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2.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 93(1): 284-305, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28568902

RESUMO

Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecologia/métodos , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Science ; 355(6332)2017 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28360268

RESUMO

Distributions of Earth's species are changing at accelerating rates, increasingly driven by human-mediated climate change. Such changes are already altering the composition of ecological communities, but beyond conservation of natural systems, how and why does this matter? We review evidence that climate-driven species redistribution at regional to global scales affects ecosystem functioning, human well-being, and the dynamics of climate change itself. Production of natural resources required for food security, patterns of disease transmission, and processes of carbon sequestration are all altered by changes in species distribution. Consideration of these effects of biodiversity redistribution is critical yet lacking in most mitigation and adaptation strategies, including the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Animais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Saúde , Humanos
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(22): 12001-8, 2015 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25978306

RESUMO

This work reports on the performance of a segmented polymer electrochromic display that was fabricated with solution-based processes in ambient atmosphere. An encapsulation process and the combination of structured wells for the polymer electrochrome and electrolyte layers as well as the use of a preoxidized counter polymer yields high contrasts and fast switching speeds. Asymmetric driving-with respect to time-of the display is investigated for the first time and the degradation effects in the electrochrome layer are analyzed and addressed to yield a stable device exceeding 100,000 switching cycles. A printed circuit board was integrated with the display, allowing the device to be run as a clock, where the segments only required short pulses to switch without the need for a constant current to maintain its state. Such an application pairs well with the advantages of electrochromic polymers, drawing on its high contrast, stability, and ability to maintain its colored or colorless state without the need for a constant power supply, to demonstrate the promise as well as the challenges of developing more sophisticated electrochromic devices.

5.
Ambio ; 44(8): 766-77, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26008615

RESUMO

This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Participação da Comunidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Historiografia , Regiões Árticas , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , América do Norte , Federação Russa
6.
Ambio ; 43(2): 234-43, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23852881

RESUMO

This article explores the peat production impacts on Jukajoki river in Finland by implementing discourse analysis. Four discourses are explored: state truth statements; company statements that are in close proximity of state power; discourses provided by the local community Selkie, who provided counter-narratives to the official views; and finally media and related discourses. In conclusion, the discourses by the state and closely related actors (A-B) comprised implementation of their power and justifying it at the expense of those who are excluded from such power, in this case the village. The village narrative (C) contains elements that strongly contradict the statements provided by those with power. The results indicate local communities should be taken more seriously. The systematic denial of local peoples' rights should be reviewed, and local participation in environmental permit assessments implemented.


Assuntos
Peixes , Controle Social Formal , Poluição da Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Finlândia , Humanos , Solo
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