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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of immunotherapy in hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer (BC) is underexplored. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The neoadjuvant phase II GIADA trial (NCT04659551, EUDRACT 2016-004665-10) enrolled stage II-IIIA premenopausal patients with Luminal B (LumB)-like BC (HR-positive/HER2-negative, Ki67 greater than or equal to 20% and/or histologic Grade 3). Patients received: three 21-days cycles of epirubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by eight 14-days cycles of nivolumab, triptorelin started concomitantly to chemotherapy, and exemestane started concomitantly to nivolumab. Primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR; ypT0/is, ypN0). RESULTS: A pCR was achieved by 7/43 patients (16.3%; 95%CI 7.4-34.9), the rate of Residual Cancer Burden class 0-I was 25.6%. pCR rate was significantly higher for patients with PAM50 Basal BC (4/8, 50%) as compared to other subtypes (LumA 9.1%; LumB 8.3%; p=0.017). Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), immune-related gene expression signatures, and specific immune cells subpopulations by multiplex immunofluorescence were significantly associated with pCR. A combined score of Basal subtype and TILs had an AUC of 0.95 (95%CI 0.89-1.00) for pCR prediction. According to multiplex immunofluorescence, a switch to a more immune activated tumor microenvironment occurred following exposure to anthracyclines. Most common Grade greater than or equal to 3 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) during nivolumab were: γ-glutamyltransferase (16.7%), alanine aminotransferase (16.7%), and aspartate aminotransferase (9.5%) increase. Most common immune-related AEs were endocrinopathies (all Grade 1-2; including adrenal insufficiency, n=1). CONCLUSIONS: Luminal B-like BCs with a Basal molecular subtype and/or a state of immune activation may respond to sequential anthracyclines and anti-PD-1. Our data generate hypotheses that, if validated, could guide immunotherapy development in this context.

2.
Semin Oncol ; 48(3): 208-225, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620502

RESUMO

In the recent years characterized by the cancer immunotherapy revolution, attention has turned to how to potentially boost and/or generate an efficient anti-tumor immune response in breast cancer (BC). Clinical activity of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 in BC has been more evident in the triple negative subtype and in earlier lines of the treatment. Remarkably, some responders to single agent ICB have achieved durable responses with metastatic disease, possibly as a result of treatment-induced immunological memory. However, most BC are immunologically quiescent and current research efforts developing ICB combinations are attempting to convert "cold" into "hot" tumors by manipulating the tumor microenvironment, expanding anti-tumor T cells improving efficient antigen presentation, and suppressing pro-tumor inhibitory cells. The aim of this review is to summarize existing data on the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockers as single agents and combination strategies in all BC subtypes, highlighting the BC subgroups that benefit most from ICB.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 700853, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552867

RESUMO

Women with pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have an increased risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer. There is, however, a high interpersonal variability in the modality and timing of tumor onset in those subjects, thus suggesting a potential role of other individual's genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors in modulating the penetrance of BRCA mutations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that can modulate the expression of several genes involved in cancer initiation and progression. MiRNAs are dysregulated at all stages of breast cancer and although they are accessible and evaluable, a standardized method for miRNA assessment is needed to ensure comparable data analysis and accuracy of results. The aim of this review was to highlight the role of miRNAs as potential biological markers for BRCA mutation carriers. In particular, biological and clinical implications of a link between lifestyle and nutritional modifiable factors, miRNA expression and germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are discussed with the knowledge of the best available scientific evidence.

4.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 15: 11795549211043427, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526833

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an acute respiratory syndrome caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread worldwide, significantly affecting the outcome of a highly vulnerable group such as cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical impact of COVID-19 infection on outcome and oncologic treatment of cancer patients. Patient and methods: We retrospectively enrolled cancer patients with laboratory and/or radiologic confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted to our center from February to April 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the clinical data and univariate analyses were performed to investigate the impact of anticancer treatment modifications due to COVID-19 outbreak on the short-term overall survival (OS). Results: Among 61 patients enrolled, 49 (80%) were undergoing anticancer treatment and 41 (67%) had metastatic disease. Most patients were men; median age was 68 years. Median OS was 46.6 days (40% of deaths occurred within 20 days from COVID-19 diagnosis). Among 59 patients with available data on therapeutic course, 46 experienced consequences on their anticancer treatment schedule. Interruption or a starting failure of the oncologic therapy correlated with significant shorter OS. Anticancer treatment delays did not negatively affect the OS. Lymphocytopenia development after COVID was significantly associated with worst outcome. Conclusions: COVID-19 diagnosis in cancer patients may affect their short-term OS, especially in case of interruption/starting failure of cancer therapy. Maintaining/delaying cancer therapy seems not to influence the outcome in selected patients with recent COVID-19 diagnosis.

5.
Cancer Med ; 10(19): 6855-6867, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of patients living after a cancer diagnosis is increasing, especially after thyroid cancer (TC). This study aims at evaluating both the risk of a second primary cancer (SPC) in TC patients and the risk of TC as a SPC. METHODS: We analyzed two population-based cohorts of individuals with TC or other neoplasms diagnosed between 1998 and 2012, in 28 Italian areas covered by population-based cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPC were stratified by sex, age, and time since first cancer. RESULTS: A total of 38,535 TC patients and 1,329,624 patients with other primary cancers were included. The overall SIR was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.12-1.21) for SPC in TC patients, though no increase was shown for people with follicular (1.06) and medullary (0.95) TC. SPC with significantly increased SIRs was bone/soft tissue (2.0), breast (1.2), prostate (1.4), kidney (2.2), and hemolymphopoietic (1.4) cancers. The overall SIR for TC as a SPC was 1.49 (95% CI: 1.42-1.55), similar for all TC subtypes, and it was significantly increased for people diagnosed with head and neck (2.1), colon-rectum (1.4), lung (1.8), melanoma (2.0), bone/soft tissue (2.8), breast (1.3), corpus uteri (1.4), prostate (1.5), kidney (3.2), central nervous system (2.3), and hemolymphopoietic (1.8) cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of TC after many other neoplasms and of few SPC after TC questions the best way to follow-up cancer patients, avoiding overdiagnosis and overtreatment for TC and, possibly, for other malignancies.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(20): 5482-5491, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301749

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the activity of niraparib in patients with germline-mutated BRCA1/2 (gBRCAm) advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BRAVO was a randomized, open-label phase III trial. Eligible patients had gBRCAm and HER2-negative advanced breast cancer previously treated with ≤2 prior lines of chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer or had relapsed within 12 months of adjuvant chemotherapy, and were randomized 2:1 between niraparib and physician's choice chemotherapy (PC; monotherapy with eribulin, capecitabine, vinorelbine, or gemcitabine). Patients with hormone receptor-positive tumors had to have received ≥1 line of endocrine therapy and progressed during this treatment in the metastatic setting or relapsed within 1 year of (neo)adjuvant treatment. The primary endpoint was centrally assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), PFS by local assessment (local-PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. RESULTS: After the pre-planned interim analysis, recruitment was halted on the basis of futility, noting a high degree of discordance between local and central PFS assessment in the PC arm that resulted in informative censoring. At the final analysis (median follow-up, 19.9 months), median centrally assessed PFS was 4.1 months in the niraparib arm (n = 141) versus 3.1 months in the PC arm [n = 74; hazard ratio (HR), 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-1.44; P = 0.86]. HRs for OS and local-PFS were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63-1.42) and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46-0.93), respectively. ORR was 35% (95% CI, 26-45) with niraparib and 31% (95% CI, 19-46) in the PC arm. CONCLUSIONS: Informative censoring in the control arm prevented accurate assessment of the trial hypothesis, although there was clear evidence of niraparib's activity in this patient population.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 153: 133-141, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153715

RESUMO

AIM: The Cher-LOB randomised phase II study showed that the combination of lapatinib-trastuzumab plus chemotherapy increases pathologic complete response (pCR) rate compared with chemotherapy plus either trastuzumab or lapatinib. Here, we report the post hoc survival analysis as per treatment arm, pCR and biomarkers. METHODS: The Cher-LOB study randomised 121 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, stage II-IIIA breast cancer. A specific protocol to collect recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) data was designed. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PAM50-intrinsic subtyping were evaluated at baseline. RESULTS: At 9-year median follow-up, a trend towards RFS improvement with lapatinib-trastuzumab over trastuzumab was observed (hazard ratio [HR] 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-1.05). Combining treatment arms, pCR was significantly associated with both RFS (HR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03-0.49) and OS (HR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03-0.49). TILs were significantly associated with RFS (HR = 0.978 for each 1% increment). Luminal-A subtype was a significant and independent predictor of improved RFS as compared with other PAM50-based intrinsic subtypes at the multivariate analysis including the most relevant clinicopathologic variables (HR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09-0.94, p = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Cher-LOB trial survival analysis confirmed the prognostic role of pCR and TILs and showed a signal for a better outcome with lapatinib-trastuzumab over trastuzumab. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00429299.

8.
Mol Diagn Ther ; 25(4): 409-424, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974235

RESUMO

Hormone-receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) (including the luminal A and the luminal B subtypes) is the most common type of tumor in women diagnosed with early-stage BC (EBC). It represents a highly heterogeneous subgroup that is characterized by different risks of relapse. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible role played by the immune response in predicting this risk, along with the most common clinical and pathological factors and molecular tools that have been developed and are already in use. As opposed to what has previously been observed in the most aggressive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes, a high proportion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)-reflecting a spontaneous and pre-existing immune response to the tumor-has been linked to a worse prognosis in HR+ EBC. This work provides some immune biological rationale explaining these findings and provides the basics to understand the principal clinical trials that are testing immunotherapy in HR+ (luminal) BC.

9.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(4): 573-584, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480963

RESUMO

Importance: ERRB2 (formerly HER2)-positive advanced breast cancer (ABC) remains typically incurable with optimal treatment undefined in later lines of therapy. The chimeric antibody margetuximab shares ERBB2 specificity with trastuzumab but incorporates an engineered Fc region to increase immune activation. Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of margetuximab vs trastuzumab, each with chemotherapy, in patients with pretreated ERBB2-positive ABC. Design, Setting, and Participants: The SOPHIA phase 3 randomized open-label trial of margetuximab plus chemotherapy vs trastuzumab plus chemotherapy enrolled 536 patients from August 26, 2015, to October 10, 2018, at 166 sites in 17 countries. Eligible patients had disease progression on 2 or more prior anti-ERBB2 therapies and 1 to 3 lines of therapy for metastatic disease. Data were analyzed from February 2019 to October 2019. Interventions: Investigators selected chemotherapy before 1:1 randomization to margetuximab, 15 mg/kg, or trastuzumab, 6 mg/kg (loading dose, 8 mg/kg), each in 3-week cycles. Stratification factors were metastatic sites (≤2, >2), lines of therapy (≤2, >2), and chemotherapy choice. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sequential primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) by central blinded analysis and overall survival (OS). All α was allocated to PFS, followed by OS. Secondary end points were investigator-assessed PFS and objective response rate by central blinded analysis. Results: A total of 536 patients were randomized to receive margetuximab (n = 266) or trastuzumab (n = 270). The median age was 56 (27-86) years; 266 (100%) women were in the margetuximab group, while 267 (98.9%) women were in the trastuzumab group. Groups were balanced. All but 1 patient had received prior pertuzumab, and 489 (91.2%) had received prior ado-trastuzumab emtansine. Margetuximab improved primary PFS over trastuzumab with 24% relative risk reduction (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.98; P = .03; median, 5.8 [95% CI, 5.5-7.0] months vs 4.9 [95% CI, 4.2-5.6] months; October 10, 2018). After the second planned interim analysis of 270 deaths, median OS was 21.6 months with margetuximab vs 19.8 months with trastuzumab (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.13; P = .33; September 10, 2019), and investigator-assessed PFS showed 29% relative risk reduction favoring margetuximab (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.86; P < .001; median, 5.7 vs 4.4 months; September 10, 2019). Margetuximab improved objective response rate over trastuzumab: 22% vs 16% (P = .06; October 10, 2018), and 25% vs 14% (P < .001; September 10, 2019). Incidence of infusion-related reactions, mostly in cycle 1, was higher with margetuximab (35 [13.3%] vs 9 [3.4%]); otherwise, safety was comparable. Conclusions and Relevance: In this phase 3 randomized clinical trial, margetuximab plus chemotherapy had acceptable safety and a statistically significant improvement in PFS compared with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy in ERBB2-positive ABC after progression on 2 or more prior anti-ERBB2 therapies. Final OS analysis is expected in 2021. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02492711.

10.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1455-1464, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, escalation or de-escalation of systemic therapy is a controversial topic. As an aid to treatment decisions, we aimed to develop a prognostic assay that integrates multiple data types for predicting survival outcome in patients with newly diagnosed HER2-positive breast cancer. METHODS: We derived a combined prognostic model using retrospective clinical-pathological data on stromal tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, PAM50 subtypes, and expression of 55 genes obtained from patients who participated in the Short-HER phase 3 trial. The trial enrolled patients with newly diagnosed, node-positive, HER2-positive breast cancer or, if node negative, with at least one risk factor (ie, tumour size >2 cm, histological grade 3, lymphovascular invasion, Ki67 >20%, age ≤35 years, or hormone receptor negativity), and randomly assigned them to adjuvant anthracycline plus taxane-based combinations with either 9 weeks or 1 year of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab was administered intravenously every 3 weeks (8 mg/kg loading dose at first cycle, and 6 mg/kg thereafter) for 18 doses or weekly (4 mg/kg loading dose in the first week, and 2 mg/kg thereafter) for 9 weeks, starting concomitantly with the first taxane dose. Median follow-up was 91·4 months (IQR 75·1-105·6). The primary objective of our study was to derive and evaluate a combined prognostic score associated with distant metastasis-free survival (the time between randomisation and distant recurrence or death before recurrence), an exploratory endpoint in Short-HER. Patient samples in the training dataset were split into a training set (n=290) and a testing set (n=145), balancing for event and treatment group. The training set was further stratified into 100 iterations of Monte-Carlo cross validation (MCCV). Cox proportional hazard models were fit to MCCV training samples using Elastic-Net. A maximum of 92 features were assessed. The final prognostic model was evaluated in an independent combined dataset of 267 patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer treated with different neoadjuvant and adjuvant anti-HER2-based combinations and from four other studies (PAMELA, CHER-LOB, Hospital Clinic, and Padova) with disease-free survival outcome data. FINDINGS: From Short-HER, data from 435 (35%) of 1254 patients for tumour size (T1 vs rest), nodal status (N0 vs rest), number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (continuous variable), subtype (HER2-enriched and basal-like vs rest), and 13 genes composed the final model (named HER2DX). HER2DX was significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival as a continuous variable (p<0·0001). HER2DX median score for quartiles 1-2 was identified as the cutoff to identify low-risk patients; and the score that distinguished quartile 3 from quartile 4 was the cutoff to distinguish medium-risk and high-risk populations. The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival of the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk populations were 98·1% (95% CI 96·3-99·9), 88·9% (83·2-95·0), and 73·9% (66·0-82·7), respectively (low-risk vs high-risk hazard ratio [HR] 0·04, 95% CI 0·0-0·1, p<0·0001). In the evaluation cohort, HER2DX was significantly associated with disease-free survival as a continuous variable (HR 2·77, 95% CI 1·4-5·6, p=0·0040) and as group categories (low-risk vs high-risk HR 0·27, 0·1-0·7, p=0·005). 5-year disease-free survival in the HER2DX low-risk group was 93·5% (89·0-98·3%) and in the high-risk group was 81·1% (71·5-92·1). INTERPRETATION: The HER2DX combined prognostic score identifies patients with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer who might be candidates for escalated or de-escalated systemic treatment. Future clinical validation of HER2DX seems warranted to establish its use in different scenarios, especially in the neoadjuvant setting. FUNDING: Instituto Salud Carlos III, Save the Mama, Pas a Pas, Fundación Científica, Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer, Fundación SEOM, National Institutes of Health, Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Veneto Institute of Oncology, and Italian Association for Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(22): 5843-5851, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We explored the prognostic effect of PIK3CA mutation in HER2+ patients enrolled in the ShortHER trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The ShortHER trial randomized 1,253 patients with HER2+ breast cancer to 9 weeks or 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy. PIK3CA hotspot mutations in exon 9 and 20 were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Expression of 60 genes, including PAM50 genes was measured using the nCounter platform. RESULTS: A mutation of the PIK3CA gene was detected in 21.7% of the 803 genotyped tumors. At a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 90.6% for PIK3CA mutated and 86.2% for PIK3CA wild-type tumors [HR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.27; P = 0.417]. PIK3CA mutation showed a favorable prognostic impact in the PAM50 HER2-enriched subtype (n = 232): 5-year DFS 91.8% versus 76.1% (log-rank P = 0.049; HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-1.02). HER2-enriched/PIK3CA mutated versus wild-type tumors showed numerically higher tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and significant upregulation of immune-related genes (including CD8A, CD274, PDCD1, and MYBL2, a proliferation gene involved in immune processes). High TILs as well as the upregulation of PDCD1 and MYBL2 were associated with a significant DFS improvement within the HER2-enriched subtype (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; P = 0.039 for 10% TILs increment; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99; P = 0.049 for PDCD1 expression; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.99; P = 0.042 for MYBL2 expression). CONCLUSIONS: PIK3CA mutation showed no prognostic impact in the ShortHER trial. Within the HER2-enriched molecular subtype, patients with PIK3CA mutated tumors showed better DFS versus PIK3CA wild-type, which may be partly explained by upregulation of immune-related genes.

12.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 15(1): 30-37, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231495

RESUMO

Background: Different studies suggest that fulvestrant 500 mg every 28 days (HD-FUL) could be an active treatment in HR+ advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients even treated with aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant setting. The aim of this analysis is to describe the outcome of ABC patients treated with HD-FUL as first-line treatment in terms of median duration of treatment and the overall response rate in a real-world setting. Methods: For the purpose of the present analysis, we considered two data sets of HR+ ABC patients collected in Italy between 2012 and 2015 (EVA and GIM-13 AMBRA studies). Results: Eighty-one and 91 patients have been identified from the two data sets. The median age was 63 years (range 35-82) for the EVA and 57.8 years (range 35.0-82.3) for the AMBRA patients. ORRs were 23.5 and 24.3% in the whole population, 26.9% in the patients with bone only, and 21.8 and 21.4% in those with visceral metastases. The median duration of HD-FUL was 11.6 months (range 1-48) and 12.4 months (range 2.9-70.0) in the two data sets, respectively. Conclusion: These data suggest that HD-FUL should still continue to play a significant role as first-line therapy in HR+ ABC patients.

13.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 149: 102927, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172224

RESUMO

Anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as trastuzumab are effective for all stages of HER2-positive breast cancer (BC). However, intrinsic or acquired resistance to these drugs may occur in a significant number of patients (pts) and, except for HER2 status, no validated predictive factors of response/resistance have been identified to date. This lack is in part due to the not yet fully elucidated mechanism of action of mAbs in vivo. Increasing evidence suggests a significant contribution of both innate and adaptive immunity to the antitumor effects of mAbs. The aim of this review was to describe the role of innate and adaptive immunity in the efficacy of anti-HER2 mAbs and to report known and novel strategies to be used for optimizing immune effects of anti-HER2 therapies for HER2-positive BC.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Humanos , Receptor ErbB-2/química
14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158689

RESUMO

A patient with HER2-positive early breast cancer (BC) developed dermatomyositis (DM), which disappeared after the first administration of adjuvant trastuzumab. No HER2 overexpression/amplification was observed in DM skin biopsies. Both BC and skin immune infiltrates were composed mostly of CD3+ T-lymphocytes. Interestingly, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes expressed PD-1, which was negligible in skin-infiltrating lymphocytes, while both BC cells and keratinocytes were PD-L1-positive. High serum levels of endogenous anti-HER2 antibodies were detected, confirming the induction of a HER2-specific adaptive immune response. It may be argued that HER2-specific T-lymphocytes cross-reacted with one or more unknown skin antigens, causing DM. Trastuzumab may have silenced skin cross-reaction by eliminating any residual HER2-positive micrometastatic disease and, thus, inducing DM remission.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019170

RESUMO

: Background: The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, inflammatory, and autoimmune conditions. Interest in salivary miRNAs as non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of malignancies and systemic diseases is rapidly increasing. The present systematic review was developed for answering the question: "Are salivary microRNAs reliable biomarkers for diagnosis of cancer and systemic diseases?" METHODS: The application of inclusion and exclusion criteria led to the selection of 11 papers. Critical appraisals and quality assessments of the selected studies were performed through the National Institute of Health "Study Quality Assessment Tool" and the classification of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. RESULTS: Seven studies reported statistically significant correlations between one or more salivary miRNAs and the investigated disease. The critical analysis allowed us to classify only two studies (18.2%) as having "good" quality, the rest being scored as "intermediate" (8; 73%) and "poor" (1; 9%). Evidence exists that salivary miR-940 and miR-3679-5p are reliable markers for pancreatic cancer and that miR140-5p and miR301a are promising molecules for the salivary diagnosis of gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies, possibly avoiding the risk of bias highlighted here, are necessary to consolidate these findings and to identify new reliable salivary biomarkers.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Inflamação/diagnóstico , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Saliva/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo
16.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 207, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging has introduced prognostic stage based on anatomic stage combined with biologic factors. We aimed to validate the prognostic stage in HER2-positive breast cancer patients enrolled in the ShortHER trial. METHODS: The ShortHER trial randomized 1253 HER2-positive patients to 9 weeks or 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy. Patients were classified according to the anatomic and the prognostic stage. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was calculated from randomization to distant relapse or death. RESULTS: A total of 1244 patients were included. Compared to anatomic stage, the prognostic stage downstaged 41.6% (n = 517) of patients to a more favorable stage category. Five-year DDFS based on anatomic stage was as follows: IA 96.6%, IB 94.1%, IIA 92.4%, IIB 87.3%, IIIA 81.3%, IIIC 70.5% (P < 0.001). Five-year DDFS according to prognostic stage was as follows: IA 95.7%, IB 91.4%, IIA 86.9%, IIB 85.0%, IIIA 77.6%, IIIC 67.7% (P < 0.001). The C index was similar (0.69209 and 0.69249, P = 0.975). Within anatomic stage I, the outcome was similar for patients treated with 9 weeks or 1 year trastuzumab (5-year DDFS 96.2% and 96.6%, P = 0.856). Within prognostic stage I, the outcome was numerically worse for patients treated with 9 weeks trastuzumab (5-year DDFS 93.7% and 96.3%, P = 0.080). CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic stage downstaged 41.6% of patients, while maintaining a similar prognostic performance as the anatomic stage. The prognostic stage is valuable in counseling patients and may serve as reference for a clinical trial design. Our data do not support prognostic stage as guidance to de-escalate treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EUDRACT number: 2007-004326-25; NCI ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00629278.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Genes erbB-2 , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico
17.
Front Oncol ; 9: 759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456944

RESUMO

Sensitivity to endocrine therapy of patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive metastatic breast cancer and germline BRCA1/2 mutations is not yet fully elucidated. Furthermore, the registration trials of CDK 4/6 inhibitors in combination with endocrine therapy lacked of a pre-specified subgroup analysis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We report clinical history of two patients with BRCA-mutated, ER-positive metastatic breast cancer treated with letrozole plus the CDK 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib. Biological and clinical implications of the treatment outcome observed in the two cases are discussed with the knowledge of scientific evidence to date available. Overall, biological rationale, preclinical, and clinical data support the prominent role of CDK 4/6 inhibitors plus endocrine therapy, even in combination with PARP inhibitors, in the treatment of BRCA-mutated, ER-positive breast cancers. However, the interaction between Cyclin/CDK pathway, ER and BRCA is complex and evidences reported so far, albeit reliable, await confirmation in the context of future randomized clinical trials.

19.
Oncotarget ; 9(61): 31877-31887, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present analysis focuses on real-world data of Everolimus-Exemestane in advanced HR+ve, HER2-ve elderly breast cancer patients (aged 65 years) included in the EVA study, with unique findings in those aged 70 years. METHODS: Data are collected from clinical records and analysed according to age cut-off (< 65 years; 65 - 69 years and {greater than or equal to} 70 years). Relationship of analyzed variables with response were tested by mean of a Mantel-Haenszel chi square test. Time to event analysis was described by Kaplan Meier approach and association with baseline characteristics was analysed by stratified log-rank test and proportional hazard model. RESULTS: From July 2013 to December 2015, the EVA study enrolled overall 404 pts. 154 patients out of 404 (38,1%) were aged {greater than or equal to} 65 years, of whom 87 were {greater than or equal to} 70 years. Median duration of EVE treatment was 28.5 weeks (95% CI 19.0 - 33.8) in patients aged 65-69 years and 24,4 weeks (95% CI 19,2 - 33,2) in those aged {greater than or equal to} 70 years. Fewer patients aged 65 years received the highest EVE Dose-Intensity (>7.5 mg/day) in comparison to younger patients (49,6% vs. 66,8%). Grade 3-4 toxicities occurred to 55 patients (35,7%), mainly stomatitis (10,9%), rash (5,8%) and non-infectious pneumonitis (NIP) (3,6%). Some toxicities, such as weight loss and anaemia were peculiarly observed in patients aged {greater than or equal to} 70 years. Five treatment-related deaths were collected (3,2%). CONCLUSIONS: EVE-EXE combination remains one of the potential treatments in HR+ patients also for elderly ones.

20.
IEEE Trans Haptics ; 11(2): 317-321, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927742

RESUMO

Smart materials such as magnetorheological fluids (MRF) offer an interesting technology for use in haptic displays as changes in the magnetic field are rapid, reversible, and controllable. These interfaces have been evaluated in a number of medical and surgical simulators where they can provide cues regarding the viscoelastic properties of tissues. The objective of the present set of experiments was first to determine whether a shape embedded in the MRF could be precisely localized and second whether 10 shapes rendered in a MRF haptic display could be accurately identified. It was also of interest to determine how the information transfer associated with this type of haptic display compares to that achieved using other haptic channels of communication. The overall performance of participants at identifying the shapes rendered in the MRF was good with a mean score of 73 percent correct and an Information Transfer (IT) of 2.2 bits. Participants could also localize a rigid object in the display accurately. These findings indicate that this technology has potential for use in training manual palpation skills and in exploring haptic shape perception in dynamic environments.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Eletrônica Médica , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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