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1.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High uptake and optimal adherence to Option B+ antiretroviral therapy (ART) increase effectiveness in averting mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Option B+ ART uptake, early adherence, and associated factors need to be evaluated in Central Uganda. METHODS: A mixed approaches study was carried out in six health facilities in Masaka, Mityana, and Luwero districts from October 2013 to February 2016. Questionnaires were administered to 507 HIV positive pregnant females seeking antenatal care services. Key informant interviews were conducted with 54 health providers, and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 57 HIV positive women on Option B+ ART. Quantitative data were analyzed using log-binomial regression model to determine factors associated with optimal adherence (taking at least 95% of the prescribed ART), while thematic analysis was used on qualitative data. RESULTS: Ninety one percent of women (463/507) received a prescription of life long ART. Of these, 93.3% (432/463) started swallowing their medicines. Overall, 83% of women who received ART prescriptions (310/374) felt they were ready to initiate ART immediately. Main motivating factors to swallow ART among those who received a prescription were women's personal desire to be healthy (92.3%) and desire to protect their babies (90.6%). Optimal adherence to ART was achieved by 76.8% (315/410). Adherence was higher among females who were ready to start ART (adj. PR = 3.20; 95% CI: 1.15-8.79) and those who had revealed their HIV positive result to someone (adj. PR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.04-1.46). Facilitators of ART uptake from qualitative findings included adequate counseling, willingness to start, and knowing the benefits of ART. Reasons for refusal to start ART included being unready to start ART, fear to take ART for life, doubt of HIV positive results, and preference for local herbs. Reasons for non-adherence were travelling far away from health facilities, fear of side effects, non-disclosure of HIV results to anyone, and perception that the baby is safe from HIV infection post-delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Uptake of Option B+ ART was very high. However, failure to start swallowing ART and sub-optimal adherence are a major public health concern. Enhancing women's readiness to start ART and encouraging HIV result revelation could improve ART uptake and adherence.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912911

RESUMO

Large public-health training events may result in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Universal SARS-CoV-2 testing during trainings for the Uganda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment identified 28/475 (5.9%) individuals with COVID-19 among attendees; most (89.3%) were asymptomatic. Effective COVID-19 mitigation measures, along with SARS-CoV-2 testing, are recommended for in-person trainings, particularly when trainees will have subsequent contact with survey participants.

3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(3): e25674, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713571

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV-related risks may be exacerbated in humanitarian contexts. Uganda hosts 1.3 million refugees, of which 60% are aged under 18. There are knowledge gaps regarding HIV testing facilitators and barriers, including HIV and intersecting stigmas, among urban refugee youth. In response, we explored experiences and perspectives towards HIV testing strategies, including HIV self-testing, with urban refugee youth in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: We implemented a qualitative study with refugee cisgender youth aged 16 to 24 living in Kampala's informal settlements from February-April 2019. We conducted five focus groups with refugee youth, including two with adolescent boys and young men, two with adolescent girls and young women and one with female sex workers. We also conducted five key informant (KI) interviews with government, non-government and community refugee agencies and HIV service providers. We conducted thematic analyses to understand HIV testing experiences, perspectives and recommendations. RESULTS: Participants (n = 49) included young men (n = 17) and young women (n = 27) originally from the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC] (n = 29), Rwanda (n = 11), Burundi (n = 3) and Sudan (n = 1), in addition to five KI (gender: n = 3 women, n = 2 men; country of origin: n = 2 Rwanda, n = 2 Uganda, n = 1 DRC). Participant narratives revealed stigma drivers included fear of HIV infection; misinformation that HIV is a "Ugandan disease"; and blame and shame for sexual activity. Stigma facilitators included legal precarity regarding sex work, same-sex practices and immigration status, alongside healthcare mistreatment and confidentiality concerns. Stigma experiences were attributed to the social devaluation of intersecting identities (sex work, youth, refugees, sexual minorities, people living with HIV, women). Participants expressed high interest in HIV self-testing. They recommended HIV self-testing implementation strategies to be peer supported and expressed concerns regarding sexual- and gender-based violence with partner testing. CONCLUSIONS: Intersecting stigma rooted in fear, misinformation, blame and shame, legal precarity and healthcare mistreatment constrain current HIV testing strategies with urban refugee youth. Findings align with the Health Stigma and Discrimination Framework that conceptualizes stigma drivers and facilitators that devalue intersecting health conditions and social identities. Findings can inform multi-level strategies to foster enabling HIV testing environments with urban refugee youth, including tackling intersecting stigma and leveraging refugee youth peer support.

4.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(2): e26192, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV is the leading cause of mortality among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Uganda hosts over 1.43 million refugees, and more than 83,000 live in Kampala, largely in informal settlements. There is limited information about HIV testing uptake and preferences among urban refugee and displaced youth. HIV self-testing is a promising method for increasing testing uptake. Further, mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been effective in increasing HIV testing uptake and could be particularly useful among youth. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of two HIV self-testing implementation strategies (HIV self-testing intervention alone and HIV self-testing combined with an mHealth intervention) in comparison with the HIV testing standard of care in terms of HIV testing outcomes among refugee/displaced youth aged 16 to 24 years in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: A three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial will be implemented across five informal settlements grouped into three sites, based on proximity, and randomization will be performed with a 1:1:1 method. Approximately 450 adolescents (150 per cluster) will be enrolled and followed for 12 months. Data will be collected at the following three time points: baseline enrollment, 8 months after enrollment, and 12 months after enrollment. Primary outcomes (HIV testing frequency, HIV status knowledge, linkage to confirmatory testing, and linkage to HIV care) and secondary outcomes (depression, condom use efficacy, consistent condom use, sexual relationship power, HIV stigma, and adolescent sexual and reproductive health stigma) will be evaluated. RESULTS: The study has been conducted in accordance with CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines. The study has received ethical approval from the University of Toronto (June 14, 2019), Mildmay Uganda (November 11, 2019), and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (August 3, 2020). The Tushirikiane trial launched in February 2020, recruiting a total of 452 participants. Data collection was paused for 8 months due to COVID-19. Data collection for wave 2 resumed in November 2020, and as of December 10, 2020, a total of 295 participants have been followed-up. The third, and final, wave of data collection will be conducted between February and March 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This study will contribute to the knowledge of differentiated HIV testing implementation strategies for urban refugee and displaced youth living in informal settlements. We will share the findings in peer-reviewed manuscripts and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04504097; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04504097. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/26192.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With countries moving towards the World Health Organization's "Treat All" recommendation, there is need to initiate more HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART). In resource-limited settings, task shifting is one approach that can address clinician shortages. SETTING: Uganda METHODS:: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test if nurse-initiated and monitored antiretroviral therapy (NIMART) is non-inferior to clinician-initiated and monitored ART (CIMART) in HIV-infected adults in Uganda. Study participants were HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and clinically stable adults. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of any of the following: all-cause mortality, virological failure, toxicity, and loss to follow up at 12 months post-ART initiation. RESULTS: Over half of the study cohort (1,760) was female (54.9%). The mean age was 35.1 years (standard deviation 9.51). Five hundred and thirty-three (31.6%) participants experienced the composite endpoint. At 12 months post-ART initiation, NIMART was non-inferior to CIMART. The intention-to-treat site-adjusted risk differences for the composite endpoint were -4.1 (97.5% CI = -9.8 to 0.2) with complete case analysis (CCA) and -3.4 (97.5% CI = -9.1 to 2.5) with multiple imputation analysis (MIA). Per-protocol site-adjusted risk differences were -3.6 (97.5% CI = -10.5 to 0.6) for CCA and -3.1 (-8.8 to 2.8) for MIA. This difference was within hypothesized margins (6%) for non-inferiority. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses were non-inferior to clinicians for initiation and monitoring of ART. Task shifting to trained nurses is a viable means to increase access to ART. Future studies should evaluate NIMART for other groups (e.g., children, adolescents, and unstable patients).

6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 498, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV testing is the cornerstone for HIV care and support services, including Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Knowledge of HIV status is associated with better reproductive health choices and outcomes for the infant's HIV status. We analyzed trends in known current HIV status among pregnant women attending the first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Uganda, 2012-2016. METHODS: We conducted secondary data analysis using District Health Information Software2 data on all pregnant women who came for ANC visit during 2012-2016. Women who brought documented HIV negative test result within the previous 4 weeks at the first ANC visit or an HIV positive test result and/or own HIV care card were considered as knowing their HIV status. We calculated proportions of women with known current HIV status at first ANC visit, and described linear trends both nationally and regionally. We tested statistical significance of the trend using modified Poisson regression with generalized linear models. For known HIV positive status, we only analyzed data for years 2015-2016 because this is when this data became available. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the number of women that attended first ANC visits over years 2012-2016. The proportion of women that came with known HIV status increased from 4.4% in 2012 to 6.9% in 2016 and this increase was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Most regions had an increase in trend except the West Nile and Mid-Eastern (p < 0.001). The proportion of women that came knowing their HIV positive status at first ANC visit was slightly higher than that of women that were newly tested HIV positive at first ANC visit in 2015 and 2016. CONCLUSION: Although the gap in women that come at first ANC visit without knowing their HIV positive status might be reducing, a large proportion of women who were infected with HIV did not know their status before the first ANC visit indicating a major public health gap. We recommend advocacy for early ANC attendance and hence timely HIV testing and innovations to promptly identify HIV positive women of reproductive age so that timely PMTCT interventions can be made.

8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2875864, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550228

RESUMO

Background: In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) revised the 2012 guidelines on use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The new guidelines recommended lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women irrespective of CD4 count or clinical stage (also referred to as Option B+). Uganda started implementing Option B+ in 2012 basing on the 2012 WHO guidelines. Despite the impressive benefits of the Option B+ strategy, implementation challenges, including cost burden and mother-baby pairs lost to follow-up, threatened its overall effectiveness. The researchers were unable to identify any studies conducted to assess costs and cost drivers associated with provision of Option B+ services to mother-baby pairs in HIV care in Uganda. Therefore, this study determined costs and cost drivers of providing Option B+ services to mother-baby pairs over a two-year period (2014-2015) in selected health facilities in Jinja district, Uganda. Methods: The estimated costs of providing Option B+ to mother-baby pairs derived from the provider perspective were evaluated at four health centres (HC) in Jinja district. A retrospective, ingredient-based costing approach was used to collect data for 2014 as base year using a standardized cost data capture tool. All costs were valued in United States dollars (USD) using the 2014 midyear exchange rate. Costs incurred in the second year (2015) were obtained by inflating the 2014 costs by the ratio of 2015 and 2014 USA Gross Domestic Product (GDP) implicit price deflator. Results: The average total cost of Option B+ services per HC was 66,512.7 (range: 32,168.2-102,831.1) USD over the 2-year period. The average unit cost of Option B+ services per mother-baby pair was USD 441.9 (range: 422.5-502.6). ART for mothers was the biggest driver of total mean costs (percent contribution: 62.6%; range: 56.0%-65.5%) followed by facility personnel (percent contribution: 8.2%; range: 7.7%-11.6%), and facility-level monitoring and quality improvement (percent contribution: 6.0%; range: 3.2%-12.3%). Conclusions and Recommendations. ART for mothers was the major cost driver. Efforts to lower the cost of ART for PMTCT would make delivery of Option B+ affordable and sustainable.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459822

RESUMO

Uganda adopted the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) as part its preferred first-line HIV treatment regimen in 2018. Prior to the national rollout, the Uganda Ministry of Health and Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) launched a pilot study in July 2017 aimed at better understanding patients' and prescribers' experience and acceptability of DTG. Patients were enrolled in the study if they were newly initiating treatment or switched from an NNRTI regimen due to intolerance. Patients were followed up for 6 months after initiation onto DTG and acceptability and experiences were assessed through questionnaires at one-month and six-month follow-up visits. In addition to acceptability side effects of patients on DTG regimens were assessed. Analysis was conducted using MS Excel and SAS 9.4 and confidence intervals were adjusted for facility level clustering. A total of 365 patients from 6 study sites were enrolled in the study, of whom 50% were treatment-experienced and 50% treatment naïve. 325 patients completed the 6 months of follow-up. Survey results showed a high level of acceptability (more than 90%) of DTG-containing regimens for both categories of patients during the from one-month and six-months interviews. The rate of self-reported side effects amongst patients was 33% overall and higher for experienced (37%) than naïve (29%) patients at 6 months. Although frequencies declined between month-1 and month-6, the changes were not statistically significant. Almost all patients (94%) were virally suppressed at 6 months. Overall, the study findings showed a very high level of acceptability of Dolutegravir-based regimens across both experienced and naïve patients. The overall viral suppression rate in this cohort was 94% at six months of taking DTG-based regimen.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Piperazinas , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridonas , Uganda , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
10.
AIDS Res Ther ; 17(1): 28, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection constitute a deadly infectious disease synergy disease and major public health problem throughout the world. The risk of developing active TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is 21 times higher than the rest of the world population. The overlap of latent TB infection and HIV infection has resulted in marked increases in TB incidence in countries with dual epidemics. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the single most significant way to reduce incident TB in PLHIV, besides early ART initiation, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is the key intervention to prevent TB among PLHIV. This prospective cohort and longitudinal study aimed to document; retention, adherence, development of active TB disease, possible adverse drug reactions and completion among patients initiated on IPT in Jan 2019. METHODS: This was both a prospective cohort and longitudinal study nested within a national quality improvement collaborative in which multiple quality improvement teams tested changes in care delivery to improve the delivery of IPT. The prospective cohort were HIV patients without TB disease initiated on a dosage of Isoniazid 300 mg/day for adults and 150 mg/day for children for a period of 6 months. Association statistics were used to describe patient characteristics and outcomes. Variables with p-value < 0.05 were used to determine linear by linear associations between patient characteristics assumed to influence both primary and secondary outcomes. Variables with a p-value < 0.05 were included in the logistical regression model. The final model included those factors that retained statistical significance. The odds ratios (OR) and adjusted OR (AOR) along with its 95% confidence interval were used to determine the power of relationship in determining the outcomes of interest. The model was tested for fitness using goodness-of-fit Hosmer-Lemeshow tests. RESULTS: The completion of IPT was at 89%. A significant proportion of patients adhered to treatment (89%) and kept their appointment schedules-retention (89%). All patients (100%) received IPT at each appointment visit. Only 4% of patients experienced side effects of isoniazid (INH) but none of them developed active TB at the end of the 6 month INH dose. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of covariates of IPT completion revealed a strong and statistical association between IPT completion and age, gender, retention and side effects of INH. Our multivariate model found that children below 15 years were less likely to complete INH than patients ≥ 15 years (AOR = 0.416, p = 0.230, df = 1). Female patients were 2 times more likely to complete INH dose than male patients (AOR = 1.598, p = 0.018). Patients who kept all their appointment schedules were 10 times more likely to complete IPT than those who missed one or more schedules (AOR = 10.726, p = 0.000, df = 1). We also found that patients who did not report any side effects associated with INH were 2 times more likely to complete INH (AOR = 1.958, p = 0.016, df = 1) than patients who reported one or more side effects. CONCLUSION: Treatment completion is the end-point of the IPT initiation strategy in Uganda. With a completion rate of 89%, our results seem re-assuring and suggest that improvement collaborative is an effective approach to achieving results through combined efforts. The high rates of completion are encouraging indicators of progress in the implementation of collaborative activities in the study setting. However, such collaboratives would require periodic evaluation to prevent possible relapses in progress attained.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287264

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) there is a need to monitor programme performance to maximize ART efficacy and to prevent emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). In keeping with the elements of the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidance we carried out a nationally representative assessment of early warning indicators (EWI) at 304 randomly selected ART service outlets in Uganda. METHODS: Retrospective patient data was extracted for the six EWIs for HIVDR including; on-time antiretroviral (ARV) drug pick-up, patient retention on ART at 12 months, ART dispensing practices, ARV drug stock-outs, viral load suppression (VLS) and viral load (VL) testing completion. Point prevalence for each clinic and national aggregate prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all clinics were estimated and facility performances were computed and association between EWIs and programmatic factors assessed using Fisher's Exact Test. RESULTS: Facilities meeting the EWI targets: on-time pill pick-up was 9.5%, more facilities in the north met this target (p = 0.040). Retention on ART at 12 months was 24.1%, facilities in Kampala region (p<0.001) and Specialized ART clinics (p = 0.01) performed better in this indicator. Pharmacy stock-outs was 33.6%, with more facilities in Kampala (p<0.001), specialized ART clinics (p<0.001) and private-for-profit (p<0.001) meeting this target. Dispensing practices was met by 100% of the facilities. VLS was met by 49.2% and 50.8% of facilities met VL completion target with facilities in central region performing better (p<0.001). National prevalence for the EWIs was: on-time pill pick-up 63.3% (CI: 58.9-67.8); retention on ART at 12 months 69.9% (CI: 63.8-76.0); dispensing practices 100.0%; VLS 85.2% (CI: 81.8-88.5) and VL completion, 60.7% (CI: 56.9-64.6). CONCLUSION: Dispensing practices in all facilities were in line with the national guidelines however, there still remains a challenge to long-term ART programmatic success in monitoring patient response to treatment, and maintaining patients on ART without interruptions arising due to poor patient adherence and as a consequence of ARV supply interruption. It is therefore of high importance that the national ART program ensures intensified follow-up for patients, ensuring uninterrupted supply of ARV drugs and increasing VL monitoring at treatment centres, in order to improve patient outcomes and avert preventable HIVDR.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/provisão & distribução , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Carga Viral , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 27(3): 86-106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880507

RESUMO

Uganda, hosting over 1.3 million refugees, is a salient context for exploring HIV testing with urban refugee and displaced youth. We examined associations between stigma (HIV-related and adolescent sexual and reproductive health [SRH]-related) and HIV testing services awareness and HIV testing uptake among urban refugee and displaced youth in Kampala, Uganda. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with refugee and displaced adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) and adolescent boys and young men (ABYM) aged 16-24. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of an adolescent SRH stigma scale and identified a two-factor structure ("Sexual activity & pregnancy stigma","Modern family planning & abortion stigma"). We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine the adjusted risk ratio for HIV testing services awareness and testing uptake. Among participants (n=445; mean age=19.59, SD=2.60; AGYW: n=333; 74.7%), two-thirds were aware of HIV testing services in their community and over half (56.0%) had received a lifetime HIV test. In adjusted multivariable regression analysis findings with AGYW: (a) higher sexual activity & pregnancy stigma and modern family planning & abortion stigma were associated with reduced odds of HIV testing services awareness, and (b) modern family planning & abortion stigma was associated with reduced lifetime HIV testing odds. Stigma was not associated with HIV testing awareness/uptake among ABYM. HIV testing services awareness among AGYW was lower than among ABYM, yet AGYW were more likely to have been tested and to experience adolescent SRH stigma as a testing barrier. Addressing adolescent SRH stigma may optimise AGYW's HIV testing.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Refugiados , Saúde Reprodutiva , Estigma Social , População Urbana , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 799, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Female Sex workers (FSW) and their clients accounted for 18% of the new HIV infections in 2015/2016. Special community-based HIV testing service delivery models (static facilities, outreaches, and peer to peer mechanism) were designed in 2012 under the Most At Risk Populations Frame work and implemented to increase access and utilization of HIV care services for key populations like female sex workers. However, to date there is no study that has been done to access the preference and uptake of different community-based HIV testing service delivery models used to reach FSW. We assessed preference and uptake of the current community-based HIV testing services delivery models that are used to reach FSW and identified challenges faced during the implementation of the models. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study design using quantitative (interview with the health workers in facilities providing services to female sex workers and interviews with FSWs) and qualitative (interviews with Ministry of Health staff, health workers, district health team members, program staff at different levels involved in delivery of HIV care services, FSWs and political leaders to assess for the enabling environment created to deliver the different community-based HIV testing services to FSWs along the Malaba-Kampala highway. Malaba - Kampala high way is one of the major high ways with many different hot spots where the actual buying and selling of sex takes place. We defined FSWs as any female, who undertakes sexual activity after consenting with a man for money or other items/benefits as an occupation or as a primary source of livelihood irrespective of site of operation within the past six months. We assessed the preference and uptake of different community based HIV testing services delivery model among FSWs based on two indicators, i.e., the proportion of FSWs who had an HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) in the last 12 months and the proportion of FSWs who were positive and linked to care. RESULTS: Overall, 86% (390/456) of the FSWs had taken an HIV test in the last 12 months. Of the 390 FSWs, 72% (279/390) had used static facilities, 25% (98/390) had used outreaches, and 3.3% (13/390) used peer to peer mechanisms to have an HIV test. Overall, 35% (159/390) of the FSWs who had taken an HIV test were HIV positive. Of the 159, 83% (132/159) were successfully linked into care. Ninety one percent (120/132) reported to have been linked into care by static facilities. Challenges experienced included; lack of trust in the results given during outreaches, failure to offer other testing services including hepatitis B and syphilis during outreaches, inconsistent supply of testing kits, condoms, STI drugs, and unfriendly health services due to the infrastructure and non-trained health workers delivering KP HIV testing services. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the FSWs had HCT services and were linked to care through static facilities. Community-based HIV testing service delivery models are challenged with inconsistent supply of HIV testing commodities and unfriendly services.. We recommended strengthening of all HIV testing community-based HIV testing service deliverymodels by ensuring constant supply of HIV testing/AIDS care commoditiesoffering FSW friendly services, and provision of comprehensive HIV/AIDS health care package.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 214, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to HIV services among men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSWs) remains suboptimal globally. While the reasons for this dismal performance have been documented, limited evidence exists on the experiences, perceptions and readiness of health providers to provide HIV services to MSM and FSWs. METHODS: This analysis uses data collected from 48 key informants (health providers in public and private health facilities) as part of a larger study conducted in 12 districts of Uganda between October and December 2013. Data were collected on health providers' experiences and readiness to provide HIV services to MSM and FSWs and their perceptions on the effect of existing legislation on HIV services provision to MSM and FSWs. Data were captured verbatim, transcribed and analyzed following a thematic framework approach. RESULTS: All health providers reported that they had ever provided HIV services to FSWs and a majority of them were comfortable serving them. However, no health provider had ever served MSM. When asked if they would be willing to serve MSM, nearly three-quarters of the health providers indicated that they would be bound by the call of duty to serve them. However, some health providers reported that they "would feel very uncomfortable" handling MSM because they engage in "a culture imported into our country". A majority of the health providers felt that they did not have adequate skills to effectively serve MSM and called for specific training to improve their clinical skills. There were mixed reactions as to whether existing criminal laws would affect MSM or FSWs access to HIV services but there was agreement that access to HIV services, under the existing laws, would be more constrained for MSM than FSWs since society "does not blame FSWs [as much as it does] with MSM". CONCLUSION: A majority of the health providers were generally comfortable serving FSWs but there were strong homophobic tendencies towards MSM. A majority of the health providers lacked skills in how to handle MSM. Interventions aimed at improving health providers' skills in handling MSM while minimizing the negative attitude towards them are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Profissionais do Sexo , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Uganda
15.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 18: 2325958219833930, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836827

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uganda adopted Option B+ for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in 2012. However, there is limited data on preparedness and organization of Option B+ services. These data are critical in informing PMTCT programs and provision of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all populations. This study explored health providers' experiences of preparedness and organization of Option B+ services in Central Uganda. METHODS: Key informant interviews with 54 health providers from 6 health facilities in 3 districts were conducted. Thematic approach was employed to analyze data. RESULTS: Themes identified on preparedness were training of frontline health providers and provision of Option B+ guidelines, supervision and mentorship, and provision of essential medicines and medical health supplies, whereas those concerning organization were HIV counseling and testing, ART initiation, follow-up, and patient support mechanisms. Innovations like use of expert clients, assessing women's readiness to start Option B+, and retaining women in antenatal care clinic depending on the need are important in provision of Option B+. CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into preparedness and organization of Option B+ services which are important in provision of Option B+ and universal ART for all populations. Research around models of follow-up is recommended.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gestantes , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda
16.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198431, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949592

RESUMO

On 20 June 2015, a cholera outbreak affecting more than 30 people was reported in a fishing village, Katwe, in Kasese District, south-western Uganda. We investigated this outbreak to identify the mode of transmission and to recommend control measures. We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea between 1 June and 15 July 2015 in a resident of Katwe village; a confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae cultured from stool. For case finding, we reviewed medical records and actively searched for cases in the community. In a case-control investigation we compared exposure histories of 32 suspected case-persons and 128 age-matched controls. We also conducted an environmental assessment on how the exposures had occurred. We found 61 suspected cases (attack rate = 4.9/1000) during this outbreak, of which eight were confirmed. The primary case-person had onset on 16 June; afterwards cases sharply increased, peaked on 19 June, and rapidly declined afterwards. After 22 June, eight scattered cases occurred. The case-control investigation showed that 97% (31/32) of cases and 62% (79/128) of controls usually collected water from inside a water-collection site "X" (ORM-H = 16; 95% CI = 2.4-107). The primary case-person who developed symptoms while fishing, reportedly came ashore in the early morning hours on 17 June, and defecated "near" water-collection site X. We concluded that this cholera outbreak was caused by drinking lake water collected from inside the lakeshore water-collection site X. At our recommendations, the village administration provided water chlorination tablets to the villagers, issued water boiling advisory to the villagers, rigorously disinfected all patients' faeces and, three weeks later, fixed the tap-water system.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Poluição da Água/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/transmissão , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lagos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uganda/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Purificação da Água , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0192068, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013, Uganda adopted a test-and-treat policy for HIV patients 15 years or younger. Low retention rates among paediatric and adolescent antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiates could severely limit the impact of this new policy. This evaluation tested the impact of a differentiated care model called Family Clinic Day (FCD), a family-centered appointment scheduling and health education intervention on patient retention and adherence to monthly appointment scheduling. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial, from October 2014 to March 2015. Forty-six facilities were stratified by implementing partner and facility type and randomly assigned to the control or intervention arm. Primary outcomes included the proportion of patients retained in care at 6 months and the proportion adherent to their appointment schedule at last study period scheduled visit. Data collection occurred retrospectively in May 2015. Six patient focus group discussions and 17 health workers interviews were conducted to understand perspectives on FCD successes and challenges. RESULTS: A total of 4,715 paediatric and adolescent patient records were collected, of which 2,679 (n = 1,319 from 23 control facilities and 1,360 from 23 intervention facilities) were eligible for inclusion. The FCD did not improve retention (aOR 1.11; 90% CI 0.63-1.97, p = 0.75), but was associated with improved adherence to last appointment schedule (aOR 1.64; 90% CI 1.27-2.11, p<0.001). Qualitative findings suggested that FCD patients benefited from health education and increased psychosocial support. CONCLUSION: FCD scale-up in Uganda may be an effective differentiated care model to ensure patient adherence to ART clinic appointment schedules, a key aspect necessary for viral load suppression. Patient health outcomes may also benefit following an increase in knowledge based on health education, and peer support. Broad challenges facing ART clinics, such as under-staffing and poor filing systems, should be addressed in order to improve patient care.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Agendamento de Consultas , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 93, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482500

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recommends that countries conduct two phase evaluations of HIV rapid tests (RTs) in order to come up with the best algorithms. In this report, we present the first ever such evaluation in Uganda, involving both blood and oral based RTs. The role of weak positive (WP) bands on the accuracy of the individual RT and on the algorithms was also investigated. METHODS: In total 11 blood based and 3 oral transudate kits were evaluated. All together 2746 participants from seven sites, covering the four different regions of Uganda participated. Two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) run in parallel were used as the gold standard. The performance and cost of the different algorithms was calculated, with a pre-determined price cut-off of either cheaper or within 20% price of the current algorithm of Determine + Statpak + Unigold. In the second phase, the three best algorithms selected in phase I were used at the point of care for purposes of quality control using finger stick whole blood. RESULTS: We identified three algorithms; Determine + SD Bioline + Statpak; Determine + Statpak + SD Bioline, both with the same sensitivity and specificity of 99.2% and 99.1% respectively and Determine + Statpak + Insti, with sensitivity and specificity of 99.1% and 99% respectively as having performed better and met the cost requirements. There were 15 other algorithms that performed better than the current one but rated more than the 20% price. None of the 3 oral mucosal transudate kits were suitable for inclusion in an algorithm because of their low sensitivities. Band intensity affected the performance of individual RTs but not the final algorithms. CONCLUSION: We have come up with three algorithms we recommend for public or Government procurement based on accuracy and cost. In case one algorithm is preferred, we recommend to replace Unigold, the current tie breaker with SD Bioline. We further recommend that all the 18 algorithms that have shown better performance than the current one are made available to the private sector where cost may not be a limiting factor.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/métodos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/normas , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Uganda
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(1): 29-32, 2018 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329280

RESUMO

In 2016, an estimated 1.5 million females aged 15-24 years were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Eastern and Southern Africa, where the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (3.4%) is more than double that for males in the same age range (1.6%) (1). Progress was assessed toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2020 targets for adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa (90% of those with HIV infection aware of their status, 90% of HIV-infected persons aware of their status on antiretroviral treatment [ART], and 90% of those on treatment virally suppressed [HIV viral load <1,000 HIV RNA copies/mL]) (2) using data from recent Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) surveys in seven countries. The national prevalence of HIV infection in adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years, the percentage who were aware of their status, and among those persons who were aware, the percentage who had achieved viral suppression were calculated. The target for viral suppression among all persons with HIV infection is 73% (the product of 90% x 90% x 90%). Among all seven countries, the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women was 3.6%; among those in this group, 46.3% reported being aware of their HIV-positive status, and 45.0% were virally suppressed. Sustained efforts by national HIV and public health programs to diagnose HIV infection in adolescent girls and young women as early as possible to ensure rapid initiation of ART should help achieve epidemic control among adolescent girls and young women.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , África/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209167, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596676

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tetanus infection associated with men who had male circumcision has been reported in East Africa, suggesting a need for tetanus toxoid-containing vaccines (TTCV). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tetanus toxoid antibodies following vaccination among men seeking circumcision. METHODS: We enrolled 620 consenting men who completed a questionnaire and received TTCV at enrollment (day 0) prior to circumcision on day 28. Blood samples were obtained at day 0 from all enrollees and on days 14, 28 and 42 from a random sample of 237 participants. Tetanus toxoid (TT) IgG antibody levels were assayed using EUROIMMUN. Analyses included prevalence of TT antibodies at enrollment and used a mixed effects model to determine the immunological response. RESULTS: Mean age was 21.4 years, 65.2% had knowledge of tetanus, 56.6% knew how tetanus was contracted, 22.8% reported ever receipt of TTCV, and 16.8% had current/recently healed wounds. Insufficient tetanus immunity was 57.1% at enrollment, 7.2% at day 14, 3.8% at day 28, and 0% at day 42. Antibody concentration was 0.44IU/ml (CI 0.35-0.53) on day 0, 3.86IU/ml (CI 3.60-4.11) on day 14, 4.05IU/ml (CI 3.81-4.29) on day 28, and 4.48IU/ml (CI 4.28-4.68) on day 42. TT antibodies increased by 0.24IU/ml (CI 0.23, 0.26) between days 0 and 14 and by 0.023IU/ml (CI 0.015, 0.031) between days 14 and 42 days. Immunological response was poorer in HIV-infected clients and men aged 35+ years. CONCLUSION: Insufficient immunity was common prior to TTCV, and a protective immunological response was achieved by day 14. Circumcision may safely be provided 14 days after vaccination in HIV-uninfected men aged less than 35 years.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Imunidade Ativa , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Criança , Circuncisão Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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