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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1409, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Uganda incur large costs related to the illness, and while seeking and receiving health care. Such costs create access and adherence barriers which affect health outcomes and increase transmission of disease. The study ascertained the proportion of Ugandan TB affected households incurring catastrophic costs and the main cost drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with retrospective data collection and projections was conducted in 2017. A total of 1178 drug resistant (DR) TB (44) and drug sensitive (DS) TB patients (1134), 2 weeks into intensive or continuation phase of treatment were consecutively enrolled across 67 randomly selected TB treatment facilities. RESULTS: Of the 1178 respondents, 62.7% were male, 44.7% were aged 15-34 years and 55.5% were HIV positive. For each TB episode, patients on average incurred costs of USD 396 for a DS-TB episode and USD 3722 for a Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) episode. Up to 48.5% of households borrowed, used savings or sold assets to defray these costs. More than half (53.1%) of TB affected households experienced TB-related costs above 20% of their annual household expenditure, with the main cost drivers being non-medical expenditure such as travel, nutritional supplements and food. CONCLUSION: Despite free health care in public health facilities, over half of Ugandan TB affected households experience catastrophic costs. Roll out of social protection interventions like TB assistance programs, insurance schemes, and enforcement of legislation related to social protection through multi-sectoral action plans with central NTP involvement would palliate these costs.

2.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900781

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Detailed data on the characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. OBJECTIVE: We determined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Uganda. MEASUREMENTS: As of the 16 May 2020, a total of 203 cases had been confirmed. We report on the first 56 patients; 29 received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and 27 did not. Endpoints included admission to intensive care, mechanical ventilation or death during hospitalisation. MAIN RESULTS: The median age was 34.2 years; 67.9% were male; and 14.6% were <18 years. Up 57.1% of the patients were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were fever (21.4%), cough (19.6%), rhinorrhea (16.1%), headache (12.5%), muscle ache (7.1%) and fatigue (7.1%). Rates of comorbidities were 10.7% (pre-existing hypertension), 10.7% (diabetes) and 7.1% (HIV), Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥30 36.6%. 37.0% had a blood pressure (BP) of >130/90 mm Hg, and 27.8% had BP of >140/90 mm Hg. Laboratory derangements were leucopenia (10.6%), lymphopenia (11.1%) and thrombocytopenia (26.3%). Abnormal chest X-ray was observed in 14.3%. No patients reached the primary endpoint. Time to clinical recovery was shorter among patients who received HCQ, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients with COVID-19 presented with mild disease and exhibited a clinical trajectory not similar to other countries. Outcomes did not differ by HCQ treatment status in line with other concluded studies on the benefit of using HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054641

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The relationship between clinical and biomarker characteristics of asthma and its severity in Africa is not well known. METHODS: Using the Expert Panel Report 3, we assessed for asthma severity and its relationship with key phenotypic characteristics in Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia. The characteristics included adult onset asthma, family history of asthma, exposures (smoking and biomass), comorbidities (HIV, hypertension, obesity, tuberculosis (TB), rhinosinusitis, gastro-oesophageal disease (GERD) and biomarkers (fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), skin prick test (SPT) and blood eosinophils). We compared these characteristics on the basis of severity and fitted a multivariable logistic regression model to assess the independent association of these characteristics with asthma severity. RESULTS: A total of 1671 patients were enrolled, 70.7% women, with median age of 40 years. The prevalence of intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent and severe persistent asthma was 2.9%, 19.9%, 42.6% and 34.6%, respectively. Only 14% were on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Patients with severe persistent asthma had a higher rate of adult onset asthma, smoking, HIV, history of TB, FeNO and absolute eosinophil count but lower rates of GERD, rhinosinusitis and SPT positivity. In the multivariate model, Ethiopian site and a history of GERD remained associated with asthma severity. DISCUSSION: The majority of patients in this cohort presented with moderate to severe persistent asthma and the use of ICS was very low. Improving access to ICS and other inhaled therapies could greatly reduce asthma morbidity in Africa.

4.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 589, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional survey involving 134 pulmonary TB patients started on TB treatment at the TB Treatment Unit of the regional referral hospital was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of individual and health facility delays and associated factors. Prolonged health facility delay was taken as delay of more than 1 week and prolonged patient delay as delay of more than 3 weeks. A logistic regression model was done using STATA version 12 to determine the delays. RESULTS: There was a median total delay of 13 weeks and 110 (82.1%) of the respondents had delay of more than 4 weeks. Patient delay was the most frequent and greatest contributor of total delay and exceeded 3 weeks in 95 (71.6%) respondents. At multivariate analysis, factors that influenced delay included poor patient knowledge on TB (adjOR 6.904, 95% CI 1.648-28.921; p = 0.04) and being unemployed (adjOR 3.947, 95% CI 1.382-11.274; p = 0.010) while being female was found protective of delay; adjOR 0.231, 95% CI 0.08-0.67; p = 0.007). Patient delay was the most significant, frequent and greatest contributor to total delay, and factors associated with delay included being unemployed, low knowledge on TB while being female was found protective of delay.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda
5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217900, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the 9th leading cause of death from a single infectious agent. Patients live in a complex health care system with both formal and informal providers, and it is important that a TB diagnosis is not missed at the first interaction with the health care system. In this study, we highlight the health seeking behavior of patients and missed opportunities for early TB diagnosis for which interventions could be instituted to ensure early TB diagnosis and prompt TB treatment initiation. METHODS: This study was nested in a cross-sectional study that assessed the accuracy of different Xpert MTB/Rif implementation strategies in programmatic settings at the referral hospitals in Uganda. We documented the symptom profile of presumptive TB patients and assessed the health seeking behavior of those with chronic cough by calculating proportion of patients that visited each type of health facility and further calculated the odds of being TB positive given the type of health facility initially visited for consultation. RESULTS: A total of 1,863 presumptive TB patients were enrolled of which 979 (54.5%) were male, and 1795 (99.9%) had chronic cough. A total of 1352 (75.4%) had previously sought care for chronic cough, with 805 (59.6%) seeking care from a public health facility followed by private health facility (289; 21.4%). Up to 182 (13.5%) patients visited a drug store for chronic cough. Patients whose first contact was a private health facility were more likely to have a positive GeneXpert test (adjOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.9; p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic cough is a main symptom for many of the presumptive TB patients presenting at referral hospitals, with several patients having to visit the health system more than once before a TB diagnosis is made. This suggests the need for patients to be thoroughly evaluated at first interface with the health care system to ensure prompt diagnosis and treatment initiation. Improved TB diagnosis possibly with the GeneXpert test, at first contact with the health care system has potential to increase TB case finding and break the transmission cycle in the community.


Assuntos
Tosse/complicações , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216901, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining mycobacterial burden is important in assessing severity of disease, evaluating infectiousness and predicting patient treatment outcomes. Mycobacterial burden assessed by smear microscopy grade and time to culture positivity is clearly interpretable by most physicians. GeneXpert (Xpert) has been recommended by WHO as a first line tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic test as an alternative to smear microscopy. Xpert gives cycle threshold (Ct) values as a potential measure for mycobacterial burden. For physicians to clearly interpret Ct values as measures of mycobacterial burden, this study compared the Xpert quantification capabilities with those of smear microscopy and culture. The study also determined a linear relationship between Xpert Ct values and MGIT culture time to positivity (MGIT-TTP) and associated factors. A cut off Ct value which best predicts smear positivity was also determined using the Receiver Operator Curve analysis method. RESULTS: Excluding missing results and rifampicin resistant TB cases, a moderately strong correlation of 0.55 between Xpert Ct value and smear grade was obtained. A weak correlation of 0.37 was obtained between Xpert Ct values and MGIT time to positivity while that between Xpert Ct values and LJ culture was 0.34. The Xpert Ct values were found to increase by 2.57 for every unit increase in days to positive and HIV status was significantly associated with this relationship. A cut off Ct value of 23.62 was found to best predict smear positivity regardless of HIV status. CONCLUSION: Our study findings show that GeneXpert Ct values are comparable to smear microscopy as a measure of M. tuberculosis burden and can be used to replace smear microscopy. However, given the low correlation between Xpert Ct value and culture positivity, Xpert Ct values cannot replace culture as a measure of M. tuberculosis burden among TB patients.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(2): 386-391, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594259

RESUMO

Understanding risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and their prevalence helps guide early diagnosis. We determined their prevalence among bacteriologically negative and bacteriologically confirmed TB patients in five regional referral hospitals in Uganda. This cross-sectional study considered 1,862 adult presumptive TB participants. We performed fluorescent microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), Lowenstein-Jensen culture, human immunodeficiency virus, and random blood sugar testing on recruited patients. Prevalence and prevalence ratios of risk factors were compared among bacteriologically negative and confirmed cases. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined for significant risk factors in bacteriologically confirmed patients. Of the 1,862 participants, 978 (55%) were male and the median age of the participants was 36 years (interquartile range: 27-48). Up to 273 (15%) had a positive result on all three TB tests. Most prevalent risk factors (prevalence ratio [PR] > 1.0) among bacteriologically negative and positive TB patients were cigarette smoking (9.3% versus 2.1%; PR = 2.1), biosmoke (24% versus 39.7%; PR = 1.7), contact (4.2% versus 6.5%; PR = 1.6), male gender (51.4% versus 72.5%; PR = 1.4), alcohol use (17.2% versus 24.4%; PR = 1.4), diabetes (0.7% versus 0.9%; PR = 1.3), and family history of TB (12.1% versus 13.7%; PR = 1.1). The risk factors and their adjusted prevalence rate ratios (95% CI) of being bacteriologically positive were male (1.8 [1.4-2.4]), biosmoke exposure (1.5 [1.2-2.0]), and history of cigarette smoking (1.6 [1.1-2.4]). Among bacteriologically confirmed patients in Uganda, cigarette smoking, biosmoke exposure, contact, male gender, alcohol use, diabetes, and family history of TB are important risk factors for TB. Interventions for TB control in people with these risk factors would help in TB control efforts.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/fisiopatologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Escarro/microbiologia , Escarro/virologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194741, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a highly sensitive test for TB diagnosis, but still costly to most low-income countries. Several implementation strategies instead of frontline have been suggested; however with scarce data. We assessed accuracy of different Xpert MTB/RIF implementation strategies to inform national roll-out. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 1,924 adult presumptive TB patients in five regional referral hospitals of Uganda. Two sputum samples were collected, one for fluorescent microscopy (FM) and Xpert MTB/RIF examined at the study site laboratories. The second sample was sent to the Uganda Supra National TB reference laboratory for culture using both Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) and liquid culture (MGIT). We compared the sensitivities of FM, Xpert MTB/RIF and the incremental sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF among patients negative on FM using LJ and/or MGIT as a reference standard. RESULTS: A total 1924 patients were enrolled of which 1596 (83%) patients had at least one laboratory result and 1083 respondents had a complete set of all the laboratory results. A total of 328 (30%) were TB positive on LJ and /or MGIT culture. The sensitivity of FM was n (%; 95% confidence interval) 246 (63.5%; 57.9-68.7) overall compared to 52 (55.4%; 44.1-66.3) among HIV positive individuals, while the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF was 300 (76.2%; 71.7-80.7) and 69 (71.6%; 60.5-81.1) overall and among HIV positive individuals respectively. Overall incremental sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF was 60 (36.5%; 27.7-46.0) and 20 (41.7%; 25.5-59.2) among HIV positive individuals. CONCLUSION: Xpert MTB/RIF has a higher sensitivity than FM both in general population and HIV positive population. Xpert MTB/RIF offers a significant increase in terms of diagnostic sensitivity even when it is deployed selectively i.e. among smear negative presumptive TB patients. Our results support frontline use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in high HIV/TB prevalent countries. In settings with limited access, mechanisms to refer smear negative sputum samples to Xpert MTB/RIF hubs are recommended.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Notificação de Doenças/métodos , Notificação de Doenças/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/estatística & dados numéricos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 17(1): 179, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equitable access to affordable medicines and diagnostic tests is an integral component of optimal clinical care of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In Uganda, we lack contemporary data about the availability, cost and affordability of medicines and diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management. METHODS: Data on the availability, cost and affordability of 17 medicines and 2 diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management were collected from 22 public hospitals, 23 private and 85 private pharmacies. The percentage of the available medicines and diagnostic tests, the median retail price of the lowest priced generic brand and affordability in terms of the number of days' wages it would cost the least paid public servant were analysed. RESULTS: The availability of inhaled short acting beta agonists (SABA), oral leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA), inhaled LABA-ICS combinations and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in all the study sites was 75%, 60.8%, 46.9% and 45.4% respectively. None of the study sites had inhaled long acting anti muscarinic agents (LAMA) and inhaled long acting beta agonist (LABA)-LAMA combinations. Spirometry and peak flow-metry as diagnostic tests were available in 24.4% and 6.7% of the study sites respectively. Affordability ranged from 2.2 days' wages for inhaled salbutamol to 17.1 days' wages for formoterol/budesonide inhalers and 27.8 days' wages for spirometry. CONCLUSION: Medicines and diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD care are not widely available in Uganda and remain largely unaffordable. Strategies to improve access to affordable asthma and COPD medicines and diagnostic tests should be implemented in Uganda.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/provisão & distribução , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/provisão & distribução , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Respiratório/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/provisão & distribução , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/provisão & distribução , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/economia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/economia , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Albuterol/economia , Albuterol/provisão & distribução , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/provisão & distribução , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/diagnóstico , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/economia , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/provisão & distribução , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Custos de Medicamentos , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/economia , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/provisão & distribução , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/economia , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/economia , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Uganda
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