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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254253, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350308

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.


Assuntos
Animais , Lagartos , Paquistão , Filogenia , Variação Genética/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
World J Psychiatry ; 13(1): 15-35, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36687373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations for psychotherapy have evolved over the years, with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) taking precedence since its inception within clinical guidelines in the United Kingdom and United States. The use of CBT for severe mental illness is now more common globally. AIM: To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally adapted, CBT-based, third-wave therapy manual using the Comprehend, Cope, and Connect approach with individuals from a diverse population presenting to primary and secondary healthcare services. METHODS: A pilot study was used to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the manualised intervention. Outcome measures were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and 12 wk-follow up. 32 participants with mental health conditions aged 20-53 years were recruited. Assessments were completed at three time points, using Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Bradford Somatic Inventory and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS). The Patient Experience Ques-tionnaire was completed post-treatment. RESULTS: Repeated measures of analysis of variance associated with HADS depression, F (2, 36) = 12.81, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.42 and HADS anxiety scores, F (2, 26) = 9.93, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.36; CORE total score and WHODAS both showed significant effect F (1.25, 18.72) = 14.98, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.5. and F (1.29, 14.18) = 6.73, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.38 respectively. CONCLUSION: These results indicate the effectiveness and acceptability of the culturally adapted, CBT-based, third-wave therapy manual intervention among minoritized groups with moderate effect sizes. Satisfaction levels and acceptability were highly rated. The viability and cost-effectiveness of this approach should be explored further to support universal implementation across healthcare systems.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Fezes
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Mel , Abelhas , Carboidratos
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(4): 1034-1039, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189549

RESUMO

The objective of study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of topical 0.2% Glyceryl trinitrate topical (GTN) ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. This randomized control trial was carried out in the Colorectal Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Bangladesh from May 2015 to April 2016. Total 94 patients were included in this trial, where 47(50.0%) patients were treated by 0.2% GTN ointment as Trial group 12 hourly for 8 weeks and 47(50.0%) patients by lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) as Control group in this study. Patients were randomized in two groups by lottery following purposive sampling. Post-procedural outcome variables with 6 months follow up were evaluated. Majority of the patients were found in between 20 to 40 years of age in both groups. The mean age was 34.6±10.4 years and 33.2±8.6 years in GTN and LIS respectively. Overall male female ratio was 0.88:1. All (100.0%) patients presented with pain in anus and 86.15% patients presented with per rectal bleeding. Pain relief in GTN arm versus LIS arm in 2nd and 6th week was 55.31% vs. 76.6%, 74.5% vs. 87.23% with no significant difference between two groups. But at 6 month it was 57.44% vs. 93.6% respectively. The fall in pain relief at 6th month in GTN arm was due to recurrence of fissure. At the end of 2nd, 6th week and 6month, cessation of bleeding improved gradually in both groups after treatment but the improvement was significantly better in LIS group than in GTN group indicating sphincterotomy stops bleeding better. Healing after 2nd week in both groups was minimum but equal 2(4.26%) patients. After 6 weeks LIS group had significant better healing than GTN 40(85.1%) versus 26(55.3%) with p value <0.001. In 6 month time GTN group had increased healing but LIS group had significant better healing than GTN group 42(89.36) vs. 32(68.08) with p value 0.004. Transient flatus and liquid incontinence were 8.51% and 6.4% respectively in LIS group with 0.0% in GTN group. Headache and recurrence were significantly higher in GTN group 61.7% and 34.04% with p<0.001. Lateral internal anal sphincterotomy is superior to the topical application of 0.2% nitroglycerin ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure with the advantages of good symptomatic relief, high rate of healing and a very low rate of transient continence disturbances.


Assuntos
Fissura Anal , Esfincterotomia Lateral Interna , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Fissura Anal/tratamento farmacológico , Fissura Anal/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroglicerina/uso terapêutico , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Dor , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
8.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 148(10): 947-955, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074415

RESUMO

Importance: In clinically localized (T1-2) oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC), regional lymph node metastasis is associated with a poor prognosis. Given the high propensity of subclinical nodal disease in these patients, upfront elective neck dissections (END) for patients with clinically node-negative disease are common and associated with better outcomes. Unfortunately, even with this risk-adverse treatment paradigm, disease recurrence still occurs, and our understanding of the factors that modulate this risk and alter survival have yet to be fully elucidated. Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of lymph node yield (LNY), lymph node ratio (LNR), and weighted LNR (wLNR) in patients with clinically node-negative T1-2 OCSCC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, data were collected retrospectively from 7 tertiary care academic medical centers. Overall, 523 patients with cT1-2N0 OCSCC who underwent elective neck dissections after primary surgical extirpation were identified. Exposures: Lymph node yield was defined as the number of lymph nodes recovered from elective neck dissection. Lymph node ratio was defined as the ratio of positive nodes against total LNY. Weighted LNR incorporated information from both LNY and LNR into a single continuous metric. Main Outcomes and Measures: Locoregional control (LRC) and disease-free survival (DFS) were both evaluated using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier estimators and semiparametric Cox regression. Results: On multivariable analysis, LNY less than or equal to 18 lymph nodes was found to be significantly associated with decreased LRC (aHR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.04-2.24) and DFS (aHR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.92) in patients with pN0 disease, but not those with pN-positive disease. Importantly, patients with pN0 disease with LNY less than or equal to 18 and those with pN1 diseasehad nearly identical 5-year LRC (69.7% vs 71.4%) and DFS (58.2% vs 55.7%). For patients with pN-positive disease, LNR greater than 0.06 was significantly associated with decreased LRC (aHR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.28-5.55) and DFS (aHR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.07-2.53). Overall, wLNR was a robust prognostic variable across all patients with cN0 disease, regardless of pathologic nodal status. Risk stratification via wLNR thresholds demonstrated greater optimism-corrected concordance compared with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition nodal staging for both LRC (0.61 vs 0.57) and DFS (0.61 vs 0.58). Conclusions and Relevance: Movement toward more robust metrics that incorporate quantitative measures of neck dissection quality and regional disease burden, such as wLNR, could greatly augment prognostication in cT1-2N0 OCSCC by providing more reliable and accurate risk estimations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Esvaziamento Cervical , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
10.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 7(3): 658-661, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734063

RESUMO

Objective: To report our experience on the complications of primary pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Methods: Case series of pediatric ESS performed from 1991 to 2016 on children who failed maximal medical therapy and/or adenoidectomy. Inclusion criteria were children (age <12 years old) who underwent primary ESS with or without adenoidectomy for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) after failed maximal medical therapy and/or adenoidectomy. All patients underwent maxillary antrostomy ± partial or total ethmoidectomy. Patients with complicated acute rhinosinusitis were excluded. Complications reviewed included: skull base injury and CSF leak, orbital injuries (blindness, orbital hemorrhage, emphysema, periorbital swelling and bruising, fat exposure), and bleeding requiring intervention. Results: A total of 352 patients underwent ESS between 1991 and 2016. There were no blindness or orbital hematoma reported, and no major nasal bleeding requiring intervention. The total number of complications was 31 (8.8%): 1 (0.3%) CSF leak, 3 (0.85%) orbital emphysema, 5 (1.4%) periorbital ecchymosis, and 22 (6.3%) lamina papyracea violation with orbital fat exposure. Conclusions: Complications of primary pediatric ESS can be rare dependent on surgeon's experience, the most common being orbital injury.Level of evidence: 4.

11.
J Cell Sci ; 135(14)2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707992

RESUMO

Centrioles are composed of a central cartwheel tethered to nine-fold symmetric microtubule (MT) blades. The centriole cartwheel and MTs are thought to grow from opposite ends of these organelles, so it is unclear how they coordinate their assembly. We previously showed that in Drosophila embryos an oscillation of Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) helps to initiate and time the growth of the cartwheel at the proximal end. Here, in the same model, we show that CP110 and Cep97 form a complex close to the distal-end of the centriole MTs whose levels rise and fall as the new centriole MTs grow, in a manner that appears to be entrained by the core cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-Cyclin oscillator that drives the nuclear divisions in these embryos. These CP110 and Cep97 dynamics, however, do not appear to time the period of centriole MT growth directly. Instead, we find that changing the levels of CP110 and Cep97 appears to alter the Plk4 oscillation and the growth of the cartwheel at the proximal end. These findings reveal an unexpected potential crosstalk between factors normally concentrated at opposite ends of the growing centrioles, which might help to coordinate centriole growth. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first authors of the paper.


Assuntos
Centríolos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Centríolos/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227226, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416990

RESUMO

Importance: Given that early-stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) has a high propensity for subclinical nodal metastasis, elective neck dissection has become standard practice for many patients with clinically negative nodes. Unfortunately, for most patients without regional metastasis, this risk-averse treatment paradigm results in unnecessary morbidity. Objectives: To develop and validate predictive models of occult nodal metastasis from clinicopathological variables that were available after surgical extirpation of the primary tumor and to compare predictive performance against depth of invasion (DOI), the currently accepted standard. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic modeling study collected clinicopathological variables retrospectively from 7 tertiary care academic medical centers across the US. Participants included adult patients with early-stage OCSCC without nodal involvement who underwent primary surgical extirpation with or without upfront elective neck dissection. These patients were initially evaluated between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2019. Exposures: Largest tumor dimension, tumor thickness, DOI, margin status, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, muscle invasion, submucosal invasion, dysplasia, histological grade, anatomical subsite, age, sex, smoking history, race and ethnicity, and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Main Outcomes and Measures: Occult nodal metastasis identified either at the time of elective neck dissection or regional recurrence within 2 years of initial surgery. Results: Of the 634 included patients (mean [SD] age, 61.2 [13.6] years; 344 men [54.3%]), 114 (18.0%) had occult nodal metastasis. Patients with occult nodal metastasis had a higher frequency of lymphovascular invasion (26.3% vs 8.1%; P < .001), perineural invasion (40.4% vs 18.5%; P < .001), and margin involvement by invasive tumor (12.3% vs 6.3%; P = .046) compared with those without pathological lymph node metastasis. In addition, patients with vs those without occult nodal metastasis had a higher frequency of poorly differentiated primary tumor (20.2% vs 6.2%; P < .001) and greater DOI (7.0 vs 5.4 mm; P < .001). A predictive model that was built with XGBoost architecture outperformed the commonly used DOI threshold of 4 mm, achieving an area under the curve of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.80-0.88) vs 0.62 (95% CI, 0.57-0.67) with DOI. This model had a sensitivity of 91.7%, specificity of 72.6%, positive predictive value of 39.3%, and negative predictive value of 97.8%. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study showed that machine learning models that were developed from multi-institutional clinicopathological data have the potential to not only reduce the number of pathologically node-negative neck dissections but also accurately identify patients with early OCSCC who are at highest risk for nodal metastases.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
13.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; : 34894221081098, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Morbidly obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are often intolerant of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The effects of sleep surgery in this population is not well documented, and sleep surgery is generally avoided due to the expectation of poor outcomes, leaving these patients untreated. METHODS: This retrospective study included 42 patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥40.0 and OSA with a preoperative apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5. Preoperative BMI ranged from 40.0 to 69.0 kg/m2. Preoperative AHI ranged from 7.2 to 130.0. Of 42 patients, 12 (28.6%) underwent concurrent pharyngeal and retrolingual surgery. Subgroup analysis of change in AHI was measured with respect to preoperative OSA severity, change in preoperative BMI, and BMI severity. Univariate linear and logistic regression was performed assessing change in AHI and surgical success with respect to age, sex, preoperative AHI, preoperative BMI, change in BMI, total procedures, palatal procedure, retrolingual procedure, nasal procedure, and multilevel procedures. RESULTS: The mean AHI improved from 45.9 ± 31.8 to 31.9 ± 31.6 (P = .007). Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) improved from 13.2 ± 5.5 to 9.6 ± 5.4 (P = .00006). Lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) improved from 74.4 ± 10.7 to 79.9 ± 10.4 (P = .002). About 33.3% of patients had surgical success (AHI < 20 with at least 50% reduction in AHI). Preoperative AHI was the most significant factor for change in AHI in univariate and multivariate models (P = .015). CONCLUSION: Sleep surgery is effective in reducing OSA burden in most morbidly obese patients and can result in surgical cure for a third of patients.

14.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 36(5): e23024, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218269

RESUMO

Rotenone is used to generate Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms in experimental animals. Octanoic acid (C8), is the principal fatty acid of medium-chain triglycerides in ketogenic diets. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diets were shown in PD. We applied proteomic methods to reveal the effects of octanoic acid in rotenone toxicity in zebrafish to gain information on the use of ketogenic diets in PD. Zebrafish were exposed to 5 µg/ml rotenone and octanoic acid (20 and 60 mg/ml) for 30 days. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. Raw files were analyzed by Proteome Discoverer 2.4 software, peptide lists were searched against Danio rerio proteins. STRING database was used for protein annotations or interactions. 2317 unique proteins were quantified, 302 proteins were differentially expressed. Proteins involved in cell organization, biogenesis, transport, response to stimulus were most frequently expressed. Our study is first to report that the alterations in the expressions of proteins related to energy and redox system, stress response, and cytoskeleton proteins caused by rotenone exposure were normalized by octanoic acid treatment in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Rotenona , Animais , Caprilatos , Cromatografia Líquida , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Proteômica , Rotenona/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
15.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 154: 111045, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of prolonged time intervals between tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (TA) on resident operative time and complications. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Tertiary academic hospital. METHODS: This retrospective study covers a five-year period from 2015 to 2020. Time intervals between isolated pediatric TA cases performed by eight otolaryngology residents were reviewed to assess effect on operative time (defined as prolonged if ≥ 30 min and non-prolonged if < 30 min). Intervals including a procedure involving either a tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy that was a non-isolated TA were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 309 isolated TAs were identified with 67.3% of procedures performed under 30 min. The mean surgical time interval between procedures was 5.83 ± 10.02 days (range 0.02-69.82). Most TAs were performed on patients aged 7 years or younger. Surgical time interval between TA was not a significant factor in determining prolonged operative time on univariable logistic regression, OR 1.01 (CI: 0.98 to 1.03) (p = 0.63). Patient age at surgery, adenoid grade, tonsil size and total number of TAs performed to date were significant factors in determining prolonged operative time in both univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Prolonged operative time did not have a significant effect on readmission, reoperation, or post-operative bleeding. CONCLUSION: Extended time interval (up to 3 months) between routine TA does not affect operative time. Expansion of our methodology to more complex cases would be beneficial in designing resident training curriculum.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Tonsilectomia , Adenoidectomia/métodos , Tonsila Faríngea/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tonsilectomia/efeitos adversos , Tonsilectomia/métodos
16.
Head Neck ; 44(1): 275-285, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729845

RESUMO

The present study aims to estimate a pooled hazard ratio (HR) comparing overall survival (OS) for salvage surgery compared to nonsurgical management of recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase-Ovid were searched on March 5, 2020, for English-language articles reporting survival for salvage surgery and nonsurgical management of recurrent HNSCC. Meta-analysis of HR estimates using random effects model was performed. Fifteen studies reported survival for salvage surgery and nonsurgical management of recurrence. Five-year OS ranged from 26% to 67% for the salvage surgery groups, compared to 0% to 32% for the nonsurgical management groups. Six studies reported HRs comparing salvage surgery to nonsurgical management; the pooled HR was 0.25 (95% CI [0.16, 0.38]; p < 0.0001). Selection for salvage surgery was associated with one quarter of the mortality rate associated with nonsurgical management in light of confounding factors including subsite and treatment intent.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Terapia de Salvação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia
17.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 148(2): 119-127, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940784

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 1 in 5 new patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) in the US belong to racial and ethnic minority groups, but their survival rates are worse than White individuals. However, because most studies compare Black vs White patients, little is known about survival differences among members of racial and ethnic minority groups. Objective: To describe differential survival and identify nonclinical factors associated with stage of presentation among patients with HNC belonging to racial and ethnic minority groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study used data from the 2007 to 2016 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and included non-Hispanic Black, Asian Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic patients with HNC. The data were analyzed from December 2020 to May 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were time to event measures: (HNC-specific and all-cause mortality) and stage of presentation. Covariates included nonclinical (age at diagnosis, sex, race and ethnicity, insurance status, marital status, and a composite socioeconomic status [SES]) and clinical factors (stage, cancer site, chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery). A Cox regression model was used to adjust associations of covariates with the hazard of all-cause death, and a Fine and Gray competing risks proportional hazards model was used to estimate associations of covariates with the hazard of HNC-specific death. A proportional log odds ordinal logistic regression identified which nonclinical factors were associated with stage of presentation. Results: There were 21 966 patients with HNC included in the study (mean [SD] age, 56.02 [11.16] years; 6072 women [27.6%]; 9229 [42.0%] non-Hispanic Black, 6893 [31.4%] Hispanic, 5342 [24.3%] Asian/Pacific Islander, and 502 [2.3%] American Indian/Alaska Native individuals). Black patients had highest proportion with very low SES (3482 [37.7%]) and the lowest crude 5-year overall survival (46%). After adjusting for covariates, Hispanic individuals had an 11% lower subdistribution hazard ratio (sdHR) of HNC-specific mortality (sdHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95), 15% lower risk for Asian/Pacific Islander individuals (sdHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93), and a trending lower risk for American Indian/Alaska Native individuals (sdHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.71-1.01), compared with non-Hispanic Black individuals. Race, sex, insurance, marital status, and SES were consistently associated with all-cause mortality, HNC-specific mortality, and stage of presentation, with non-Hispanic Black individuals faring worse compared with individuals of other racial and ethnic minority groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study that included only patients with HNC who were members of racial and ethnic minority groups, Black patients had significantly worse outcomes that were not completely explained by stage of presentation. There may be unexplored multilevel factors that are associated with social determinants of health and disparities in HNC outcomes.


Assuntos
Minorias Étnicas e Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245261, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249221

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Resumo O presente estudo foi planejado para determinar variações nos parâmetros externos e internos de qualidade dos ovos de diferentes espécies de aves, incluindo avestruz Struthio camelus, patos Anas platyrhynchos, frango Gallus gallus, perus Meleagris gallopavo e francolin cinza Francolinus pondicerinus. Todas as aves foram mantidas em condições de criação semelhantes. Um total de 150 ovos foi coletado para cada espécie para registrar as características externas desses ovos. Variações estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) foram registradas no peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo e largura do ovo entre os ovos de avestruz, patos, galinha, peru e codorna. Significativamente (p < 0,05) maior peso do ovo, comprimento e largura do ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto o mesmo foi menor para ovos de francolina cinza. Da mesma forma, significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores valores de índice de forma e volume de ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto os menores valores de índice de forma foram registrados para ovos de peru e o volume de ovo foi menor para francolina cinza. Significativamente, maiores (p < 0,05) valores de densidade de ovos foram observados para ovos de codorna e os mesmos foram menores para ovos de avestruz. Variações não significativas nos valores de densidade de ovos foram observadas entre os ovos de pato, frango, peru e francolina cinza. Concluiu-se que as correlações positivas entre as características internas e externas de qualidade do ovo indicaram que as características podem ser melhoradas por meio da seleção.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Struthioniformes , Paquistão
19.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852138

RESUMO

Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Galliformes , Parasitos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816973

RESUMO

During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Paquistão , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
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