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1.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836091

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally, associated with multifactorial pathophysiological components. In particular, genetic mutations, infection or inflammation, unhealthy eating habits, exposition to radiation, work stress, and/or intake of toxins have been found to contribute to the development and progression of cancer disease states. Early detection of cancer and proper treatment have been found to enhance the chances of survival and healing, but the side effects of anticancer drugs still produce detrimental responses that counteract the benefits of treatment in terms of hospitalization and survival. Recently, several natural bioactive compounds were found to possess anticancer properties, capable of killing transformed or cancerous cells without being toxic to their normal counterparts. This effect occurs when natural products are associated with conventional treatments, thereby suggesting that nutraceutical supplementation may contribute to successful anticancer therapy. This review aims to discuss the current literature on four natural bioactive extracts mostly characterized by a specific polyphenolic profile. In particular, several activities have been reported to contribute to nutraceutical support in anticancer treatment: (1) inhibition of cell proliferation, (2) antioxidant activity, and (3) anti-inflammatory activity. On the other hand, owing to their attenuation of the toxic effect of current anticancer therapies, natural antioxidants may contribute to improving the compliance of patients undergoing anticancer treatment. Thus, nutraceutical supplementation, along with current anticancer drug treatment, may be considered for better responses and compliance in patients with cancer. It should be noted, however, that when data from studies with bioactive plant preparations are discussed, it is appropriate to ensure that experiments have been conducted in accordance with accepted pharmacological research practices so as not to disclose information that is only partially correct.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836326

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (Doxo) is a widely used antineoplastic drug which often induces cardiomyopathy, leading to congestive heart failure through the intramyocardial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Icariin (Ica) is a flavonoid isolated from Epimedii Herba (Berberidaceae). Some reports on the pharmacological activity of Ica explained its antioxidant and cardioprotective effects. The aim of our study was to assess the protective activities of Ica against Doxo-detrimental effects on rat heart-tissue derived embryonic cardiac myoblasts (H9c2 cells) and to identify, at least in part, the molecular mechanisms involved. Our results showed that pretreatment of H9c2 cells with 1 µM and 5 µM of Ica, prior to Doxo exposure, resulted in an improvement in cell viability, a reduction in ROS generation, the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction and mPTP opening. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified one feasible molecular mechanism through which Ica could exerts its cardioprotective effects. Indeed, our data showed a significant reduction in Caveolin-1(Cav-1) expression levels and a specific inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5a) activity, improving mitochondrial function compared to Doxo-treated cells. Besides, Ica significantly prevented apoptotic cell death and downregulated the main pro-autophagic marker Beclin-1 and LC3 lipidation rate, restoring physiological levels of activation of the protective autophagic process. These results suggest that Ica might have beneficial cardioprotective effects in attenuating cardiotoxicity in patients requiring anthracycline chemotherapy through the inhibition of oxidative stress and, in particular, through the modulation of Cav-1 expression levels and the involvement of PDE5a activity, thereby leading to cardiac cell survival.

3.
Vet Sci ; 8(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679067

RESUMO

Resistance to anthelmintic drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep is of high concern for livestock production worldwide. In Calabria (southern Italy), many plants have been used in ethnoveterinary medicine for parasite control in small ruminants. Here, we present an in vivo evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of three plant extracts. The first was based on bark and leaves of Salix caprea, the second and the third were based on the whole plant Artemisia campestris and whole fruit (seeds and peel) of Punica granatum, respectively. Anthelmintic efficacy was evaluated according to the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) performed with the FLOTAC technique. The results showed a significant anthelmintic effect of Punica granatum macerate (50%), a low effectiveness of the Artemisia campestris macerate (20%), and a complete ineffectiveness of Salix caprea macerate (0.1%). With these outcomes, we report a P. granatum-based remedy reducing 50% GIN egg output. This result was obtained without using any synthetic drug, paving the way for the employment of green veterinary pharmacology (GVP) as a complementary and sustainable method to reduce the use of chemicals and to counteract anthelmintic resistance.

4.
Pathogens ; 10(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578214

RESUMO

Varroa destructor is the most important ectoparasitic mite of honey bees that has a negative impact on bee health and honey production. The control programs are mainly based on the use of synthetic acaricides that are often administered indiscriminately. All this has led to drug resistance that now represent a great concern for honey bee farming. The research for alternative products/methods for mites' control is now mandatory. The aim of this study was to test whether Citrus spp. essential oils could diminish the growth of the V. destructor mite. In Calabria (southern Italy), plants of the Citrus genus are very common and grow both spontaneously and cultured. The essential oils used in this study were extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), orange (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulata) by hydrodistillation. Every EO was in vitro tested against V. destructor. Each experimental replicate was performed using 35 viable adult female mites (5 for each EO) collected the same day from the same apiary and included negative controls (5 individuals exposed to acetone only) and positive controls (5 individuals exposed to Amitraz diluted in acetone). The essential oils (Eos) were diluted (0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 2 mg/mL) in HPLC grade acetone to obtain the working solution to be tested (50 µL/tube). Mite mortality was manually assessed after 1 h exposure under controlled conditions. The essential oils that showed the best effectiveness at 0.5 mg/mL were bergamot, which neutralized (dead + inactivated) 80% (p ≤ 0.001) of the parasites; grapefruit, which neutralized 70% (p ≤ 0.001); and lemon, which neutralized 69% of them. Interestingly, the positive control (Amitraz) at the same concentration neutralized 60% of the parasites. These results demonstrate that Calabrian bergamot, grapefruit, and lemon Eos consistently reduced V. destructor viability and open the possibility for their utilization to control this parasite in honey bee farming.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578843

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) characterized by cardiac remodeling is a condition in which inflammation and fibrosis play a key role. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) seems to produce good results. In fact, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and different cardioprotective mechanisms. In particular, following their interaction with the nuclear factor erythropoietin 2 related factor 2 (NRF2), the free fatty acid receptor 4 (Ffar4) receptor, or the G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) fibroblast receptors, they inhibit cardiac fibrosis and protect the heart from HF onset. Furthermore, n-3 PUFAs increase the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), reduce global longitudinal deformation, E/e ratio (early ventricular filling and early mitral annulus velocity), soluble interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (sST2) and high-sensitive C Reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, and increase flow-mediated dilation. Moreover, lower levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and serum norepinephrine (sNE) are reported and have a positive effect on cardiac hemodynamics. In addition, they reduce cardiac remodeling and inflammation by protecting patients from HF onset after myocardial infarction (MI). The positive effects of PUFA supplementation are associated with treatment duration and a daily dosage of 1-2 g. Therefore, both the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) define dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs as an effective therapy for reducing the risk of hospitalization and death in HF patients. In this review, we seek to highlight the most recent studies related to the effect of PUFA supplementation in HF. For that purpose, a PubMed literature survey was conducted with a focus on various in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials from 2015 to 2021.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Fibrose , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/patologia , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371986

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. In order to safeguard the structure and the functionality of the myocardium, it is extremely important to adequately support the cardiomyocytes. Two cellular organelles of cardiomyocytes are essential for cell survival and to ensure proper functioning of the myocardium: mitochondria and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria are responsible for the energy metabolism of the myocardium, and regulate the processes that can lead to cell death. The sarcoplasmic reticulum preserves the physiological concentration of the calcium ion, and triggers processes to protect the structural and functional integrity of the proteins. The alterations of these organelles can damage myocardial functioning. A proper nutritional balance regarding the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients leads to a significant improvement in the symptoms and consequences of heart disease. In particular, the Mediterranean diet, characterized by a high consumption of plant-based foods, small quantities of red meat, and high quantities of olive oil, reduces and improves the pathological condition of patients with heart failure. In addition, nutritional support and nutraceutical supplementation in patients who develop heart failure can contribute to the protection of the failing myocardium. Since polyphenols have numerous beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, this review gathers what is known about the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich bergamot fruit on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the role of bergamot polyphenols in mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic dysfunctions in diabetic cardiomyopathy is reported.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360675

RESUMO

In recent decades, interest in natural compounds has increased exponentially due to their numerous beneficial properties in the treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. A group of plant derivatives with great scientific interest is terpenic compounds. Among the plants richest in terpenes, the genus Ferula L. is one of the most representative, and ferutinin, the most common sesquiterpene, is extracted from the leaves, rhizome, and roots of this plant. As reported in the scientific literature, ferutinin possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as valuable estrogenic properties. Neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases are devastating conditions for which a definite cure has not yet been established. The mechanisms involved in these diseases are still poorly understood, and oxidative stress is considered to be both a key modulator and a common denominator. In the proposed experimental system, co-cultured human neurons (SH-SY5Y) and human oligodendrocytes (MO3.13) were treated with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide at a concentration of 1 µg/mL for 24 h or pretreated with ferutinin (33 nM) for 24 h and subsequently exposed to lipopolysaccharide 1 µg/mL for 24 h. Further studies would, however, be needed to establish whether this natural compound can be used as a support strategy in pathologies characterized by progressive inflammation and oxidative stress phenomena.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Cicloeptanos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
8.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299388

RESUMO

In a project designed to investigate the specific and infraspecific taxa of Matthiola endemic to Sicily (Italy) as new potential sources of bioactive compounds in this work, the infraspecific taxa of Matthiola fruticulosa were studied, namely, subsp. fruticulosa and subsp. coronopifolia. HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS and SPME-GC/MS analyses of hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of the two subspecies led to the detection of 51 phenolics and 61 volatile components, highlighting a quite different qualitative-quantitative profile. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were explored through in vitro methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and Fe2+ chelating activity assays. The results of the antioxidant tests showed that the extracts possess a different antioxidant ability: particularly, the extract of M. fruticulosa subsp. fruticulosa exhibited higher radical scavenging activity than that of subsp. coronopifolia (IC50 = 1.25 ± 0.02 mg/mL and 2.86 ± 0.05 mg/mL), which in turn displayed better chelating properties (IC50 = 1.49 ± 0.01 mg/mL and 0.63 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Lastly, Artemia salina lethality bioassay was performed for toxicity assessment. The results of the bioassay showed lack of toxicity against brine shrimp larvae for both extracts. The data presented indicate the infraspecific taxa of M. fruticulosa as new and safe sources of antioxidant compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Brassicaceae/química , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Artemia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Sicília , Testes de Toxicidade
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201904

RESUMO

Doxorubicin is an anthracycline that is commonly used as a chemotherapy drug due to its cytotoxic effects. The clinical use of doxorubicin is limited due to its known cardiotoxic effects. Treatment with anthracyclines causes heart failure in 15-17% of patients, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium dysregulation, the deterioration of the cardiomyocyte structure, and apoptotic cell death. Polyphenols have a wide range of beneficial properties, and particular importance is given to Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction; Oleuropein, one of the main polyphenolic compounds of olive oil; and Cynara cardunculus extract. These natural compounds have particular beneficial characteristics, owing to their high polyphenol contents. Among these, their antioxidant and antoproliferative properties are the most important. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of these three plant derivatives using an in vitro model of cardiotoxicity induced by the treatment of rat embryonic cardiomyoblasts (H9c2) with doxorubicin. The biological mechanisms involved and the crosstalk existing between the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum were examined. Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction, Oleuropein, and Cynara cardunculus extract were able to decrease the damage induced by exposure to doxorubicin. In particular, these natural compounds were found to reduce cell mortality and oxidative damage, increase the lipid content, and decrease the concentration of calcium ions that escaped from the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, the direct involvement of this cellular organelle was demonstrated by silencing the ATF6 arm of the Unfolded Protein Response, which was activated after treatment with doxorubicin.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cynara/química , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antraciclinas , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Mitocôndrias , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 651021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816502

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is not a single pathology, but a constellation of cardiovascular disease risk factors including: central and abdominal obesity, systemic hypertension, insulin resistance (or type 2 diabetes mellitus), and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The global incidence of Metabolic syndrome is estimated to be about one quarter of the world population; for this reason, it would be desirable to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in order to develop treatments that can reduce or eliminate the damage caused. The effects of Metabolic syndrome are multiple and wide ranging; some of which have an impact on the central nervous system and cause neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Autophagy is a catabolic intracellular process, essential for the recycling of cytoplasmic materials and for the degradation of damaged cellular organelle. Therefore, autophagy is primarily a cytoprotective mechanism; even if excessive cellular degradation can be detrimental. To date, it is known that systemic autophagic insufficiency is able to cause metabolic balance deterioration and facilitate the onset of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to highlight the current state of knowledge regarding the connection between metabolic syndrome and the onset of several neurological diseases related to it. Furthermore, since autophagy has been found to be of particular importance in metabolic disorders, the probable involvement of this degradative process is assumed to be responsible for the attenuation of neurological disorders resulting from metabolic syndrome.

11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807637

RESUMO

Atherothrombosis, a multifactorial and multistep artery disorder, represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development and progression of atherothrombosis is closely associated with age, gender and a complex relationship between unhealthy lifestyle habits and several genetic risk factors. The imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses is the main biological event leading to the development of a pro-oxidant phenotype, triggering cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the atherothrombotic process. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its late thrombotic complications involve multiple cellular events such as inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations, and platelet activation, contributing to chronic pathological remodeling of the vascular wall, atheromatous plague formation, vascular stenosis, and eventually, thrombus growth and propagation. Emerging studies suggest that clotting activation and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction play key roles in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence indicates that defective autophagy is closely linked to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which, in turn, are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. This topic represents a large field of study aimed at identifying new potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the major role played by the autophagic pathway induced by oxidative stress in the modulation of EC dysfunction as a background to understand its potential role in the development of atherothrombosis.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805912

RESUMO

The high incidence of obesity is associated with an increasing risk of several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Sustained obesity is characterized by a chronic and unsolved inflammation of adipose tissue, which leads to a greater expression of proinflammatory adipokines, excessive lipid storage and adipogenesis. The purpose of this review is to clarify how inflammatory mediators act during adipose tissue dysfunction in the development of insulin resistance and all obesity-associated diseases. In particular, we focused our attention on the role of inflammatory signaling in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), which represent a relevant component of adipose alterations during obesity. Furthermore, we reported the most recent evidence in the literature on nutraceutical supplementation in the management of the adipose inflammatory state, and in particular on their potential effect on common inflammatory mediators and pathways, responsible for WAT and BAT dysfunction. Although further research is needed to demonstrate that targeting pro-inflammatory mediators improves adipose tissue dysfunction and activates thermogenesis in BAT and WAT browning during obesity, polyphenols supplementation could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy to prevent progression of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Termogênese , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Curcumina/química , Dieta , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Intestinos/química , Lipídeos/química , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 616883, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833660

RESUMO

Different bacterial families colonize most mucosal tissues in the human organism such as the skin, mouth, vagina, respiratory, and gastrointestinal districts. In particular, the mammalian intestine hosts a microbial community of between 1,000 and 1,500 bacterial species, collectively called "microbiota." Co-metabolism between the microbiota and the host system is generated and the symbiotic relationship is mutually beneficial. The balance that is achieved between the microbiota and the host organism is fundamental to the organization of the immune system. Scientific studies have highlighted a direct correlation between the intestinal microbiota and the brain, establishing the existence of the gut microbiota-brain axis. Based on this theory, the microbiota acts on the development, physiology, and cognitive functions of the brain, although the mechanisms involved have not yet been fully interpreted. Similarly, a close relationship between alteration of the intestinal microbiota and the onset of several neurological pathologies has been highlighted. This review aims to point out current knowledge as can be found in literature regarding the connection between intestinal dysbiosis and the onset of particular neurological pathologies such as anxiety and depression, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple sclerosis. These disorders have always been considered to be a consequence of neuronal alteration, but in this review, we hypothesize that these alterations may be non-neuronal in origin, and consider the idea that the composition of the microbiota could be directly involved. In this direction, the following two key points will be highlighted: (1) the direct cross-talk that comes about between neurons and gut microbiota, and (2) the degree of impact of the microbiota on the brain. Could we consider the microbiota a valuable target for reducing or modulating the incidence of certain neurological diseases?

14.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(4): 268-278, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633042

RESUMO

AIMS: Diabetic cardiomyopathy represents the main cause of death among diabetic people. Despite this evidence, the molecular mechanisms triggered by impaired glucose and lipid metabolism inducing heart damage remain unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of altered metabolism on the early stages of cardiac injury in experimental diabetes. METHODS: For this purpose, rats were fed a normocaloric diet (NPD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for up to 12 weeks. After the fourth week, streptozocin (35 mg/kg) was administered in a subgroup of both NPD and HFD rats to induce diabetes. Cardiac function was analysed by echocardiography. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity and intracellular localization were assessed through zymography and immunofluorescence, whereas apoptotic and oxidative markers by immunohistochemistry and western blot. RESULTS: Hyperglycaemia or hyperlipidaemia reduced ejection fraction and fractional shortening as compared with control. Unexpectedly, cardiac dysfunction was less marked in diabetic rats fed a hyperlipidaemic diet, suggesting an adaptive response of the myocardium to hyperglycaemia-induced injury. This response was characterized by the inhibition of N-terminal truncated-MMP-2 translocation from endoplasmic reticulum into mitochondria and by superoxide anion overproduction observed in cardiomyocytes under hyperglycaemia. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings suggest novel therapeutic targets aimed to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction in the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

15.
Pharmacol Res ; 165: 105427, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453372

RESUMO

Skeletal muscles and bone tissue form the musculoskeletal apparatus, a complex system essential for the voluntary movement. The loss of muscle mass and muscle strength is often associated with a loss of bone mass, in a "hazardous duet" which implies the co-existence of sarcopenia-osteoporosis and exposes patients to a deterioration in quality of life and increased mortality. From the mechanostat theory to the recent definition of the osteosarcopenia syndrome, many aspects of muscle-bone interaction have been investigated in recent decades. The mechanical interaction is now accepted, considering the close anatomical relationship between the two tissues, however, much remains to be discovered regarding the biochemical muscle-bone interaction. Skeletal muscle has been defined as an endocrine organ capable of exerting an action on other tissues. Myokines, bioactive polypeptides released by the muscle, could represent the encrypted message in the communication between muscle and bone. These two tissues have a reciprocal influence on their metabolisms and respond in a similar way to the multiple external factors. The aim of this review is to stimulate the understanding of the encrypted language between muscle and bone, highlighting the role of catabolic pathways and oxidative stress in the musculoskeletal apparatus to elucidate the shared mechanisms and the similarity of response to the same stimuli by different tissues. Our understanding of muscle-bone interactions it could be useful to identify and develop new strategies to treat musculoskeletal diseases, together with pharmacological, nutritional and exercise-based approaches, which are already in use for the treatment of these pathologies.

16.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477916

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and many other cardiac disorders, cause about 30% of deaths globally; representing one of the main health problems worldwide. Among CVDs, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The onset of IHDs is essentially due to an unbalance between the metabolic demands of the myocardium and its supply of oxygen and nutrients, coupled with a low regenerative capacity of the heart, which leads to great cardiomyocyte (CM) loss; promoting heart failure (HF) and myocardial infarction (MI). To date, the first strategy recommended to avoid IHDs is prevention in order to reduce the underlying risk factors. In the management of IHDs, traditional therapeutic options are widely used to improve symptoms, attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, and reduce early mortality rate. However, there are no available treatments that aim to improve cardiac performance by replacing the irreversible damaged cardiomyocytes (CMs). Currently, heart transplantation is the only treatment being carried out for irreversibly damaged CMs. Hence, the discovery of new therapeutic options seems to be necessary. Interestingly, recent experimental evidence suggests that regenerative stem cell medicine could be a useful therapeutic approach to counteract cardiac damage and promote tissue regeneration. To this end, researchers are tasked with answering one main question: how can myocardial regeneration be stimulated? In this regard, natural compounds from plant extracts seem to play a particularly promising role. The present review will summarize the recent advances in our knowledge of stem cell therapy in the management of CVDs; focusing on the main properties and potential mechanisms of natural compounds in stimulating and activating stem cells for myocardial regeneration.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diferenciação Celular , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Regeneração , Células-Tronco/citologia
17.
Biomolecules ; 11(1)2021 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435178

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects about 1% of the global population, with a female-male ratio of 3:1. RA preferably affects the joints, with consequent joint swelling and deformities followed by ankylosis. However, evidence has accumulated showing that patients suffering from RA can also develop extra-articular manifestations, including cardiovascular disease states, neuropathies, and multiorgan dysfunction. In particular, peripheral nerve disorders showed a consistent impact in the course of the disease (prevalence about 20%) mostly associated to vasculitis of the nerve vessels leading to vascular ischemia, axonal degeneration, and neuronal demyelination. The pathophysiological basis of this RA-associated microvascular disease, which leads to impairment of assonal functionality, is still to be better clarified. However, endothelial dysfunction and alterations of the so-called brain-nerve barrier (BNB) seem to play a fundamental role. This review aims to assess the potential mechanisms underlying the impairment of endothelial cell functionality in the development of RA and to identify the role of dysfunctional endothelium as a causative mechanism of extra-articular manifestation of RA. On the other hand, the potential impact of lifestyle and nutritional interventions targeting the maintenance of endothelial cell integrity in patients with RA will be discussed as a potential option when approaching therapeutic solutions in the course of the disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
18.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477388

RESUMO

There is evidence demonstrating that heart failure (HF) occurs in 1-2% of the global population and is often accompanied by comorbidities which contribute to increasing the prevalence of the disease, the rate of hospitalization and the mortality. Although recent advances in both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches have led to a significant improvement in clinical outcomes in patients affected by HF, residual unmet needs remain, mostly related to the occurrence of poorly defined strategies in the early stages of myocardial dysfunction. Nutritional support in patients developing HF and nutraceutical supplementation have recently been shown to possibly contribute to protection of the failing myocardium, although their place in the treatment of HF requires further assessment, in order to find better therapeutic solutions. In this context, the Optimal Nutraceutical Supplementation in Heart Failure (ONUS-HF) working group aimed to assess the optimal nutraceutical approach to HF in the early phases of the disease, in order to counteract selected pathways that are imbalanced in the failing myocardium. In particular, we reviewed several of the most relevant pathophysiological and molecular changes occurring during the early stages of myocardial dysfunction. These include mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, insufficient nitric oxide (NO) release, impaired cardiac stem cell mobilization and an imbalanced regulation of metalloproteinases. Moreover, we reviewed the potential of the nutraceutical supplementation of several natural products, such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a grape seed extract, Olea Europea L.-related antioxidants, a sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) inhibitor-rich apple extract and a bergamot polyphenolic fraction, in addition to their support in cardiomyocyte protection, in HF. Such an approach should contribute to optimising the use of nutraceuticals in HF, and the effect needs to be confirmed by means of more targeted clinical trials exploring the efficacy and safety of these compounds.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Citrus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Malus/química , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/fisiologia , Miocárdio/citologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Apoio Nutricional , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados
19.
Pharmacol Res ; 163: 105215, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007421

RESUMO

Cholesterol homeostasis is a highly regulated process in human body because of its several functions underlying the biology of cell membranes, the synthesis of all steroid hormones and bile acids and the need of trafficking lipids destined to cell metabolism. In particular, it has been recognized that peripheral and central nervous system cholesterol metabolism are separated by the blood brain barrier and are regulated independently; indeed, peripherally, it depends on the balance between dietary intake and hepatic synthesis on one hand and its degradation on the other, whereas in central nervous system it is synthetized de novo to ensure brain physiology. In view of this complex metabolism and its relevant functions in mammalian, impaired levels of cholesterol can induce severe cellular dysfunction leading to metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this review is to clarify the role of cholesterol homeostasis in health and disease highlighting new intriguing aspects of the cross talk between its central and peripheral metabolism.

20.
Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) ; 46(2): 214-225, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the abundance of studies on the beneficial effects of a fiber rich diet as well as polyphenols deriving from Citrus fruits on postprandial serum glucose and insulin, clinical evidence on their synergic effects on healthy subjects have never been published. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of a new dietary approach in controlling glucose and insulin response at breakfast time by testing a brioche enriched with wheat bran and bergamot fiber. METHODS: We enrolled 11 healthy volunteers in a cross-over study. Participants consumed a classic brioche at breakfast and our functional brioche, containing wheat bran and bergamot fiber, on another day. Vital functions, biochemical parameters (including glucose and insulin), anthropometric measurements as well as resting energy expenditure and fat oxidation were evaluated before and after the intake of both meals. RESULTS: The mean age was ~25 years. The mean BMI was 23.5 kg/m2. The consumption of the functional brioche reduced the glucose Cmax(0-120 min) by ~6% and prevented the insulin increase over time by 30%, finally demonstrating insulin Cmax(0-120 min) and iAUC(0-120 min) values significantly lower compared to classic brioche (respectively P value =0.04 and 0.03). The stepwise multivariable analysis confirmed the association between the consumption of the functional brioche containing bran and bergamot fiber and glucose Cmax(0-120 min) (B=-0.45; P=0.034), and insulin iAUC(0-120 min) (B=-764 P=0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The association of wheat bran and bergamot fiber significantly influences glucose metabolism and may exert insulin-like effects on healthy volunteers. If confirmed, berga-brioche would be a useful tool in preventing diabetes and controlling the glycometabolic status of type 2 diabetic patients.

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