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1.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(1): 14-15, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937937
2.
CRISPR J ; 2(6): 356-358, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860349
3.
JCI Insight ; 4(22)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723063

RESUMO

Mutations in B cell lymphoma 2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) are recurrently associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and muscular dystrophy. Using isogenic genome-edited human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs), we examined how a DCM-causing BAG3 mutation (R477H), as well as complete loss of BAG3 (KO), impacts myofibrillar organization and chaperone networks. Although unchanged at baseline, fiber length and alignment declined markedly in R477H and KO iPSC-CMs following proteasome inhibition. RNA sequencing revealed extensive baseline changes in chaperone- and stress response protein-encoding genes, and protein levels of key BAG3 binding partners were perturbed. Molecular dynamics simulations of the BAG3-HSC70 complex predicted a partial disengagement by the R477H mutation. In line with this, BAG3-R477H bound less HSC70 than BAG3-WT in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Finally, myofibrillar disarray triggered by proteasome inhibition in R477H cells was mitigated by overexpression of the stress response protein heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). These studies reveal the importance of BAG3 in coordinating protein quality control subsystem usage within the cardiomyocyte and suggest that augmenting HSF1 activity might be beneficial as a means to mitigate proteostatic stress in the context of BAG3-associated DCM.

4.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 4(6): 755-762, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709322

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia is a major causal risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) has emerged as a promising molecular target to reduce CHD risk due to its regulation of all 3 major lipid traits: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Here, the authors review the discovery of ANGPTL3, the role of ANGPTL3 in lipoprotein metabolism, and the genetic association between naturally occurring ANGPTL3 loss-of-function mutations and CHD. In light of the favorable consequences of ANGPTL3 deficiency, various therapeutic strategies to target ANGPTL3 are currently in development, including a monoclonal antibody, an antisense oligonucleotide, and gene editing.

5.
Circ Res ; 125(11): 957-968, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588864

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lower NP (natriuretic peptide) levels may contribute to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. Blacks have lower NP levels than middle-aged and older white adults. A high-carbohydrate challenge causes an upregulation of a negative ANP regulator microRNA-425 (miR-425), which reduces ANP (atrial-NP) levels in whites. OBJECTIVES: We designed a prospective trial to study racial differences in (1) NP levels among young adults, (2) NP response to a high-carbohydrate challenge, and (3) explore underlying mechanisms for race-based differences. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy self-identified blacks and whites received 3 days of study diet followed by a high-carbohydrate challenge. Gene expression from whole blood RNA was assessed in the trial participants. Additionally, atrial and ventricular tissue samples from the Myocardial Applied Genomics Network repository were examined for NP system gene expression. Among 72 healthy participants, we found that B-type-NP, NT-proBNP (N-terminal-pro-B-type NP), and MRproANP (midregional-pro-ANP) levels were 30%, 47%, and 18% lower in blacks compared with whites (P≤0.01), respectively. The decrease in MRproANP levels in response to a high-carbohydrate challenge differed by race (blacks 23% [95% CI, 19%-27%] versus whites 34% [95% CI, 31%-38]; Pinteraction<0.001), with no change in NT-proBNP levels. We did not observe any racial differences in expression of genes encoding for NPs (NPPA/NPPB) or NP signaling (NPR1) in atrial and ventricular tissues. NP processing (corin), clearance (NPR3), and regulation (miR-425) genes were ≈3.5-, ≈2.5-, and ≈2-fold higher in blacks than whites in atrial tissues, respectively. We also found a 2-and 8-fold higher whole blood RNA expression of gene encoding for Neprilysin (MME) and miR-425 among blacks than whites. CONCLUSIONS: Racial differences in NP levels are evident in young, healthy adults suggesting a state of NP deficiency exists in blacks. Impaired NP processing and clearance may contribute to race-based NP differences. Higher miR-425 levels in blacks motivate additional studies to understand differences in NP downregulation after physiological perturbations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03072602. Unique identifier: NCT03072602.

6.
Per Med ; 16(4): 337-350, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331245

RESUMO

Gene-editing techniques have progressed rapidly in the past 5 years. There are already ongoing human somatic gene-editing clinical trials for multiple diseases. And there has been one purported scenario of human germline gene editing in late 2018. In this paper, we will review the current state of the technology, discuss the ethical and social issues that surround the various forms of gene editing, as well as review emerging stakeholder data from professionals, the 'general public' and individuals and families dealing with genetic diseases potentially treatable by gene editing.

7.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 16(5): 157-167, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the recent advances in the research and clinical care of patients with the major phenotypes of inherited cardiomyopathies-hypertrophic, dilated, and arrhythmogenic. Developments in genetics, risk stratification, therapies, and disease modeling will be discussed. RECENT: Diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools which incorporate genetic and genomic data are being steadily incorporated into the routine clinical care of patients with genetic cardiomyopathies. Human pluripotent stem cells are a breakthrough model system for the study of genetic variation associated with inherited cardiovascular disease. Next-generation sequencing technology and molecular-based diagnostics and therapeutics have emerged as valuable tools to improve the recognition and care of patients with hypertrophic, dilated, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies. Improved adjudication of variant pathogenicity and management of genotype-positive/phenotype-negative individuals are imminent challenges in this realm of precision medicine.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(23): 20603-20614, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074953

RESUMO

New directions in material applications have allowed for the fresh insight into the coordination of biophysical cues and regulators. Although the role of the mechanical microenvironment on cell responses and mechanics is often studied, most analyses only consider static environments and behavior, however, cells and tissues are themselves dynamic materials that adapt in myriad ways to alterations in their environment. Here, we introduce an approach, through the addition of magnetic inclusions into a soft poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer, to fabricate a substrate that can be stiffened nearly instantaneously in the presence of cells through the use of a magnetic gradient to investigate short-term cellular responses to dynamic stiffening or softening. This substrate allows us to observe time-dependent changes, such as spreading, stress fiber formation, Yes-associated protein translocation, and sarcomere organization. The identification of temporal dynamic changes on a short time scale suggests that this technology can be more broadly applied to study targeted mechanisms of diverse biologic processes, including cell division, differentiation, tissue repair, pathological adaptations, and cell-death pathways. Our method provides a unique in vitro platform for studying the dynamic cell behavior by better mimicking more complex and realistic microenvironments. This platform will be amenable to future studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying mechanical sensing and signaling that influence cellular behaviors and interactions.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Elastômeros/química , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sarcômeros/metabolismo
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(488)2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996081

RESUMO

Monogenic lung diseases that are caused by mutations in surfactant genes of the pulmonary epithelium are marked by perinatal lethal respiratory failure or chronic diffuse parenchymal lung disease with few therapeutic options. Using a CRISPR fluorescent reporter system, we demonstrate that precisely timed in utero intra-amniotic delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing reagents during fetal development results in targeted and specific gene editing in fetal lungs. Pulmonary epithelial cells are predominantly targeted in this approach, with alveolar type 1, alveolar type 2, and airway secretory cells exhibiting high and persistent gene editing. We then used this in utero technique to evaluate a therapeutic approach to reduce the severity of the lethal interstitial lung disease observed in a mouse model of the human SFTPCI73T mutation. Embryonic expression of SftpcI73T alleles is characterized by severe diffuse parenchymal lung damage and rapid demise of mutant mice at birth. After in utero CRISPR-Cas9-mediated inactivation of the mutant SftpcI73T gene, fetuses and postnatal mice showed improved lung morphology and increased survival. These proof-of-concept studies demonstrate that in utero gene editing is a promising approach for treatment and rescue of monogenic lung diseases that are lethal at birth.

12.
Cell ; 177(1): 132-145, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901535

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease represents the leading cause of death worldwide, sparing no nation, ethnicity, or economic stratum. Coronary artery disease is partly heritable. While enormous effort has been devoted to understanding the genetic basis of coronary artery disease and other common, complex cardiovascular diseases, key challenges have emerged in gene discovery, in understanding how DNA variants connect to function, and in translation of genetics to the clinic. We discuss these challenges as well as promising opportunities to bring the work closer to fruition.

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