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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(5): 857-870, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385699

RESUMO

While polygenic risk scores (PRSs) enable early identification of genetic risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), predictive performance is limited when the discovery and target populations are not well matched. Hypothesizing that the biological mechanisms of disease are shared across ancestry groups, we introduce a PrediXcan-derived polygenic transcriptome risk score (PTRS) to improve cross-ethnic portability of risk prediction. We constructed the PTRS using summary statistics from application of PrediXcan on large-scale GWASs of lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] and its ratio to forced vital capacity [FEV1/FVC]) in the UK Biobank. We examined prediction performance and cross-ethnic portability of PTRS through smoking-stratified analyses both on 29,381 multi-ethnic participants from TOPMed population/family-based cohorts and on 11,771 multi-ethnic participants from TOPMed COPD-enriched studies. Analyses were carried out for two dichotomous COPD traits (moderate-to-severe and severe COPD) and two quantitative lung function traits (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC). While the proposed PTRS showed weaker associations with disease than PRS for European ancestry, the PTRS showed stronger association with COPD than PRS for African Americans (e.g., odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.43] for PTRS versus 1.10 [0.96-1.26] for PRS among heavy smokers with ≥ 40 pack-years of smoking) for moderate-to-severe COPD. Cross-ethnic portability of the PTRS was significantly higher than the PRS (paired t test p < 2.2 × 10-16 with portability gains ranging from 5% to 28%) for both dichotomous COPD traits and across all smoking strata. Our study demonstrates the value of PTRS for improved cross-ethnic portability compared to PRS in predicting COPD risk.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Pulmão , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Hum Mutat ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344616

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome is characterized by a triad of craniofacial dysmorphisms, disproportionate-limb short stature, and genital hypoplasia. A significant degree of phenotypic variability seems to correlate with different genes/loci. Disturbances of the noncanonical WNT-pathway have been identified as the main cause of the syndrome. Biallelic variants in ROR2 cause an autosomal recessive form of the syndrome with distinctive skeletal findings. Twenty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome were screened for variants in ROR2 using multiple molecular approaches. We identified 25 putatively pathogenic ROR2 variants, 16 novel, including single nucleotide variants and exonic deletions. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed that all subjects presented with a prominent forehead, hypertelorism, short nose, abnormality of the nasal tip, brachydactyly, mesomelic limb shortening, short stature, and genital hypoplasia in male patients. A total of 19 clinical features were present in more than 75% of the subjects, thus pointing to an overall uniformity of the phenotype. Disease-causing variants in ROR2, contribute to a clinically recognizable autosomal recessive​​​​​ trait phenotype with multiple skeletal defects. A comprehensive quantitative clinical evaluation of this cohort delineated the phenotypic spectrum of ROR2-related Robinow syndrome. The identification of exonic deletion variant alleles further supports the contention of a loss-of-function mechanism in the etiology of the syndrome.

3.
Genet Med ; 24(5): 1062-1072, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331649

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Mayo-Baylor RIGHT 10K Study enabled preemptive, sequence-based pharmacogenomics (PGx)-driven drug prescribing practices in routine clinical care within a large cohort. We also generated the tools and resources necessary for clinical PGx implementation and identified challenges that need to be overcome. Furthermore, we measured the frequency of both common genetic variation for which clinical guidelines already exist and rare variation that could be detected by DNA sequencing, rather than genotyping. METHODS: Targeted oligonucleotide-capture sequencing of 77 pharmacogenes was performed using DNA from 10,077 consented Mayo Clinic Biobank volunteers. The resulting predicted drug response-related phenotypes for 13 genes, including CYP2D6 and HLA, affecting 21 drug-gene pairs, were deposited preemptively in the Mayo electronic health record. RESULTS: For the 13 pharmacogenes of interest, the genomes of 79% of participants carried clinically actionable variants in 3 or more genes, and DNA sequencing identified an average of 3.3 additional conservatively predicted deleterious variants that would not have been evident using genotyping. CONCLUSION: Implementation of preemptive rather than reactive and sequence-based rather than genotype-based PGx prescribing revealed nearly universal patient applicability and required integrated institution-wide resources to fully realize individualized drug therapy and to show more efficient use of health care resources.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6 , Farmacogenética , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Sequência de Bases , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Farmacogenética/métodos
4.
HGG Adv ; 3(1): 100074, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047859

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with six genes that converge on the WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway implicated (DVL1, DVL3, FZD2, NXN, ROR2, and WNT5A). RS is characterized by skeletal dysplasia and distinctive facial and physical characteristics. To further explore the genetic heterogeneity, paralog contribution, and phenotypic variability of RS, we investigated a cohort of 22 individuals clinically diagnosed with RS from 18 unrelated families. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in genes associated with RS or RS phenocopies were identified in all 22 individuals, including the first variant to be reported in DVL2. We retrospectively collected medical records of 16 individuals from this cohort and extracted clinical descriptions from 52 previously published cases. We performed Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) based quantitative phenotypic analyses to dissect allele-specific phenotypic differences. Individuals with FZD2 variants clustered into two groups with demonstrable phenotypic differences between those with missense and truncating alleles. Probands with biallelic NXN variants clustered together with the majority of probands carrying DVL1, DVL2, and DVL3 variants, demonstrating no phenotypic distinction between the NXN-autosomal recessive and dominant forms of RS. While phenotypically similar diseases on the RS differential matched through HPO analysis, clustering using phenotype similarity score placed RS-associated phenotypes in a unique cluster containing WNT5A, FZD2, and ROR2 apart from non-RS-associated paralogs. Through human phenotype analyses of this RS cohort and OMIM clinical synopses of Mendelian disease, this study begins to tease apart specific biologic roles for non-canonical WNT-pathway proteins.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 758-766, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric nonmalignant lymphoproliferative disorders (PLPDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Long-standing immune dysregulation and lymphoproliferation in children may be life-threatening, and a paucity of data exists to guide evaluation and treatment of children with PLPD. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the spectrum of genomic immunologic defects in PLPD. Secondary objectives included characterization of clinical outcomes and associations between genetic diagnoses and those outcomes. METHODS: PLPD was defined by persistent lymphadenopathy, lymph organ involvement, or lymphocytic infiltration for more than 3 months, with or without chronic or significant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Fifty-one subjects from 47 different families with PLPD were analyzed using whole exome sequencing. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing identified likely genetic errors of immunity in 51% to 62% of families (53% to 65% of affected children). Presence of a genetic etiology was associated with younger age and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Ten-year survival for the cohort was 72.4%, and patients with viable genetic diagnoses had a higher survival rate (82%) compared to children without a genetic explanation (48%, P = .03). Survival outcomes for individuals with EBV-associated disease and no genetic explanation were particularly worse than outcomes for subjects with EBV-associated disease and a genetic explanation (17% vs 90%; P = .002). Ascertainment of a molecular diagnosis provided targetable treatment options for up to 18 individuals and led to active management changes for 12 patients. CONCLUSIONS: PLPD defines children at high risk for mortality, and whole exome sequencing informs clinical risks and therapeutic opportunities for this diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Adolescente , Autoimunidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Lactente , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/etiologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/mortalidade , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
6.
Gigascience ; 112022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan parasite commonly found across many host species with a global infection prevalence in human populations of 7.6%. Understanding its diversity and genomic makeup can help in fighting established infections and prohibiting further transmission. The basis of every genomic study is a high-quality reference genome that has continuity and completeness, thus enabling comprehensive comparative studies. FINDINGS: Here, we provide a highly accurate and complete reference genome of Cryptosporidium parvum. The assembly is based on Oxford Nanopore reads and was improved using Illumina reads for error correction. We also outline how to evaluate and choose from different assembly methods based on 2 main approaches that can be applied to other Cryptosporidium species. The assembly encompasses 8 chromosomes and includes 13 telomeres that were resolved. Overall, the assembly shows a high completion rate with 98.4% single-copy BUSCO genes. CONCLUSIONS: This high-quality reference genome of a zoonotic IIaA17G2R1 C. parvum subtype isolate provides the basis for subsequent comparative genomic studies across the Cryptosporidium clade. This will enable improved understanding of diversity, functional, and association studies.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/genética , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Humanos
7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 255, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to identify the causative strain of SARS-CoV-2 in a cluster of vaccine breakthroughs. Vaccine breakthrough by a highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 strain is a risk to global public health. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs from suspected vaccine breakthrough cases were tested for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) for Wuhan-Hu1 and alpha variant. Positive samples were then sequenced by Swift Normalase Amplicon Panels to determine the causal variant. GATK (genome analysis toolkit) variants were filtered with allele fraction ≥80 and min read depth 30x. RESULTS: Viral sequencing revealed an infection cluster of 6 vaccinated patients infected with the delta (B.1.617.2) SARS-CoV-2 variant. With no history of vaccine breakthrough, this suggests the delta variant may possess immune evasion in patients that received the Pfizer BNT162b2, Moderna mRNA-1273, and Covaxin BBV152. CONCLUSIONS: Delta variant may pose the highest risk out of any currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, with previously described increased transmissibility over alpha variant and now, possible vaccine breakthrough. FUNDING: Parts of this work was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1U19AI144297) and Baylor College of Medicine internal funding.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1981-2005, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582790

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are clinically and genetically heterogenous; many such disorders are secondary to perturbation in brain development and/or function. The prevalence of NDDs is > 3%, resulting in significant sociocultural and economic challenges to society. With recent advances in family-based genomics, rare-variant analyses, and further exploration of the Clan Genomics hypothesis, there has been a logarithmic explosion in neurogenetic "disease-associated genes" molecular etiology and biology of NDDs; however, the majority of NDDs remain molecularly undiagnosed. We applied genome-wide screening technologies, including exome sequencing (ES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), to identify the molecular etiology of 234 newly enrolled subjects and 20 previously unsolved Turkish NDD families. In 176 of the 234 studied families (75.2%), a plausible and genetically parsimonious molecular etiology was identified. Out of 176 solved families, deleterious variants were identified in 218 distinct genes, further documenting the enormous genetic heterogeneity and diverse perturbations in human biology underlying NDDs. We propose 86 candidate disease-trait-associated genes for an NDD phenotype. Importantly, on the basis of objective and internally established variant prioritization criteria, we identified 51 families (51/176 = 28.9%) with multilocus pathogenic variation (MPV), mostly driven by runs of homozygosity (ROHs) - reflecting genomic segments/haplotypes that are identical-by-descent. Furthermore, with the use of additional bioinformatic tools and expansion of ES to additional family members, we established a molecular diagnosis in 5 out of 20 families (25%) who remained undiagnosed in our previously studied NDD cohort emanating from Turkey.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1710-1724, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450031

RESUMO

Coatomer complexes function in the sorting and trafficking of proteins between subcellular organelles. Pathogenic variants in coatomer subunits or associated factors have been reported in multi-systemic disorders, i.e., coatopathies, that can affect the skeletal and central nervous systems. We have identified loss-of-function variants in COPB2, a component of the coatomer complex I (COPI), in individuals presenting with osteoporosis, fractures, and developmental delay of variable severity. Electron microscopy of COPB2-deficient subjects' fibroblasts showed dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with granular material, prominent rough ER, and vacuoles, consistent with an intracellular trafficking defect. We studied the effect of COPB2 deficiency on collagen trafficking because of the critical role of collagen secretion in bone biology. COPB2 siRNA-treated fibroblasts showed delayed collagen secretion with retention of type I collagen in the ER and Golgi and altered distribution of Golgi markers. copb2-null zebrafish embryos showed retention of type II collagen, disorganization of the ER and Golgi, and early larval lethality. Copb2+/- mice exhibited low bone mass, and consistent with the findings in human cells and zebrafish, studies in Copb2+/- mouse fibroblasts suggest ER stress and a Golgi defect. Interestingly, ascorbic acid treatment partially rescued the zebrafish developmental phenotype and the cellular phenotype in Copb2+/- mouse fibroblasts. This work identifies a form of coatopathy due to COPB2 haploinsufficiency, explores a potential therapeutic approach for this disorder, and highlights the role of the COPI complex as a regulator of skeletal homeostasis.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/genética , Proteína Coatomer/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/deficiência , Proteína Coatomer/química , Proteína Coatomer/deficiência , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Embrião não Mamífero , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Complexo de Golgi , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Peixe-Zebra
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0244468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432798

RESUMO

The newly emerged and rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To facilitate a deeper understanding of the viral biology we developed a capture sequencing methodology to generate SARS-CoV-2 genomic and transcriptome sequences from infected patients. We utilized an oligonucleotide probe-set representing the full-length genome to obtain both genomic and transcriptome (subgenomic open reading frames [ORFs]) sequences from 45 SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples with varying viral titers. For samples with higher viral loads (cycle threshold value under 33, based on the CDC qPCR assay) complete genomes were generated. Analysis of junction reads revealed regions of differential transcriptional activity among samples. Mixed allelic frequencies along the 20kb ORF1ab gene in one sample, suggested the presence of a defective viral RNA species subpopulation maintained in mixture with functional RNA in one sample. The associated workflow is straightforward, and hybridization-based capture offers an effective and scalable approach for sequencing SARS-CoV-2 from patient samples.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , DNA Complementar/química , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral
11.
Genet Med ; 23(12): 2404-2414, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adults in the United States, yet the benefits of genetic testing are not universally accepted. METHODS: We developed the "HeartCare" panel of genes associated with CVD, evaluating high-penetrance Mendelian conditions, coronary artery disease (CAD) polygenic risk, LPA gene polymorphisms, and specific pharmacogenetic (PGx) variants. We enrolled 709 individuals from cardiology clinics at Baylor College of Medicine, and samples were analyzed in a CAP/CLIA-certified laboratory. Results were returned to the ordering physician and uploaded to the electronic medical record. RESULTS: Notably, 32% of patients had a genetic finding with clinical management implications, even after excluding PGx results, including 9% who were molecularly diagnosed with a Mendelian condition. Among surveyed physicians, 84% reported medical management changes based on these results, including specialist referrals, cardiac tests, and medication changes. LPA polymorphisms and high polygenic risk of CAD were found in 20% and 9% of patients, respectively, leading to diet, lifestyle, and other changes. Warfarin and simvastatin pharmacogenetic variants were present in roughly half of the cohort. CONCLUSION: Our results support the use of genetic information in routine cardiovascular health management and provide a roadmap for accompanying research.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Farmacogenética/métodos , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Estados Unidos
12.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301805

RESUMO

Four organ transplant recipients from an organ donor diagnosed with anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma developed fatal malignancies for which the origin could not be confirmed by standard methods. We identified the somatic mutational profiles of the neoplasms using next-generation sequencing technologies and tracked the relationship between the different samples. The data were consistent with the presence of an aggressive clonal entity in the donor and the subsequent proliferation of descendent tumors in each recipient. Deleterious mutations in BRAF, PIK3CA, SDHC, DDR2, and FANCD2, and a chromosomal deletion spanning the CDKN2A/B genes, were shared between the recipients' lesions. In addition to demonstrating that DNA sequencing tracked a donor/recipient cancer transmission, this study established that the genetic profile of a donor tumor and its potential aggressive phenotype could have been determined before transplantation was considered. As the genetic correlates of tumor invasion and metastases become better known, adding genetic profiling by DNA sequencing to the data considered for transplant safety should be considered.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transplantes/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Prognóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplantados , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
13.
medRxiv ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268529

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Vaccine breakthrough by an emergent SARS-CoV-2 variant poses a great risk to global public health. OBJECTIVE: To determine the SARS-CoV-2 variant responsible for 6 cases of vaccine breakthrough. DESIGN: Nasopharyngeal swabs from suspected vaccine breakthrough cases were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by qPCR for Wuhan-Hu1 and Alpha variant. Positive samples were then sequenced by Swift Normalase Amplicon Panels to determine the causal variant. SETTING: Transmission event occurred at events surrounding a wedding outside of Houston, TX. Two patients from India, likely transmitted the Delta variant to other guests. PARTICIPANTS: Following a positive SARS-CoV-2 qPCR test at a third-party site, six fully vaccinated patients were investigated. Three males and three females ranged from 53 to 69 years old. One patient suffered from diabetes while three others were classified as overweight. No significant other comorbidities were identified. None of the patients had a history of failed vaccination. KEY POINTS: Question: Which SARS-CoV-2 variant is responsible for 6 cases of vaccine breakthrough, one interventional monoclonal antibody treatment, and one death?Findings: Viral sequencing revealed 6 vaccinated patients were infected with the Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant. With no histories of vaccine breakthrough, this suggests Delta variant may possess immune evasion in patients that received the Pfizer BNT162b2, Moderna mRNA-1273, and Covaxin BBV152.Meaning: Delta variant may pose the highest risk out of any currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, with increased transmissibility over Alpha variant and possible vaccine breakthrough.

14.
Sci Adv ; 7(17)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893095

RESUMO

Sifakas (genus Propithecus) are critically endangered, large-bodied diurnal lemurs that eat leaf-based diets and show corresponding anatomical and microbial adaptations to folivory. We report on the genome assembly of Coquerel's sifaka (P. coquereli) and the resequenced genomes of Verreaux's (P. verreauxi), the golden-crowned (P. tattersalli), and the diademed (P. diadema) sifakas. We find high heterozygosity in all sifakas compared with other primates and endangered mammals. Demographic reconstructions nevertheless suggest declines in effective population size beginning before human arrival on Madagascar. Comparative genomic analyses indicate pervasive accelerated evolution in the ancestral sifaka lineage affecting genes in several complementary pathways relevant to folivory, including nutrient absorption and xenobiotic and fatty acid metabolism. Sifakas show convergent evolution at the level of the pathway, gene family, gene, and amino acid substitution with other folivores. Although sifakas have relatively generalized diets, the physiological challenges of habitual folivory likely led to strong selection.

15.
HGG Adv ; 2(1)2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665635

RESUMO

De novo germline variation in POLR2A was recently reported to associate with a neurodevelopmental disorder. We report twelve individuals harboring putatively pathogenic de novo or inherited variants in POLR2A, detail their phenotypes, and map all known variants to the domain structure of POLR2A and crystal structure of RNA polymerase II. Affected individuals were ascertained from a local data lake, pediatric genetics clinic, and an online community of families of affected individuals. These include six affected by de novo missense variants (including one previously reported individual), four clinical laboratory samples affected by missense variation with unknown inheritance-with yeast functional assays further supporting altered function-one affected by a de novo in-frame deletion, and one affected by a C-terminal frameshift variant inherited from a largely asymptomatic mother. Recurrently observed phenotypes include ataxia, joint hypermobility, short stature, skin abnormalities, congenital cardiac abnormalities, immune system abnormalities, hip dysplasia, and short Achilles tendons. We report a significantly higher occurrence of epilepsy (8/12, 66.7%) than previously reported (3/15, 20%) (p value = 0.014196; chi-square test) and a lower occurrence of hypotonia (8/12, 66.7%) than previously reported (14/15, 93.3%) (p value = 0.076309). POLR2A-related developmental disorders likely represent a spectrum of related, multi-systemic developmental disorders, driven by distinct mechanisms, converging at a single locus.

16.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 155, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536587

RESUMO

Here we report the DNA methylation profile of 84 sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) with associated clinical and genomic information. We identified three subgroups of PanNETs, termed T1, T2 and T3, with distinct patterns of methylation. The T1 subgroup was enriched for functional tumors and ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 wild-type genotypes. The T2 subgroup contained tumors with mutations in ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 and recurrent patterns of chromosomal losses in half of the genome with no association between regions with recurrent loss and methylation levels. T2 tumors were larger and had lower methylation in the MGMT gene body, which showed positive correlation with gene expression. The T3 subgroup harboured mutations in MEN1 with recurrent loss of chromosome 11, was enriched for grade G1 tumors and showed histological parameters associated with better prognosis. Our results suggest a role for methylation in both driving tumorigenesis and potentially stratifying prognosis in PanNETs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Carga Tumoral
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(12): 3593-3600, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048444

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia and a distinctive facial appearance. Previous studies have revealed locus heterogeneity with rare variants in DVL1, DVL3, FZD2, NXN, ROR2, and WNT5A underlying the etiology of RS. The aforementioned "Robinow-associated genes" and their gene products all play a role in the WNT/planar cell polarity signaling pathway. We performed gene-targeted Sanger sequencing, exome sequencing, genome sequencing, and array comparative genomic hybridization on four subjects with a clinical diagnosis of RS who had not had prior DNA testing. Individuals in our cohort were found to carry pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in three RS related genes: DVL1, ROR2, and NXN. One subject was found to have a nonsense variant (c.817C > T [p.Gln273*]) in NXN in trans with an ~1 Mb telomeric deletion on chromosome 17p containing NXN, which supports our contention that biallelic NXN variant alleles are responsible for a novel autosomal recessive RS locus. These findings provide increased understanding of the role of WNT signaling in skeletal development and maintenance. These data further support the hypothesis that dysregulation of the noncanonical WNT pathway in humans gives rise to RS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteínas Desgrenhadas/genética , Nanismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/genética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Nanismo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Genes Dominantes/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma/genética , Humanos , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Anormalidades Urogenitais/fisiopatologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
18.
Cancer Cell ; 39(1): 38-53.e7, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217343

RESUMO

A small fraction of cancer patients with advanced disease survive significantly longer than patients with clinically comparable tumors. Molecular mechanisms for exceptional responses to therapy have been identified by genomic analysis of tumor biopsies from individual patients. Here, we analyzed tumor biopsies from an unbiased cohort of 111 exceptional responder patients using multiple platforms to profile genetic and epigenetic aberrations as well as the tumor microenvironment. Integrative analysis uncovered plausible mechanisms for the therapeutic response in nearly a quarter of the patients. The mechanisms were assigned to four broad categories-DNA damage response, intracellular signaling, immune engagement, and genetic alterations characteristic of favorable prognosis-with many tumors falling into multiple categories. These analyses revealed synthetic lethal relationships that may be exploited therapeutically and rare genetic lesions that favor therapeutic success, while also providing a wealth of testable hypotheses regarding oncogenic mechanisms that may influence the response to cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Biópsia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330863

RESUMO

The newly emerged and rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To facilitate a deeper understanding of the viral biology we developed a capture sequencing methodology to generate SARS-CoV-2 genomic and transcriptome sequences from infected patients. We utilized an oligonucleotide probe-set representing the full-length genome to obtain both genomic and transcriptome (subgenomic open reading frames [ORFs]) sequences from 45 SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples with varying viral titers. For samples with higher viral loads (cycle threshold value under 33, based on the CDC qPCR assay) complete genomes were generated. Analysis of junction reads revealed regions of differential transcriptional activity and provided evidence of expression of ORF10. Heterogeneous allelic frequencies along the 20kb ORF1ab gene suggested the presence of a defective interfering viral RNA species subpopulation in one sample. The associated workflow is straightforward, and hybridization-based capture offers an effective and scalable approach for sequencing SARS-CoV-2 from patient samples.

20.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3000954, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270638

RESUMO

Our understanding of the evolutionary history of primates is undergoing continual revision due to ongoing genome sequencing efforts. Bolstered by growing fossil evidence, these data have led to increased acceptance of once controversial hypotheses regarding phylogenetic relationships, hybridization and introgression, and the biogeographical history of primate groups. Among these findings is a pattern of recent introgression between species within all major primate groups examined to date, though little is known about introgression deeper in time. To address this and other phylogenetic questions, here, we present new reference genome assemblies for 3 Old World monkey (OWM) species: Colobus angolensis ssp. palliatus (the black and white colobus), Macaca nemestrina (southern pig-tailed macaque), and Mandrillus leucophaeus (the drill). We combine these data with 23 additional primate genomes to estimate both the species tree and individual gene trees using thousands of loci. While our species tree is largely consistent with previous phylogenetic hypotheses, the gene trees reveal high levels of genealogical discordance associated with multiple primate radiations. We use strongly asymmetric patterns of gene tree discordance around specific branches to identify multiple instances of introgression between ancestral primate lineages. In addition, we exploit recent fossil evidence to perform fossil-calibrated molecular dating analyses across the tree. Taken together, our genome-wide data help to resolve multiple contentious sets of relationships among primates, while also providing insight into the biological processes and technical artifacts that led to the disagreements in the first place.


Assuntos
Introgressão Genética/genética , Primatas/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecidae/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fósseis , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genoma/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
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