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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138895, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361365

RESUMO

With increasing population and human intervention on the natural environment, hazards are a growing threat, coming in many forms, including floods, droughts, soil erosion, and water pollution. A key approach to mitigate hydrological disaster risk at the community level is informed planning with decision support systems. The literature shows emerging efforts on multi-hazard decision support systems for hydrological disasters and demonstrates the need for an engaging, accessible, and collaborative serious game environment facilitating the relationship between the environment and communities. In this study, a web-based decision support tool (DST) was developed for hydrological multi-hazard analysis while employing gamification techniques to introduce a competitive element. The serious gaming environment provides functionalities for intuitive management, visualization, and analysis of geospatial, hydrological, and economic data to help stakeholders in the decision-making process regarding hydrological hazard preparedness and response. Major contributions of the presented DST include involving the community in environmental decision making by reducing the technical complexity required for analysis, increasing community awareness for the environmental and socio-economic consequences of hydrological hazards, and allowing stakeholders to discover and discuss potential trade-offs to hazardous scenarios considering the limitations in budget, regulations, and technicality. The paper describes the software design approaches and system architecture applied for a modular, secure, and scalable software as well as the framework's intuitive web-based user interfaces for real-time and collaborative data analysis and damage assessment. Finally, a case study was conducted to demonstrate the usability of DST in a formal setting and to measure user satisfaction with surveys.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109887, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785462

RESUMO

The paper presents a web-based application developed as a medium for executing a serious game to enhance multi-jurisdictional collaborative planning and decision making for mitigation of multiple hazards related to water (i.e., floods, soil erosions, water quality). The gaming application is integrated into the Iowa Watershed Decision Support System (IoWaDSS) designed to serve as a comprehensive multi-sectoral data repository along with the simulation results of process modeling to educate and inform communities on the status of their watersheds during extreme conditions. The interactive serious gaming application was devised to encourage public engagement, facilitate communication and positive relationship between watershed communities, and make the decision process more attractive and transparent for the stakeholders. The web environment offers easily-accessible, user-friendly interfaces that match the skills and knowledge level of a non-technical user. Developed with adaptive design and flexible architecture, the gaming application is generalizable and extendable to support hazard mitigation in other watersheds.


Assuntos
Solo , Qualidade da Água , Internet , Iowa , Comportamento Social
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 806-817, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539987

RESUMO

Sediment accumulation at culverts involves large-scale and interlinked environmental processes that are difficult to address with experimental or physical modeling methods. This article presents an alternative data-driven investigation for shedding insights into these processes. Accordingly, a web-based geovisual analytics application, the IowaDOT platform, was developed, which allows users to explore the complex processes associated with the sediment deposition at culverts. The platform provides systematic procedures for (1) collecting and integrating analytical variables into a single dataset, (2) quantifying the degree of culvert sedimentation using time series of aerial images, (3) identifying drivers that contribute to culvert sedimentation processes from a variety of culvert structural and upstream landscape characteristics using a tree-based feature selection algorithm, and (4) facilitating the understanding of complex spatial and relational patterns of culvert sedimentation processes using multivariate geovisualizations supported by a self-organizing map (SOM). As the outcomes of this study, these patterns identify culvert sedimentation-prone regions in Iowa and quantify empirical relationships between the drivers and culvert sedimentation degrees. A simple evaluation of the platform was performed to assess the usefulness and user satisfaction of the tool by professional users, and positive feedbacks are received.

4.
Ground Water ; 46(6): 865-72, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18671748

RESUMO

A low-cost, noninvasive, three-dimensional (3D), particle tracking velocimetry system was designed and built to investigate particle movement in match-index-refraction porous media. Both a uniform load of the glass beads of the same diameter and a binary load of the glass beads of two diameters were used. The purpose of the experiments is to study the effect of the two loads on the trajectories, velocity distribution, and spreading of small physical particles. A total of 35 particles were released and tracked in the uniform load and 46 in the binary load. The 3D trajectory of each particle was recorded with two video camcorders and analyzed. It is found that the particle's velocity, trajectory, and spreading are very sensitive to its initial location and that the smaller pore size or heterogeneity in the binary load increases the particles' velocity and enhances their spreading as compared with the uniform load. The experiments also verified the previous finding that the distribution of the particle velocities are lognormal in the longitudinal direction and Gaussian in two transverse directions and that the particle spreading is much larger along the longitudinal direction than along the traverse directions.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Movimentos da Água , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Vidro/química , Microesferas , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
5.
J Biomech ; 40(8): 1676-85, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17400230

RESUMO

Aseptic loosening from polyethylene wear debris is the leading cause of failure for metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants. Third-body debris ingress to the bearing space results in femoral head roughening and acceleration of polyethylene wear. How third-body particles manage to enter the bearing space between the closely conforming articulating surfaces of the joint is not well understood. We hypothesize that one such mechanism is from convective fluid transport during subluxation of the total hip joint. To test this hypothesis, a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed and validated, to quantify fluid ingress into the bearing space during a leg-cross subluxation event. The results indicated that extra-articular joint fluid could be drawn nearly to the pole of the cup with even very small separations of the femoral head (<0.60mm). Debris suspended near the equator of the cup at the site of maximum fluid velocity just before the subluxation began could be transported to within 11 degrees from the cup pole. Larger head diameters resulted in increased fluid velocity at all sites around the entrance to the gap compared to smaller head sizes, with fluid velocity being greatest along the anterosuperolateral cup edge, for all head sizes. Fluid pathlines indicated that suspended debris would reach similar angular positions in the bearing space regardless of head size. Increased inset of the femoral head into the acetabular cup resulted both in higher fluid velocity and in transport of third-body debris further into the bearing space.


Assuntos
Migração de Corpo Estranho/etiologia , Migração de Corpo Estranho/fisiopatologia , Luxação do Quadril/etiologia , Luxação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Líquido Sinovial , Acetábulo/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Cabeça do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Propriedades de Superfície
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