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Child Abuse Negl ; 121: 105268, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416472


BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a significant public health problem affecting one billion children aged 2 to 17 globally. The prevalence of CSA in Tanzania is one of the highest; however, how health care providers manage CSA cases has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated how medical, nursing, and midwifery professionals in Tanzania handle cases of CSA and identified the factors that facilitate or impede the provision of quality care to CSA victims. METHODS: Participants were 60 experienced healthcare professionals and 61 health students working in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted 18 focus groups stratified by profession (midwifery, nursing, or medicine) and experience (practitioners versus students). RESULTS: Three main themes emerged. First, child abuse management involved using a multi-disciplinary approach, including proper history taking, physical assessment, treatment, and referral. Second, factors that enhanced disclosure of CSA included building rapport, privacy, and confidentiality. Third, factors that impeded care included fear of harm to the child if the abuse was reported, abuse reporting being perceived as a "waste of time" for providers, loss of evidence from the victim, family resistance, poverty, corruption and cultural dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Midwives, nurses and doctors were all experienced in and reported similar challenges in addressing CSA. At a structural level, the ratio of providers to patients in health facilities inhibits quality care. These findings have implications for strengthening CSA policy/guidelines and clinical practice in Tanzania. Mandated CSA training is necessary for midwifery, nursing, and medical students as well as in continuing education courses for more experienced providers.

J Sex Med ; 18(10): 1690-1697, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452866


BACKGROUND: Across Africa, there are strong cultural taboos against masturbation. AIM: As part of a broader study investigating sexual health training needs of the health providers, researchers conducted a study to investigate how masturbation is addressed as a clinical issue in clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study design conducted in June 2019 involving 18 focus groups among health care providers and students in the health professions (midwives, nurses, medical doctors). A total of 61 health care students and 58 health providers were interviewed. The study participants were purposively selected and the design was purposively stratified to examine findings across the 3 main health care providers and by experience (clinicians vs students). A semistructured interview guide in Kiswahili language was used. The study participants were presented a case scenario of a 14-year-old boy who was found masturbating in his room by his father, and asked how this case would be handled in a clinical setting. Data were transcribed in Kiswahili and Translated to English. OUTCOMES: Inductive-deductive thematic analysis was performed. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Two main themes emerged: (i) knowledge about the management of masturbation and (ii) views about the effects of masturbation. Clinical interventions providers would try to include normalization of masturbation as a pubescent behavior combined with advice to stop the adolescent from masturbating, a recommendation to watch for negative effects immediately postmasturbation, and referral to a psychologist for treatment. Across providers and students, masturbation in adolescence was seen as clinically problematic, potentially leading to multiple issues in adulthood including sexual dissatisfaction with a spouse, psychological dependency, and erectile dysfunction, loss of sexual sensitivity in intercourse, premature ejaculation, and penis size reduction. Several participants mentioned they received no training about masturbation to guide their clinical practice. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: These findings affirm the need for comprehensive sexual health training in Tanzanian universities. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Use of stratified design by profession and experience allowed to explore if there appear to be differences between students and experienced providers. The findings cannot be generalizable to all health professional students and providers across Tanzania. CONCLUSION: When designing sexual health curricula for Tanzania, it is important to include accurate information about masturbation as a normal and healthy sexual practice to address widely held myths about its effects on health, and to train providers in how to counsel when concerns and inaccurate information are brought to the clinical encounter. Mushy SE, Rosser BRS, Ross MW, et al. The Management of Masturbation as a Sexual Health Issue in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Qualitative Study of Health Professionals' and Medical Students' Perspectives. J Sex Med 2021;18:1690-1697.

Reprod Health ; 18(1): 170, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372864


BACKGROUND: The use of a decision aid in clinical settings has been beneficial. It informs and educates patients about the available treatment options that can help them reduce decision-making conflicts related to feeling uninformed compared with routine care. There is a scarcity of published data about using a decision aid during family planning counseling with postpartum women focusing on long-acting reversible contraception in Tanzania. Therefore, we developed a "postpartum Green Star family planning decision aid" and assessed its feasibility. The study outcomes were practicality, usefulness, and acceptability perceived by pregnant adolescents and nurses/midwives. METHODS: We used an exploratory qualitative in-depth interview involving six nurses/midwives with three or more years of experience in family planning services and 12 pregnant adolescents aged 15-19 years. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants, and selection relied on the saturation principle of data collection. We used a semi-structured interview guide translated into the Kiswahili language. Data were transcribed and analyzed following inductive content analysis. RESULTS: The amount of information presented was just right, with the time of reading the data ranging from 20 min to 1 h. The study participants perceived the flow of information to be good, with small significant changes suggested. Kiswahili language was used and reported to be appropriate and well elaborated. However, a few words were told to be rephrased to reduce ambiguity. The nurses/midwives said that the decision aid included most of the vital information the participants wanted to know during their family planning counseling. Pregnant adolescents stated that the decision aid improved their knowledge and provided new details on the long-acting reversible contraception methods (intrauterine copper devices and implants) offered immediately after childbirth. The participants stated that the decision aid addressed long-acting reversible contraception methods' benefits and side effects and dispelled myths and misconceptions. The study participants considered the decision aid helpful in complementing the family planning counseling offered and improving pregnant adolescents' knowledge. CONCLUSION: The postpartum Green Star family planning decision aid was practical, useful, and acceptable in enhancing the objectivity of counseling about long-acting reversible contraception methods. It improved the knowledge of pregnant adolescents in Tanzania about the available contraception methods (i.e., the use of intrauterine copper devices and implants), which can be immediately used postpartum. Further research is needed to assess the effects of the decision aid on long-acting reversible contraception postpartum uptake among pregnant adolescents in Tanzania.

Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Período Pós-Parto , Adolescente , Anticoncepção , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Tanzânia
Int J Womens Health ; 13: 727-741, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335058


Introduction: Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and rape, although little is known about how these cases are handled in the clinical setting. Methods: We enrolled 121 health care professionals and students in Tanzania from the fields of midwifery, nursing and medicine, and conducted 18 focus group discussions stratified by both professional and clinical experience. Two clinical scenarios were presented across all groups and participants were asked to give their opinions on how the hospital they worked in would manage the cases. Case 1 focused on how to address a case of an injured woman beaten by her husband (and whether the perpetrator would be reported to the police). Case 2 focused on how to handle a rape victim who is brought to the hospital by the police. Results: Participants considered both cases as emergencies. There was a similarity in the clinical care procedures across both scenarios. This included building rapport with the patient, prioritization of the medical care, history taking, and referring to other specialties for follow-up. Participants differed in how they would handle the legal aspects of both cases, including whether and how to best follow mandated reporting policies. Providers wondered if they should report the husband in case study 1, the criteria for reporting, and where to report. Providers displayed a lack of knowledge about resources needed for sexual violence victim and the availability of resources. Conclusion: These findings indicate that cases of intimate partner violence and rape are likely to be under-reported within hospitals and clinics in Tanzania. Health care providers lack training in their required obligations and procedures that need to be followed to ensure victim's safety. The findings confirm that there is a need for health care students in Tanzania (and possibly Africa) to receive comprehensive training in how to handle such cases.

Sex Reprod Healthc ; 24: 100499, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050123


OBJECTIVES: Despite the accessibility of modern family planning (FP) methods, unwanted pregnancies remains a serious problem in Tanzania. This study aimed to identify the barriers to the uptake of modern FP methods among female youth reached by the Chaguo la Maisha project in Temeke District, Tanzania. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative study conducted in March 2017 involving 15 female youths aged 18-24 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Purposive sampling was used to select study participants and sampling followed the principle of data saturation. The study participants were those who received contraceptive counseling from community health mobilizers and agreed to visit a nearby health facility for FP services but did not go for the services. A semi-structured interview guide, translated into Kiswahili language was used. Data were transcribed; analyzed following qualitative content analysis. Major categories and subcategories that hindered visitations were identified. RESULTS: Three categories and their subcategories were identified as hindering FP method uptake. (1) individual perception factors: (a) myths and misconceptions, (b) fear of side effects, (c) fear of the possibility of being pregnant at the time of FP counseling; (2) community perception factors: discouragement from an intimate partner and closest friends; and (3) health facility system factors: unavailability of the preferred method and absence of the trained personnel for the FP method. CONCLUSIONS: The main barriers to FP uptake were myths and misconceptions, and fear of side effects. The intimate partner or closest friends were significant decision influencers on contraceptive use, implying that FP campaigns should focus beyond the individual level.

Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia/etnologia , Adulto Jovem