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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477475

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a metal toxicant of great public health concern. The present study investigated the applicability of the rat incisor in Pb exposure screening. The levels of lead in teeth (Pb-T) in the crown and root of incisors in laboratory Pb-exposed Sprague Dawley rats were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crown accumulated much Pb-T than the root of the Sprague Dawley rat incisor. The levels of lead in blood (Pb-B) were positively correlated with the Pb-T in the crown and root incisors of the Sprague Dawley rats. As an application of the Pb-T crown results in experimental rats, we subsequently analyzed the Pb-T in the crown incisors of Pb-exposed wild rats (Rattus rattus) sampled from residential sites within varying distances from an abandoned lead-zinc mine. The Pb-T accumulation in the crown of incisors of R. rattus rats decreased with increased distance away from the Pb-Zn mine. Furthermore, the Pb-T was strongly correlated (r = 0.85) with the Pb levels in the blood. Laser ablation ICP-MS Pb-T mappings revealed a homogenous distribution of Pb in the incisor with an increased intensity of Pb-T localized in the tip of the incisor crown bearing an enamel surface in both Sprague Dawley and R. rattus rats. These findings suggest that Pb-T in the crown incisor may be reflective of the rat's environmental habitat, thus a possible indicator of Pb exposure.

2.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127788, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182082

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) interferes with various bodily functions. Although high blood Pb (Pb-B) levels in residents from Kabwe, Zambia have been reported, the accumulation pattern of other metals remains unknown. The study was designed to determine the Pb-B, blood cadmium (Cd-B), and zinc (Zn-B) values of 504 representative samples from Kabwe, as well as the potential associated adverse health effects. The Pb-B level ranged from 0.79 to 154.75 µg/dL and generally increased in areas near the mine. A significant elevation of Cd-B was observed in two areas (0.37 ± 0.26 and 0.32 ± 0.30 µg/L) where the two highest mean Pb-B levels were recorded. By contrast, the Zn-B values did not differ greatly with respect to area. Some blood biochemical parameters relating to hepatic and renal functions were out of the normal range in approximately 20-50% of studied adult participants. The δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was significantly inhibited in the two areas contaminated by Pb and Cd. A significant negative relationship was observed between metal levels and clinical parameters, e.g., between Pb-B and δ-ALAD for all the age categories and between Cd-B and the estimated glomerular filtration rate for all the age categories except 0-4 years. The elevated Cd-B in areas near the mine relative to the other areas suggested the potential adverse health effects of Cd and/or the interaction of Pb and Cd. A significant association of metal levels with clinical parameters also indicated the effects of metal exposure on hematopoietic, hepatic, and renal systems.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais/análise , Adulto , Cádmio/análise , Coleta de Dados , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Fígado/química , Registros , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia , Zinco
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14474-14481, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490671

RESUMO

We investigated the potential effects of different land use and other environmental factors on animals living in a contaminated environment. The study site in Kabwe, Zambia, is currently undergoing urban expansion, while lead contamination from former mining activities is still prevalent. We focused on a habitat generalist lizards (Trachylepis wahlbergii). The livers, lungs, blood, and stomach contents of 224 lizards were analyzed for their lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, and arsenic concentrations. Habitat types were categorized based on vegetation data obtained from satellite images. Multiple regression analysis revealed that land use categories of habitats and three other factors significantly affected lead concentrations in the lizards. Further investigation suggested that the lead concentrations in lizards living in bare fields were higher than expected based on the distance from the contaminant source, while those in lizards living in green fields were lower than expected. In addition, the lead concentration of lungs was higher than that of the liver in 19% of the lizards, implying direct exposure to lead via dust inhalation besides digestive exposure. Since vegetation reduces the production of dust from surface soil, it is plausible that dust from the mine is one of the contamination sources and that vegetation can reduce exposure to this.

4.
Environ Res ; 188: 109759, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a well-known toxic heavy metal which can have serious public health hazards. As of today, there is no safe threshold for Pb exposure, especially for children. Lead exposure has been associated with adverse health outcomes involving epigenetic mechanisms, such as aberrant DNA methylation. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and gene-specific promoter DNA methylation status in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2 to 10-year-old children from high Pb exposed area (N = 102) and low Pb exposed area (N = 38). We measured BLLs using a LeadCare II analyzer and investigated the methylation status of the ALAD and p16 gene promoters by methylation-specific PCR. RESULTS: The mean BLLs were 23.7 µg/dL and 7.9 µg/dL in high Pb exposed and low Pb exposed children, respectively. Pb exposure was correlated with increased methylation of the ALAD and p16 genes. The promoter methylation rates of ALAD and p16 in high Pb exposed children were 84.3% and 67.7%, and 42.1% and 44.7% in low Pb exposed children, respectively. Significantly increased methylation was found in both genes in high Pb exposed children compared with low Pb exposed children (p < 0.05). Children with methylated ALAD and p16 genes showed an increased risk of Pb poisoning (odd ratio >1) compared to the unmethylated status. CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time tries to correlate promoter methylation status of the ALAD and p16 genes in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia as a representative. The result suggests that Pb exposure increases aberrations in ALAD and p16 gene methylation, which may be involved in the mechanism of Pb toxicity.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , Genes p16 , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/genética , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/genética , Zâmbia
5.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995873

RESUMO

Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning has devastating effects on neurodevelopment and causes overt clinical signs including convulsions and coma. Health effects including hypertension and various reproductive problems have been reported in adults. Historical Pb mining in Zambia's Kabwe town left a legacy of environmental pollution and childhood Pb poisoning. The current study aimed at establishing the extent of Pb poisoning and exposure differences among family members in Kabwe as well as determining populations at risk and identify children eligible for chelation therapy. Blood samples were collected in July and August 2017 from 1190 household members and Pb was measured using a portable LeadCare-II analyser. Participants included 291 younger children (3-months to 3-years-old), 271 older children (4-9-years-old), 412 mothers and 216 fathers from 13 townships with diverse levels of Pb contamination. The Blood Lead Levels (BLL) ranged from 1.65 to 162  µg/dL, with residents from Kasanda (mean 45.7  µg/dL) recording the highest BLL while Hamududu residents recorded the lowest (mean 3.3  µg/dL). Of the total number of children sampled (n = 562), 23% exceeded the 45  µg/dL, the threshold required for chelation therapy. A few children (5) exceeded the 100  µg/dL whereas none of the parents exceeded the 100  µg/dL value. Children had higher BLL than parents, with peak BLL-recorded at the age of 2-years-old. Lead exposure differences in Kabwe were attributed to distance and direction from the mine, with younger children at highest risk. Exposure levels in parents were equally alarming. For prompt diagnosis and treatment, a portable point-of-care devise such as a LeadCare-II would be preferable in Kabwe.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mineração , Mães , Registros , Reprodução , Manejo de Espécimes , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
6.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125884, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978655

RESUMO

Lead (Pb)-poisoning is a serious public health concern and dogs have been useful as a sentinel-animal for Pb exposure of humans. In the present study, the blood Pb concentrations (BLC), isotope ratios (208 Pb/206 Pb and 207 Pb/206 Pb), and biochemistry of 120 domestically owned dogs living around a Pb mining area, in Kabwe, Zambia were analyzed to determine factors associated with Pb exposure. The overall mean value of Pb in dog blood in the present study was 271.6 µg/L. The BLC in the dogs from sites near the mine were significantly higher than those in the dogs from a site 4 km from the mine (352.9 ± 205.1 µg/L versus 28.0 ± 13.9 µg/L). BLC significantly decreased with both increasing age of the dogs and distance from the mine. The Pb isotope ratios in the dog that resided near the mine showed values similar to those reported at the galena mine in Kabwe, which is considered to be the source of Pb exposure. In contrast to the high metal exposure that was determined in these dogs, the mean values of most analyzed parameters in the blood biochemical analysis were surprisingly within or close to the standard reference values. Moreover, none of the dogs showed overt signs of Pb-poisoning or other clinical symptoms. The results of analysis of Pb exposure of the dogs obtained in the present study, which are similar to the previously reported results in human in this location, suggest that dogs could be useful as a sentinel animal for Pb exposure of humans in Kabwe.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Chumbo/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Isótopos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Sulfetos , Zâmbia
7.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1267-1276, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252124

RESUMO

Metal pollution has been associated with anthropogenic activities, such as effluents and emissions from mines. Soil could be exposure route of wild rats to metals, especially in mining areas. The aim of this study was to verify whether soil exposure under environmentally relevant circumstances results in metal accumulation and epigenetic modifications. Wistar rats were divided to three groups: 1) control without soil exposure, 2) low-metal exposure group exposed to soil containing low metal levels (Pb: 75 mg/kg; Cd: 0.4), and 3) high-metal exposure group exposed to soil (Pb: 3750; Cd: 6). After 1 year of exposure, the metal levels, Pb isotopic values, and molecular indicators were measured. Rats in the high-group showed significantly greater concentrations of Pb and Cd in tissues. Higher accumulation factors (tissue/soil) of Cd than Pb were observed in the liver, kidney, brain, and lung, while the factor of Pb was higher in the tibia. The obtained results of metal accumulation ratios (lung/liver) and stable Pb isotope ratios in the tissues indicated that the respiratory exposure would account for an important share of metal absorption into the body. Genome-wide methylation status and DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt 3a/3b) mRNA expressions in testis were higher in the high-group, suggesting that exposure to soil caused metal accumulation and epigenetic alterations in rats.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , Mineração , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1099, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323764

RESUMO

Lannea edulis (Sond.) Engl. commonly known as wild grape is used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes. It is only found in Eastern and Southern Africa. Phytochemical screening, antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of aqueous extracts of L. edulis in alloxan induced diabetic rats were carried out. We report herein the findings of this research work. Lannea edulis crude aqueous extracts were obtained by hot infusion and evaporation method. Phytochemical screening was carried out and subsequently toxicity studies of the aqueous extracts were performed to establish the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) in albino rats. Alloxan monohydrate was used to induce diabetes in the rats. Lannea edulis positive control group doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg were administered to 3 groups for 14 days. The positive control group was administered 5 mg/kg of glibenclamide. The negative and normal control groups were administered distilled water. To determine fasting blood glucose, blood was drawn on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 while it was drawn on days 0 and 14 for the determination of lipids. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and steroids. L. edulis diabetic positive control groups showed significant (P < 0.05) dose dependent reductions in fasting blood glucose levels. When day 0 mean blood glucose levels were compared to day 3 mean blood glucose levels of their respective groups, the 300 mg/kg L. edulis group showed a 23.3% drop and the 500 mg/kg L. edulis group showed a 52.6% drop. The 100 mg/kg L. edulis diabetic positive control group showed a 25.1% drop by day 5, the day on which it showed statistical significance (P < 0.05) compared to the diabetic control. In addition, administration of aqueous extracts of L. edulis to diabetic rats for 14 days significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) whilst increasing the levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), when compared to the diabetic control group. It was concluded that L. edulis showed significant and dose dependent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects thus confirming its traditional use.

9.
Chemosphere ; 119: 941-947, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25303652

RESUMO

Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health concern worldwide. Blood lead levels exceeding 5 µg dL(-1) are considered elevated. In Kabwe, the capital of Zambia's Central Province, extensive Pb contamination of township soils in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine and posing serious health risk to children has been reported. We investigated BLLs in children under the age of 7 years in townships around the mine; where blood samples were collected and analyzed using an ICP-MS. All of the sampled children had BLLs exceeding 5 µg dL(-1). Children in these areas could be at serious risk of Pb toxicity as 18% of the sampled children in Chowa, 57% (Kasanda) and 25% (Makululu) had BLLs exceeding 65 µg dL(-1). Eight children had BLLs exceeding 150 µg dL(-1) with the maximum being 427.8 µg dL(-1). We recommend that medical intervention be commenced in the children with BLL exceeding 45 µg dL(-1).


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Mineração , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zinco
10.
Jpn J Vet Res ; 61 Suppl: S79-81, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23631162

RESUMO

In order to assess the effects of metal contamination on wildlife, we collected wild black rats (Rattus sp.) from mining areas (Kabwe and Chingola) and a control area (Lusaka) in Zambia and compared metal and metallothionein (MT) levels in their tissues. Furthermore, we exposed metal-contaminated soil from Kabwe to laboratory Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) for one year in order to determine the accumulation factors and effects of metals caused by soil exposure. Results of both the field and laboratory studies suggested that metal-contaminated soil caused accumulation and biological responses such as elevation of MT-2 mRNA expression levels in rats.


Assuntos
Metais/química , Ratos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Osso e Ossos/química , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Rim/química , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/química , Pulmão/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 15 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 15 da Matriz/metabolismo , Tíbia
11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 64(1): 119-29, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23052357

RESUMO

The Copperbelt region, upstream of the Kafue River, including Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT), in Zambia has extensive copper (Cu) mines. In our field study, geographic information system analysis in lake sediment indicated that the northern part of the lake, i.e., the Copperbelt region, could be the source of Cu pollution. Concentrations of Cu in stomach contents between fish species were not significantly different. However, Oreochromis spp. liver showed significantly greater Cu concentrations than those in other fish species. Log liver [Cu], standard length, and nitrogen stable isotope ratio were positively correlated only in Oreochromis spp. In the laboratory study, O. niloticus and O. latipes were exposed to Cu for 4 days, and recovery phases ≤ 28 days were examined. O. niloticus showed significantly greater concentrations of Cu compared with O. latipes at all sampling points. Significantly greater concentrations of Hg in Schilbe intermedius liver than for other fish species were observed, whereas O. macrochir showed significantly greater concentrations of cadmium. In conclusion, the northern part of the lake could be the source of Cu pollution in Lake ITT. Diet may not be the reason for high Cu accumulation in Oreochromis spp. Results from both field and laboratory studies imply that Oreochromis spp. contain high concentrations of Cu under normal physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Cobre/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Lagos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cobre/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Zâmbia
12.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 32(1): 189-92, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23059509

RESUMO

Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and other metals in tissues of 17 free-range and 32 commercial broiler chickens from the Kabwe mining town in Zambia were determined. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd exceeded maximum levels for human consumption in some organs including muscle (Pb only) in free-range chickens, in contrast to low levels in broiler chickens. Human consumers in Kabwe could be exposed to Pb and Cd in free-range chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Mineração , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Chumbo , Zâmbia , Zinco
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 185(6): 4907-18, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23054276

RESUMO

The lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) mine in Kabwe City and the copper-cobalt (Cu-Co) mine in the Copperbelt Province are major mining areas in Zambia. To examine the effects of metal pollution on wildlife, wild black rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus tanezumi) were captured in Kabwe and Chingola (in the Copperbelt Province), and in Lusaka (a noncontaminated site). Wild black rats in Kabwe accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Cd in various organs than rats from Lusaka. In Chingola, significantly higher concentrations of Cu, Co, Pb, and Cd were accumulated in wild black rats than in rats from Lusaka. These results were in accordance with metal accumulation patterns in soil. From toxicological aspects, concentrations of Pb and Cd in rats were generally low. However, metallothionein-1 (MT-1) and metallothionein-2 (MT-2) mRNA expression levels in wild black rats from Kabwe were significantly higher than those in rats from Lusaka. A generalized linear model (GLM) showed that concentrations of Zn and Cu had positive effects on the MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that wild black rats in Zambian mining sites were exposed to metals that accumulated in their organs, causing biological responses such as MT mRNA induction. GLM indicated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression could be a marker for Cr exposure.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Metais/toxicidade , Mineração , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Masculino , Metais/metabolismo , Ratos , Zâmbia
14.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 31(10): 2300-5, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22821446

RESUMO

The Republic of Zambia is rich in mineral resources, such as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb), and mining is a key industry in Zambia. A previous study of Pb pollution in Kabwe, one of the main mining areas, found that soil was contaminated with high levels of toxic metals over a substantial area. In the present study, the authors focus on toxic metal pollution in cattle, one of the most important domestic animals in Zambia. Blood samples from cattle in Kabwe and a control area (Lusaka) were tested for toxic metal content. They also measured mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and cytokines in white blood cells using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In the present in vitro study, The authors cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cattle, exposing them to Pb acetate for 24 h and analyzing mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and selected cytokines. Lead concentrations in cattle blood from Kabwe were significantly greater than those from Lusaka, as were the mRNA expressions of metallothionein-2 (MT-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The present in vitro study demonstrated that Pb exposure led to an increase in the expressions of MT-2, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and iNOS, similar to those found in vivo. These results indicate the possibility of immune system modulations in cattle from the Kabwe area.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Chumbo/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Zâmbia , Zinco/sangue
15.
Gene ; 506(2): 310-6, 2012 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22796127

RESUMO

The study determined heavy metal concentrations and MT1 nucleotide sequence [phylogeny] in liver of the Kafue lechwe. Applicability of MT1 as a biomarker of pollution was assessed. cDNA-encoding sequences for lechwe MT1 were amplified by RT-PCR to characterize the sequence of MT1 which was subjected to BLAST searching at NCBI. Phylogenetic relationships were based on pairwise matrix of sequence divergences calculated by Clustal W. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by NJ method using PHILLIP program. Metals were extracted by acid digestion and concentrations of Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni were determined using an AAS. MT1 mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative comparative real-time RT-PCR. Lechwe MT1 has a length of 183bp, which encode for MT1 proteins of 61AA, which include 20 cysteines. Nucleotide sequence of lechwe MT1 showed identity with sheep MT (97%) and cattle MT1E (97%). Phylogenetic tree revealed that lechwe MT1 was clustered with sheep MT and cattle MT1E. Cu and Ni concentrations and MT1 mRNA expression levels of lechwe from Blue Lagoon were significantly higher than those from Lochinvar (p<0.05). Concentrations of Cd and Cu, Co and Cu, Co and Pb, Ni and Cu, and Ni and Cr were positively correlated. Spearman's rank correlations also showed positive correlations between Cu and Co concentrations and MT mRNA expression. PCA further suggested that MT mRNA expression was related to Zn and Cd concentrations. Hepatic MT1 mRNA expression in lechwe can be used as biomarker of heavy metal pollution.


Assuntos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/genética , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Biomarcadores , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Furanos , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ácidos Pentanoicos , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ruminantes , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zâmbia
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 74(10): 1345-7, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22672843

RESUMO

Intensive agricultural practices are recognized as significant sources of metal pollution in soils and pasture. This study investigated metal contamination in cattle offal from an agricultural area in Zambia, where inorganic fertilizers, agricultural lime, and pesticides are routinely applied. The highest median values (mg/kg, wet weight) of Cu (40.9), Zn (35.2), Cr (1.35) and Ni (0.594) were recorded in the liver, whereas the highest median values of Pb (0.061) and Cd (0.049) were found in kidneys. Maximum levels of Hg, As and Co were under 0.2 mg/kg in both organs. Pb and Cd did not exceed the benchmark values in cattle offal for human consumption and did not pose immediate health risks. Concentrations of Ni and Cr could present a public health concern. Monitoring of metal accumulations in offal of cattle, not only from well-known polluted environments but also agricultural areas, should be done regularly for the health of human consumers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Metais/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Animais , Feminino , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Metais/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica/veterinária , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Zâmbia
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 80: 333-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22521811

RESUMO

Hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) are large semi-aquatic mammals that can be exposed to metals and metalloid from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Therefore, knowledge of metal and metalloid accumulation characteristics in hippopotami living in the national park is important from ecotoxicological point of view. Levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) and metalloid (As) in hippopotami liver from the South Luangwa National Park in Zambia were far lower compared to the established values of toxic levels in cattle. No temporal variations of metal levels in hippopotami were observed, probably because of good management condition and the lack of anthropogenic activities around the national park. However, hippopotami liver accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Hg compared to soil, sediment and their food (plants), most likely due to a process of biomagnification throughout a trophic chain. Moreover, hippopotami liver and land plants showed significantly higher Cd levels than those of soil. These results strongly suggest that hippopotami liver accumulate higher levels of these metals if surrounding environment is contaminated. Levels of Cr and Ni in hippopotami liver were higher compared to other toxic metals. Since this is the first report to show the Cr and Ni levels and bio-accumulation characteristics of Hg and Cd in hippopotami, we concluded that continuous monitoring and evaluation of toxic effects of these metals on hippopotami should be conducted.


Assuntos
Mamíferos/metabolismo , Metaloides/análise , Metais/análise , Plantas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Masculino , Metaloides/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Zâmbia
18.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 30(8): 1892-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21590713

RESUMO

Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and other metals in the liver and kidneys of cattle near a lead-zinc mine in Kabwe (Zambia), which is ranked among the 10 worst polluted places on earth, were compared with other Zambian towns. Metal concentrations were measured in the liver and kidneys of 51 cattle from Kabwe and other Zambian towns. The maximum metal concentrations, expressed in mg/kg and dry weight, in the liver or kidneys were 398.4 (Cu), 252.6 (Zn), 77.81 (Cr), 19.37 (Cd), 7.57 (Ni), 1.8 (Pb), 1.04 (Co), 0.112 (Hg), and 0.05 (As). Concentrations of Pb and Cd in Kabwe cattle were higher than levels in other Zambian towns. The mean concentration of Cd exceeded benchmark values in offal destined for human consumption. Levels of Ni and Cr may also pose public health concerns. Concentrations of Pb and Cr, Pb and Cu, Cd and Zn, Cd and Hg, Zn and Cu, Cu and Co, as well as Co and Ni were positively correlated. The present study also highlighted the dangers of exposure of animals and humans to a mixture of toxic metals.


Assuntos
Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mineração , Zâmbia , Zinco/metabolismo
19.
Environ Pollut ; 159(1): 175-181, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20971538

RESUMO

Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe.


Assuntos
Metaloides/análise , Metaloides/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Animais , Cromo/análise , Cromo/metabolismo , Cobalto/análise , Cobalto/metabolismo , Cobre/análise , Cobre/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/metabolismo , Níquel/análise , Níquel/metabolismo , Ratos , Zâmbia
20.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 59(2): 291-300, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20162262

RESUMO

We measured the level of heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, herbivorous (Oreochromis niloticus) and carnivorous (Serranochromis thumbergi) fish, and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) from Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT) and Lake Kariba. We used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to quantify the levels of seven heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni). The sediment and the herbivorous fish O. niloticus accumulated a very high concentration of Cu in Lake ITT, most likely due to the discharge of Cu waste from a mining area 450 km upstream. The aquatic species we sampled in Lake Kariba had higher concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Pb relative to those in Lake ITT. This is most likely due to anthropogenic activities, such as the use of leaded petrol and antifouling agents in marine paints. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between the coefficient of condition (K) and Ni concentration in the crayfish hepatopancreas. Both O. niloticus and the crayfish had much higher biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, and Cd relative to Cr, Co, Pb, and Ni. The rank of BSAF values for O. niloticus (Cu>Cd>Zn) and C. quadricarinatus (Zn>Cd>Cu) differed from the expected ranks based on the general order of affinity of metals (Cd>>Zn>Cu).


Assuntos
Astacoidea/metabolismo , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Água Doce/química , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Metais Pesados , Músculos/metabolismo , Zâmbia
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