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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127762, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777563

RESUMO

Gelatin and collagen are considered halal-critical ingredients as they are typically derived from either bovine or porcine animals. Current analytical methods for determining the sources of gelatin and collagen suffer from limitations in terms of robustness and false positives in peptide matching. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the utility of monitoring hydroxyproline, a signature amino acid for gelatin and collagen, for identifying potentially haram foodstuffs. To determine the hydroxyproline profiles among animal- and plant-based samples, one-way univariate analysis of variance followed by pair-wise comparison was used to establish statistical significance. Multivariate chemometric analysis through principal component analysis revealed a discrete distribution pattern among 59 samples due to hydroxyproline variability. Finally, inter- and intra-laboratory comparisons demonstrated the validity and robustness of hydroxyproline determination according to ISO 17025. Thus, this preliminary identification technique will aid the identification of potentially haram foodstuffs.

2.
Microorganisms ; 8(10)2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977375

RESUMO

Antibacterial peptides or bacteriocins produced by many strains of lactic acid bacteria have been used as food preservatives for many years without any known adverse effects. Bacteriocin titres can be modified by altering the physiological and nutritional factors of the producing bacterium to improve the production in terms of yield and productivity. The effects of culture conditions (initial pH, inoculum age and inoculum size) and medium compositions (organic and inorganic nitrogen sources; carbon sources) were assessed for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) by Lactococcus lactis Gh1 in shake flask cultures. An inoculum of the mid-exponential phase culture at 1% (v/v) was the optimal age and size, while initial pH of culture media at alkaline and acidic state did not show a significant impact on BLIS secretion. Organic nitrogen sources were more favourable for BLIS production compared to inorganic sources. Production of BLIS by L. lactis Gh1 in soytone was 1.28-times higher as compared to that of organic nitrogen sources ((NH4)2SO4). The highest cell concentration (XmX = 0.69 ± 0.026 g·L-1) and specific growth rate (µmax = 0.14 h-1) were also observed in cultivation using soytone. By replacing carbon sources with fructose, BLIS production was increased up to 34.94% compared to BHI medium, which gave the biomass cell concentration and specific growth rate of 0.66 ± 0.002 g·L-1 and 0.11 h-1, respectively. It can be concluded that the fermentation factors have pronounced influences on the growth of L. lactis Gh1 and BLIS production. Results from this study could be used for subsequent application in process design and optimisation for improving BLIS production by L. lactis Gh1 at larger scale.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728855

RESUMO

Determination of a microbial strain for the joining into sustenance items requires both in vitro and in vivo assessment. A newly isolated bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) producing lactic acid bacterium, Lactococcus lactis Gh1, was isolated from a traditional flavour enhancer and evaluated in vitro for its potential applications in the food industry. Results from this study showed that L. lactis was tolerant to NaCl (≤ 4.0%, w/v), phenol (≤ 0.4%, w/v), 0.3% (w/v) bile salt, and pH 3. BLIS from L. lactis showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and was susceptible to 10 types of antibiotics. The absence of haemolytic activity and the presence of acid phosphatase and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase were observed in L. lactis. L. lactis could coagulate milk and showed a negative response to amylolytic and proteolytic activities and did not secrete ß-galactosidase. The antimicrobial activity of BLIS was completely abolished at 121 °C. The BLIS was conserved at 4 °C in BHI and MRS medium up to 6-4 months, respectively. BLIS activity was more stable in BHI as compared to MRS after four freeze-thaw cycles and was not affected by a wide range of pH (pH 4-8). BLIS was sensitive to proteinase k and resistant to catalase and trypsin. The antimicrobial activity was slightly reduced by acetone, ethanol, methanol, and acetonitrile at 10% (v/v) and also towards Tween-80, urea, and NaCl 1% (v/v). Results from this study have demonstrated that L. lactis has a vast potential to be applied in the food industry, such as for the preparation of starter culture, functional foods, and probiotic products.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1687-1693, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growth of halal food consumption worldwide has resulted in an increase in the request for halal authentication. DNA-based detection using powerful real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been shown to be highly specific and sensitive authentication tool. The efficient DNA extraction method in terms of quality and quantity is a backbone step to obtain successful real-time PCR assays. In this study, different DNA extraction methods using three lysis buffers were evaluated and developed to recommend a much more efficient method as well as achieve a successful detection using real-time PCR. RESULTS: The lysis buffer 2 (LB2) has been shown to be the best lysis buffer for DNA extraction from both raw and processed meat samples comparing to other lysis buffers tested. Hence, the LB2 has been found to be ideal to detect meat and porcine DNAs by real-time PCR using pairs of porcine specific primers and universal primers which amplified at 119 bp fragment and 93 bp fragment, respectively. This assay allows detection as low as 0.0001 ng of DNA. Higher efficiency and sensitivity of real-time PCR via a simplified DNA extraction method using LB2 have been observed, as well as a reproducible and high correlation coefficient (R2  = 0.9979) based on the regression analysis of the standard curve have been obtained. CONCLUSION: This study has established a fast, simple, inexpensive and efficient DNA extraction method that is feasible for raw and processed meat products. This extraction technique allows an accurate DNA detection by real-time PCR and can also be implemented to assist the halal authentication of various meat-based products available in the market. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Métodos Analíticos de Preparação de Amostras/métodos , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Bovinos , Galinhas/genética , Primers do DNA/genética , Patos/genética , Cabras/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Suínos/genética , Perus/genética
5.
PeerJ ; 7: e6880, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183251

RESUMO

Sago starch is traditionally used as food especially in Southeast Asia. Generally, sago is safe for consumption, biodegradable, easily available and inexpensive. Therefore, this research was done to expand the potential of sago by using it as a support for enzyme immobilization. In this study, ARM lipase, which was isolated from Geobacillus sp. strain ARM, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli system and then purified using affinity chromatography. The specific activity of the pure enzyme was 650 U/mg, increased 7 folds from the cell lysate. The purified enzyme was immobilized in gelatinized sago and spray-dried by entrapment technique in order to enhance the enzyme operational stability for handling at high temperature and also for storage. The morphology of the gelatinized sago and immobilized enzyme was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the spray-dried gelatinized sago was shrunken and became irregular in structure as compared to untreated sago powder. The surface areas and porosities of spray-dried gelatinized sago with and without the enzyme were analyzed using BET and BJH method and have shown an increase in surface area and decrease in pore size. The immobilized ARM lipase showed good performance at 60-80  °C, with a half-life of 4 h and in a pH range 6-9. The immobilized enzyme could be stored at 10 °C with the half-life for 9 months. Collectively, the spray-dried immobilized lipase shows promising capability for industrial uses, especially in food processing.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 763-773, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851586

RESUMO

The occurrence, level, and distribution of multiclass emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in fish and mollusks from the Klang River estuary were examined. The targeted EOCs for this assessment were phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, 4-OP, and 4-NP), organophosphorous pesticides (quinalphos, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon), estrogenic hormones (E2, E1, and EE2), and pharmaceutically active chemicals (primidone, sulfamethoxazole, dexamethasone, diclofenac, amoxicillin, progesterone, and testosterone). Results from this study showed that the prevalent contamination of the Klang River estuary by EOCs with diclofenac, bisphenol A, progesterone, and amoxicillin were predominantly detected in fish and mollusks. Among the EOCs, diclofenac and progesterone had the highest concentrations in fish and mollusk samples, respectively. The concentrations of diclofenac and progesterone in fish and mollusk samples range from 1.42 ng/g to 10.76 ng/g and from 0.73 ng/g to 9.57 ng/g, respectively. Bisphenol A should also be highlighted because of its significant presence in both fish and mollusks. The concentration of bisphenol A in both matrices range from 0.92 ng/g to 5.79 ng/g. The calculated hazard quotient (HQ) for diclofenac, bisphenol A, and progesterone without consideration to their degradation byproduct were less than one, thus suggesting that the consumption of fish and mollusks from the Klang River estuary will unlikely pose any health risk to consumers on the basis of the current assessment. Nonetheless, this preliminary result is an important finding for pollution studies in Malaysian tropical coastal ecosystems, particularly for organic micropollutant EOCs, and can serve as a baseline database for future reference.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Peixes/metabolismo , Moluscos/metabolismo , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Humanos , Malásia , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(1): 211-223, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051257

RESUMO

The concentration profile, distribution and risk assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the coastal surface water from the Klang River estuary were measured. Surface coastal water samples were extracted using offline solid phase, applying polymeric C18 cartridges as extraction sorbent and measuring with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC MS-MS) technique. Extraction method was optimized for its recovery, sensitivity and linearity. Excellent recoveries were obtained from the optimized method with percentage of recoveries ranging from 73 to 126%. The optimized analytical method achieved good sensitivity with limit of detection ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 ng L-1, while linearity of targeted compounds in the LC MS-MS system was more than 0.990. The results showed that amoxicillin has the highest concentration (102.31 ng L-1) followed by diclofenac (10.80 ng L-1) and primidone (7.74 ng L-1). The percentage of contribution (% of total concentration) for the targeted PhACs is in the following order; amoxicillin (92.90%) > diclofenac (3.95%) > primidone (1.23%) > dexamethasone (0.75%) > testosterone (0.70%) > sulfamethoxazole (0.33%) > progesterone (0.14%). Environmental risk assessment calculated based on deterministic approach (the RQ method), showed no present risk from the presence of PhACs in the coastal water of Klang River estuary. Nonetheless, this baseline assessment can be used for better understanding on PhACs pollution profile and distribution in the tropical coastal and estuarine ecosystem as well as for future comparative studies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Diclofenaco/análise , Ecossistema , Estuários , Malásia , Rios/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
8.
Food Chem ; 278: 767-772, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583440

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effect of pH (X1), temperature (X2) and inulin amount (X3) on transformation of isoflavones (daidzin and daidzein) to equol in soymilk fermented with Bifidobacterium spp. All responses significantly (p < 0.05) fitted into quadratic models with coefficients of determination (R2) close to 1 (0.935-0.989). At 24 h of fermentation, amounts of daidzin and daidzein were influenced by all factors. While at 48 h, all factors affected daidzin and only temperature affected daidzein. Equol production was influenced by pH and temperature in 24 h and by all factors in 48 h fermentation. The optimum conditions for equol production were pH 8, 30 °C and 0.5% inulin. Model validation demonstrated there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference between the experimental and predicted values, suggested the suitability of established models in explaining the daidzin and daidzein transformation to equol as a function of pH, temperature and inulin.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium breve/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Equol/biossíntese , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Leite de Soja/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium breve/citologia , Bifidobacterium longum/citologia , Fermentação , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inulina/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 5973484, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363649

RESUMO

Nowadays, bacteriocin industry has substantially grown replacing the role of chemical preservatives in enhancing shelf-life and safety of food. The progress in bacteriocin study has been supported by the emerging of consumer demand on the applications of natural food preservatives. Since food is a complex ecosystem, the characteristics of bacteriocin determine the effectiveness of their incorporation into the food products. Among four commercial media (M17 broth, MRS broth, tryptic soy broth, and nutrient broth) tested, the highest growth of Pediococcus acidilactici kp10 and bacteriocin-like-inhibitory substance (BLIS) production were obtained in the cultivation with M17. BLIS production was found to be a growth associated process where the production was increased concomitantly with the growth of producing strain, P. acidilactici kp10. The antimicrobial property of BLIS against three indicator microorganisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) remained stable upon heating at 100°C but not detectable at 121°C. The BLIS activity was also observed to be stable and active at a wide pH range (pH 2 to pH 7). The BLIS activity remained constant at -20°C and -80°C for 1 month of storage. However, the activity dropped after 3 and 6 months of storage at 4°C, -20°C, and -80°C with more than 80% reduction. The ability of bacteriocin from P. acidilactici kp10 to inhibit food-borne pathogens while remaining stable and active at extreme pH and temperature is of potential interest for future applications in food preservatives.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura
10.
3 Biotech ; 8(8): 346, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073131

RESUMO

This paper deliberates the extraction, characterization and examination of potential application of soluble polysaccharides of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a prebiotic. The PKC was defatted and crude polysaccharide was obtained through water, citric acid or NaOH extraction. The physiochemical properties of the extracted polysaccharides viz. total carbohydrates, protein content, solubility rate, monosaccharides composition, structural information and thermal properties were also determined. The extracted soluble polysaccharides were further subjected to a digestibility test using artificial human gastric juice. Finally, their prebiotic potential on two probiotics, namely Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lb. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 were evaluated in vitro. It was observed that PKC contained ash (5.2%), moisture (7.4%), carbohydrates (65.8%), protein (16.5%) and fat (5.1%). There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the values of NaOH-extracted crude polysaccharides (8.73%) and that of water (3.03%) and citric acid (3.07%)-extracted polysaccharides. The extracted polysaccharides composed of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose, xylose and rhamanose, with highest percentage of mannose (62.49%) and galactose (25.42%) in SPCA. Total carbohydrate content in SCPW, SCPCA and SCPN are 57.11%, 56.94% and 50.95%, respectively. The polysaccharides from PKC in this study were found to be highly soluble (> 95%). Protein content in SCPW, SCPCA and SCPN are 0.72, 0.40 and 0.58, respectively, and the peaks which indicated the presence of protein were observed at approximately 1640 cm-1 (amide I). FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the polysaccharides extracts were linked to ß and α-glycosidic bonds and thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) showed the main degradation temperature of SP is about 121 to 125 °C. The SP were found to be highly resistance (> 96%) to hydrolysis when subjected to artificial human gastric juice. The prebiotics potentials of the polysaccharides on probiotics in vitro demonstrated an increase in proliferation of Lb. plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lb. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 with decrease in the pH of the medium and producing organic acids.All the above findings strongly indicated that polysaccharides extracted from PKC, an industrial waste, have a potential to be exploited as novel prebiotics.

11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 131(Pt A): 284-293, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886949

RESUMO

This baseline assessment reports on the occurrence, distribution, and sources of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in tropical coastal sediments of anthropogenically impacted Klang River estuary, Malaysia. Bisphenol A was the highest concentration detected at 16.84 ng g-1 dry weight, followed by diclofenac (13.88 ng g-1 dry weight) and E1 (12.47 ng g-1 dry weight). Five compounds, namely, amoxicillin, progesterone, diazinon, bisphenol A, and E1, were found in all sampling stations assessed, and other compounds such as primidone, diclofenac, testosterone, E2, and EE2 were ubiquitously present in sediment samples, with percentage of detection range from 89.04% to 98.38%. Organic carbon content and pH were the important factors controlling the fate of targeted compounds in the tropical estuarine sediment. On the basis of the literature from other studies, the sources of EOCs are thought to be from wastewater treatment plants, domestic/medical waste discharge, livestock activities, industrial waste discharge, and agricultural activities.


Assuntos
Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Diclofenaco/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Malásia , Fenóis/análise , Rios , Clima Tropical
12.
Environ Geochem Health ; 40(6): 2551-2572, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802607

RESUMO

Rapid increase in industrialization and urbanization in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia has led to the intense release of petroleum and products of petroleum into the environment. Surface sediment samples were collected from the Selangor River in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia during four climatic seasons and analyzed for PAHs and biomarkers (hopanes). Sediments were soxhlet extracted and further purified and fractionated through first and second step column chromatography. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for analysis of PAHs and hopanes fractions. The average concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 219.7 to 672.3 ng g-1 dw. The highest concentrations of PAHs were detected at 964.7 ng g-1 dw in station S5 in the mouth of the Selangor River during the wet inter-monsoonal season. Both pyrogenic and petrogenic PAHs were detected in the sediments with a predominance of the former. The composition of hopanes was homogeneous showing that petroleum hydrocarbons share an identical source in the study area. Diagnostic ratios of hopanes indicated that some of the sediment samples carry the crankcase oil signature.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Estuários , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Malásia , Estações do Ano , Poluição Química da Água/análise
13.
J Food Sci Technol ; 55(4): 1270-1284, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606741

RESUMO

This paper deliberates the modelling and validation of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) secretion by Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10 at different agitation speeds in a stirred tank bioreactor. A range of models namely the re-parameterised logistic, Luedeking-Piret and maintenance energy were assessed to predict the culture performance of the said bacterium. Growth of P. acidilactici Kp10 was enhanced with increased agitation speed up to 600 rpm while BLIS secretion was maximum at 400 rpm but decreased at higher agitation speed. Growth of P. acidilactici aptly subscribed to the re-parameterised logistic model while BLIS secretion and lactose consumption fitted well with the Luedeking-Piret model. The models revealed a relationship between growth of the bacterium and BLIS secretion. Bacterial growth and BLIS secretion were largely affected by the agitation speed of the stirred tank bioreactor which regulated the oxygen transfer to the culture. BLIS secretion by P. acidilactici Kp10 was however enhanced in oxygen-limited culture. The study also assessed BLIS from the perspective of its stability when subjected to factors such as temperature, pH and detergents. Results showed that BLIS produced by this strain was not affected by heat (at 25-100 °C for 20 min and at 121 °C for 15 min), surfactant (Tween 40, 60 and 80 and urea), detergents (up to 1% SDS), organic solvents (50% each of acetone, methanol and ethanol) and stable in a wide range of pH (2-10). The above information are pertinent with reference to commercial applications of this bacterial product in food manufacturing which invariably involve various sterilization processes and subjected to a wide pH range.

14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(12): 4570-4577, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pharmaceutical industry has boosted gelatin consumption worldwide. This is supported by the availability of cost-effective gelatin production from porcine by-products. However, cross-contamination of gelatin materials, where porcine gelatin was unintentionally included in the other animal sources of gelatin, has caused significant concerns about halal authenticity. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has enabled a highly specific and sensitive animal species detection method in various food products. Hence, such a technique was employed in the present study to detect and quantify porcine DNA in gelatin using a molecular beacon probe, with differences in performance between mitochondrial (cytochrome b gene) and chromosomal DNA-(MPRE42 repetitive element) based porcine-specific PCR assays being compared. RESULTS: A higher sensitivity was observed in chromosomal DNA (MPRE-PCR assay), where this assay allows the detection of gelatin DNA at amounts as as low as 1 pg, whereas mitochondrial DNA (CBH-PCR assay) can only detect at levels down to 10 pg of gelatin DNA. When an analysis with commercial gelatin and gelatin capsule samples was conducted, the same result was observed, with a significantly more sensitive detection being provided by the repetitive element of chromosomal DNA. CONCLUSION: The present study has established highly sensitive DNA-based porcine detection systems derived from chromosomal DNA that are feasible for highly processed products such as gelatin and gelatin capsules containing a minute amount of DNA. This sensitive detection method can also be implemented to assist the halal authentication process of various food products available on the market. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cápsulas/química , Gelatina/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Citocromos b/genética , Primers do DNA/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/instrumentação , Suínos
15.
Molecules ; 23(2)2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438288

RESUMO

Tempoyak is a functional Malaysian food (an acid-fermented condiment) which is produced from the pulp of the durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit. The current study aimed to isolate and identify potential exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Lactobacillus strains from tempoyak for potential use as probiotics. Seven isolates (DUR2, DUR4, DUR5, DUR8, DUR12, DUR18, and DUR20) out of 44 were able to produce EPS, and exhibited resistance to acid and bile salt compared to the reference strains Lactobacillus rhmnosus (ATCC53103) and L. plantarum (ATCC8014). The seven isolated strains belonged to five different species-L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. crispatus, L. reuteri, and L. pentosus-which were identified using API 50 CHL and 16S rRNA gene sequences (Polymerase chain reaction, PCR - based). The seven strains displayed different ability to produce EPS (100-850 mg/L). Isolates exhibited a high survivability to acid (pH 3.0), bile salts (0.3%), and gastrointestinal tract model (<70%). Results showed that the auto-aggregation and cell surface hydrophobicity ranged from 39.98% to 60.09% and 50.80% to 80.53%, respectively, whereas, the highest co-aggregation value (66.44%) was observed by L. fermentum (DUR8) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolates showed good inhibitory activity against tested pathogens, high antioxidant activity (32.29% to 73.36%), and good ability to reduce cholesterol (22.55% to 75.15%). Thus, the seven tested strains have value as probiotics.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/biossíntese , Probióticos/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Antibiose/fisiologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Bombacaceae/microbiologia , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Malásia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Foods ; 6(11)2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120362

RESUMO

The present study investigates the detection of lard in cocoa butter through changes in fatty acids composition, triacylglycerols profile, and thermal characteristics. Cocoa butter was mixed with 1% to 30% (v/v) of lard and analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector, high performance liquid chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results revealed that the mixing of lard in cocoa butter showed an increased amount of oleic acid in the cocoa butter while there was a decrease in the amount of palmitic acid and stearic acids. The amount of POS, SOS, and POP also decreased with the addition of lard. A heating thermogram from the DSC analysis showed that as the concentration of lard increased from 3% to 30%, two minor peaks at -26 °C and 34.5 °C started to appear and a minor peak at 34.5 °C gradually overlapped with the neighbouring major peak. A cooling thermogram of the above adulterated cocoa butter showed a minor peak shift to a lower temperature of -36 °C to -41.5 °C. Values from this study could be used as a basis for the identification of lard from other fats in the food authentication process.

17.
Talanta ; 173: 51-59, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602191

RESUMO

Estuary sediments are one of the important components of coastal ecosystems and have been regarded as a sink for various types of organic pollutants. Organic pollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) which have been associated with various environmental and human health effects were detected in the estuary sediment at trace level. Considering various interferences that may exist in the estuarine sediment, a sensitive and selective method, capable of detecting multiclass EDC pollutants at the trace levels, needs to be developed and optimized to be applied for environmental analysis. A combination of Soxhlet extraction followed by offline solid phase extraction (SPE) cleaned up with detection based on LC triple quadrupole MS was optimized and validated in this study. The targeted compounds consisted of ten multiclass EDCs, namely, diclofenac, primidone, bisphenol A, estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), progesterone, and testosterone. The method showed high extraction efficiency with percentage of recovery from 78% to 108% and excellent sensitivity with detection limit between 0.02ngg-1 and 0.81ngg-1. Excellent linearity from 0.991 to 0.999 was achieved for the developed compounds and the relative standard deviation was less than 18%, an indication of good precision analysis. Evaluation of the matrix effects showed ionization suppression for all the developed compounds. Verification of the method was carried out by analyzing the estuarine sediment collected from Langat River. The analyzed estuarine sediments showed a trace concentration of diclofenac, bisphenol A, progesterone, testosterone, primidone, and E1. However, E2, EE2, 4-OP, and 4-NP were below the method's detection limit. Diclofenac exhibited the highest concentration at 2.67ngg-1 followed by bisphenol A (1.78ngg-1) while E1 showed the lowest concentration at 0.07ngg-1.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Clima Tropical , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
18.
BMC Microbiol ; 17(1): 121, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selection of a microbial strain for the incorporation into food products requires in vitro and in vivo evaluations. A bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10, isolated from a traditional dried curd was assessed in vitro for its beneficial properties as a potential probiotic and starter culture. The inhibitory spectra of the bacterial strain against different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, its cell surface hydrophobicity and resistance to phenol, its haemolytic, amylolytic and proteolytic activities, ability to produce acid and coagulate milk together with its enzymatic characteristics and adhesion property were all evaluated in vitro. RESULTS: P. acidilactici Kp10 was moderately tolerant to phenol and adhere to mammalian epithelial cells (Vero cells and ileal mucosal epithelium). The bacterium also exhibited antimicrobial activity against several gram-positive and gram-negative food-spoilage and food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytgenes ATCC 15313, Salmonella enterica ATCC 13311, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 35030 and Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 12378. The absence of haemolytic activity and proteinase (trypsin) and the presence of a strong peptidase (leucine-arylamidase) and esterase-lipase (C4 and C8) were observed in this LAB strain. P. acidilactici Kp10 also produced acid, coagulated milk and has demonstrated proteolytic and amylolactic activities. CONCLUSION: The properties exhibited by P. acidilactici Kp10 suggested its potential application as probiotic and starter culture in the food industry.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo , Pediococcus acidilactici/fisiologia , Probióticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibiose , Aderência Bacteriana , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Laticínios/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Epitélio/microbiologia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pediococcus acidilactici/efeitos dos fármacos , Pediococcus acidilactici/enzimologia , Fenol/farmacologia , Amido/metabolismo , Células Vero
19.
J Food Sci Technol ; 54(1): 164-173, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28242914

RESUMO

This paper reports on the extraction, partial characterization and the potential application of crude polysaccharides from defatted coconut residue as a prebiotic. The coconut residue was defatted and extracted to obtain the crude polysaccharides and its physicochemical properties were determined. The crude polysaccharides were assessed for monosaccharide composition, total carbohydrate content, reducing sugar concentration and protein content determination. The functional group and structural elucidation of crude polysaccharides was also done using Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis. The product was then subjected to artificial human gastric juice treatment to determine digestibility. Finally, an in vitro proliferation and acid production by two probiotic bacteria namely Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were included in this study. It was found that the defatted coconut residue contained ash (0.54%), moisture (55.42%), protein (1.69%), crude fat (17.26%) and carbohydrate (25.73%). The percentage of crude polysaccharides extracted was 0.73 ± 0.04. The two fractions of monosaccharides obtained were glucose and fructose. Total carbohydrate content of DCR was 13.35% (w/v). The quantitative value of the reducing sugars obtained was 20.71%. Protein content in the crude polysaccharides was 0.009% and the peaks which indicated the presence of protein were observed at around 1640 cm-1 (amide I) and 1530 cm-1 (amide II). DCR crude polysaccharides were highly resistant (88%) to hydrolysis when subjected to artificial human gastric juice. The product was found to markedly stimulate two tested probiotics to proliferate and produce organic acids. All the above findings are supportive of the fact that polysaccharides extracted from DCR, an industrial waste, have a vast potential to be exploited as novel prebiotics.

20.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0163436, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27716792

RESUMO

The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing. To address this research gap, we developed, for the first time, a species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay with a very short target length (120 bp) to detect MBT in the food chain; this authentication ensured better security and reliability through molecular fingerprints. The PCR-amplified product was digested with Bfa1 endonuclease, and distinctive restriction fingerprints (72, 43 and 5 bp) for MBT were found upon separation in a microfluidic chip-based automated electrophoresis system, which enhances the resolution of short oligos. The chances of any false negative identifications were eliminated through the use of a universal endogenous control for eukaryotes, and the limit of detection was 0.0001 ng DNA or 0.01% of the meat under admixed states. Finally, the optimized PCR-RFLP assay was validated for the screening of raw and processed commercial meatballs, burgers and frankfurters, which are very popular in most countries. The optimized PCR-RFLP assay was further used to screen MBT materials in 153 traditional Chinese medicines of 17 different brands and 62 of them were found MBT positive; wherein the ingredients were not declared in product labels. Overall, the novel assay demonstrated sufficient merit for use in any forensic and/or archaeological authentication of MBT, even under a state of decomposition.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Tartarugas/genética , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , DNA/genética , Cadeia Alimentar , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Especificidade da Espécie
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