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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(8): 893-900, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The isoniazid-resistant TB poses a threat to TB control efforts. Zimbabwe, one of the high TB burden countries, has not explored the burden of isoniazid resistant TB. Hence among all bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients diagnosed in Bulawayo City during March 2017 and December 2018, we aimed to assess the proportion with isoniazid resistant TB and associated factors. Also, we aimed to describe the TB treatment outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A cohort study involving routinely collected data by the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTBRL) in Bulawayo City and National TB programme of Zimbabwe. The percentage with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to express the proportion with isoniazid-resistant TB. The modified Poisson regression was used to assess the association of demographic and clinical characteristics with isoniazid mono-resistant TB. RESULTS: Of 2160 bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients, 1612 (74.6%) had their sputum received at the NTBRL and 743 (46.1%) had culture growth. Among those with culture growth, 34 (4.6%, 95% CI: 3.5-6.7) had isoniazid mono-resistant TB, 25 (3.3%, 95% CI: 2.2-4.9) had MDR-TB. Thus, 59 (7.9%, 95% CI: 6.1-10.1) had isoniazid-resistant TB. Children < 15 years had a higher prevalence of isoniazid mono-resistant TB (aPR= 3.93; 95% CI: 1.24-12.45). Among those with rifampicin sensitive TB, patients with isoniazid-sensitive TB had higher favourable treatment outcomes compared to those with isoniazid-resistant TB (86.3% versus 75.5%, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of isoniazid-resistant TB was low compared to neighbouring countries with high burden of TB-HIV. However, Zimbabwe should consider reviewing treatment guidelines for isoniazid mono-resistant TB due to the observed poor treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 119-125, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of resistance to rifampicin alone; rifampicin and isoniazid, and second-line anti-TB drugs among sputum smear-positive tuberculosis patients in Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A health facility-based cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: In total, 1114 (87.6%) new and 158 (12.4%) retreatment TB patients were enrolled. MTB was confirmed by Xpert MTB/RIF among 1184 (93%) smear-positive sputum samples. There were 64 samples with Xpert MTB/RIF-determined rifampicin resistance. However, two were rifampicin susceptible on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The prevalence of RR-TB was [4.0% (95% CI, 2.9, 5.4%), n=42/1043) and 14.2% (95% CI, 8.9, 21.1%; n=20/141) among new and retreatment patients, respectively. The prevalence of MDR-TB was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.3, 3.1%) and 6.4% (95% CI, 2.4, 10.3%) among new and retreatment TB patients, respectively. Risk factors for RR-TB included prior TB treatment, self-reported HIV infection, travel outside Zimbabwe for ≥one month (univariate), and age <15 years. Having at least a secondary education was protective against RR-TB. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MDR-TB in Zimbabwe has remained stable since the 1994 subnational survey. However, the prevalence of rifampicin mono-resistance was double that of MDR-TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Prevalência , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
3.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 112(6): 285-293, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992299

RESUMO

Background: In Zimbabwe, while the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is being used for diagnosing tuberculosis and rifampicin-resistance, re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) patients are still expected to have culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) performed at national reference laboratories for confirmation. The study aim was to document the Xpert MTB/RIF assay scale-up and assess how the CDST system functioned for re-treatment TB patients. Methods: We performed an ecologic study using national aggregate data. Results: Use of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay increased from 11 829 to 68 153 between 2012 and 2016. Xpert assays worked well, with successful tests in more than 90% of cases, TB detection rates at 15-17% and rifampicin resistance in <10%. During Xpert scale-up, the number of sputum specimens from re-treatment TB patients reaching national reference laboratories for CDST increased from 12% to 51%. In terms of laboratory performance, culture contamination increased from 3% to 17%, positive cultures from 13% to 17% and successful CDST from 6% to 14%: the proportion of CDST showing any resistance to rifampicin averaged 44%. From 2009 to 2016, the proportion of notified re-treatment TB patients with successful CDST increased from <1% to 7%. Conclusions: While components of Zimbabwe's CDST system for re-treatment TB patients showed some changes during the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, overall performance was poor. The country must either invest in improving CDST performance or in advanced molecular diagnostic technology.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Saúde Pública , Rifampina/farmacologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/economia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/economia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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