGROUND: VT ablation in patients with AVR is challenging, particularly when mapping and ablation in the periaortic region are necessary. METHODS: We identified consecutive patients with mechanical, bioprosthetic, and transcatheter AVR who underwent CA for VT refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs and analyzed VT substrate, approach to LV access, complications, and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 29 patients (87% men, mean age 67.9 ± 9.8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 39 ± 10%) with prior AVR (13 mechanical, 15 bioprosthetic, 1 transcatheter AVR) underwent 40 ablations from 2004 to 2016. Left-sided mapping/CA was performed in 27 patients (36 procedures). Access was retrograde aortic in 11 procedures (all bioprosthetic), transseptal in 24 (13 mechanical; 10 bioprosthetic; 1 transcatheter AVR), or transventricular septal in 1. Periaortic bipolar or unipolar scar was detected in all 24 patients in whom detailed periaortic mapping was performed. Clinical VT circuit(s) involved the periaortic region in 10 patients (34%), 2 (7%) had bundle branch re-entry VT, and 17 (59%) had substrate unrelated to AVR. There were 2 major complications (both related to vascular access). Only 2 patients (9.1%) had VT recurrence. Over median follow-up of 12.8 months, 11 patients died (none as a result of recurrent VT). CONCLUSIONS: Whereas most patients undergoing CA for VT after AVR had VT from substrate unrelated to AVR, periaortic scar is universally present and bundle branch re-entry can be the VT mechanism. CA can be safely performed with excellent long-term VT elimination.

18.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 15(1): 12-23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251607

RESUMO

Ventricular Arrhythmias (VAs) may present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mildly symptomatic frequent premature ventricular contractions to lifethreatening events such as sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Myocardial scar plays a central role in the genesis and maintenance of re-entrant arrhythmias which are commonly associated with Structural Heart Diseases (SHD) such as ischemic heart disease, healed myocarditis and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. However, the arrhythmogenic substrate may remain unclear in up to 50% of the cases after a routine diagnostic workup, comprehensive of 12-lead surface ECG, transthoracic echocardiography and coronary angiography/ computed tomography. Whenever any abnormality cannot be identified, VAs are referred as to "idiopathic". In the last decade, Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging has acquired a growing role in the identification and characterization of myocardial arrhythmogenic substrate, not only being able to accurately and reproducibly quantify biventricular function, but, more importantly, providing information about the presence of myocardial structural abnormalities such as myocardial fatty replacement, myocardial oedema, and necrosis/ fibrosis, which may otherwise remain unrecognized. Moreover, CMR has recently demonstrated to be of great value in guiding interventional treatments, such as radiofrequency ablation, by reliably identifying VA sites of origin and improving long-term outcomes. In the present manuscript, we review the available data regarding the utility of CMR in the workup of apparently "idiopathic" VAs with a special focus on its prognostic relevance and its application in planning and guiding interventional treatments.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/patologia
19.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(6): 863-870, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of intramural septal ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) is challenging. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes of simultaneous unipolar RF ablation for intramural septal VT in NICM. METHODS: We included patients with NICM and mid-myocardial septal substrate referred for VT ablation. After failed prolonged sequential unipolar RF lesions, simultaneous unipolar RF was delivered using 2 open-irrigated catheters at the site of earliest activation and/or best entrainment or pace mapping and at an anatomically adjacent/opposite site (up to 40 W for up to 3 minutes; RF energy independently titrated for each catheter to achieve an impedance drop of at least 15% from the baseline values). RESULTS: A total of 6 patients (mean age 62±13 years; mean left ventricular ejection fraction 38%±17%) were included. The clinical VTs were mapped at the anterior interventricular septum in 2 (33%) patients and at the inferior septum in 4 (67%). In all patients, prolonged sequential unipolar RF at the best activation/entrainment/pace-mapping site and at an anatomically opposite/adjacent site failed to eliminate VT. In 3 cases (50%), late VT termination with VT reinducibility was observed after sequential unipolar RF. Simultaneous unipolar ablation was then delivered, resulting in VT elimination and noninducibility in all patients. No procedural complications and no steam pops were observed. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range 13-20 months), 4 patients (67%) remained free of VT recurrence. CONCLUSION: In patients with NICM and intramural septal VT refractory to conventional RF ablation, simultaneous unipolar RF ablation is a safe and effective alternative ablation approach to improve long-term VT control.

20.
Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev ; 7(4): 282-287, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588317

RESUMO

Radiofrequency catheter ablation (CA) has an established role in the management of patients with structural heart disease presenting with recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT). Due to the complex underlying substrate, high burden of comorbidities and concomitant heart failure (HF) status, these patients may be at higher risk of periprocedural complications. The prolonged low-output state related to VT induction and mapping, as well as the fluid overload due to irrigated CA and the use of general anaesthesia, may decompensate the HF status, leading to multiple-organ failure and increase in early post-procedural mortality. Proper identification of patients at high risk of periprocedural acute haemodynamic decompensation (AHD) has important implications in terms of procedural planning (i.e. prophylactic use of mechanical assistance devices) and pre-procedural management in order to optimise the HF status. In the present manuscript we focus on the clinical predictors of AHD and the strategies to improve pre-procedural risk stratification, as well as the evidence supporting the use of haemodynamic support during CA procedures.

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