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1.
Am J Surg ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis evaluates the safety and short-term oncological outcomes of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for gallbladder carcinoma(GBC). METHODS: Meta-analysis was performed on laparoscopic(LG) and open group(OG) studies. Data for survival outcomes were extracted from Kaplan-Meier curves and combined with Tierney's method to estimate hazard ratios(HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in overall survival(HR: 1.01), disease-free survival(HR: 0.84), 30-day mortality(RR:1.10), overall recurrence(RR:0.93), intraoperative gallbladder violation(RR:1.17), operative time(WMD:8.32), number of patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy(RR:1.06) and blood transfusion(RR: 0.81). A significant difference was seen in survival of T3 subgroup(HR:0.77) and number of lymph node dissections (LND)(WMD: 0.63) favoring OG, along with a decrease in postoperative complications(RR:0.65), greater incidence of R0 resections(RR:1.04), lower volume of intraoperative blood loss(WMD: 128.62), lower time in removing drainage tube(WMD: 1.35), shorter diet recovery time(WMD: 1.88), shorter hospital stay(WMD: 3.51), lower incidence of 90-day mortality(RR:0.49) favoring LG. A higher incidence of port-site recurrence(RR:1.99) was reported in LG. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery is non-inferior to the open approach in terms of oncological outcomes and has an improved rate of postoperative complications.

2.
Diseases ; 10(4)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36412598

RESUMO

Encephalitis, a well-known complication of measles, is inflammation of the brain parenchyma which is mostly due to the viral invasion of neurons. It presents with a variety of symptoms ranging from mild to severe depending on the extent of the damaged neurons. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms such as fever, headache, altered level of consciousness, focal neurological deficits, etc. A detailed history and physical examination facilitate the diagnosis. Investigations include blood tests for measles-specific antibodies, CT, MRI, and analysis of the CSF. The management of measles-induced encephalitis mainly revolves around prevention against contracting the disease and providing supportive care if acquired. The administration of the measles vaccine is the major means of preventing this disease in childhood. Two doses are required to achieve sufficient immunity against measles, the first at the age of 12-15 months and the second at 4-6 years of age. Supportive care includes administering acetaminophen for fever, oral rehydrating salt (ORS) for diarrhea and vomiting, antibiotics for otitis media and pneumonia, and using anti-epileptics such as sodium valproate for seizures. Vitamin A can be given to prevent severe effects in children. The specific treatment would depend on the type of encephalitis the patient has developed.

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