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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 112-120, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883642

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can improve assessment of low-frequency and rare variants, particularly in non-European populations that have been underrepresented in existing genomic studies. The genetic determinants of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of chronic inflammation, have been extensively studied, with existing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in >200,000 individuals of European ancestry. In order to discover novel loci associated with CRP levels, we examined a multi-ancestry population (n = 23,279) with WGS (∼38× coverage) from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We found evidence for eight distinct associations at the CRP locus, including two variants that have not been identified previously (rs11265259 and rs181704186), both of which are non-coding and more common in individuals of African ancestry (∼10% and ∼1% minor allele frequency, respectively, and rare or monomorphic in 1000 Genomes populations of East Asian, South Asian, and European ancestry). We show that the minor (G) allele of rs181704186 is associated with lower CRP levels and decreased transcriptional activity and protein binding in vitro, providing a plausible molecular mechanism for this African ancestry-specific signal. The individuals homozygous for rs181704186-G have a mean CRP level of 0.23 mg/L, in contrast to individuals heterozygous for rs181704186 with mean CRP of 2.97 mg/L and major allele homozygotes with mean CRP of 4.11 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utility of WGS in multi-ethnic populations to drive discovery of complex trait associations of large effect and to identify functional alleles in noncoding regulatory regions.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 974-986, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668702

RESUMO

The advent of inexpensive, clinical exome sequencing (ES) has led to the accumulation of genetic data from thousands of samples from individuals affected with a wide range of diseases, but for whom the underlying genetic and molecular etiology of their clinical phenotype remains unknown. In many cases, detailed phenotypes are unavailable or poorly recorded and there is little family history to guide study. To accelerate discovery, we integrated ES data from 18,696 individuals referred for suspected Mendelian disease, together with relatives, in an Apache Hadoop data lake (Hadoop Architecture Lake of Exomes [HARLEE]) and implemented a genocentric analysis that rapidly identified 154 genes harboring variants suspected to cause Mendelian disorders. The approach did not rely on case-specific phenotypic classifications but was driven by optimization of gene- and variant-level filter parameters utilizing historical Mendelian disease-gene association discovery data. Variants in 19 of the 154 candidate genes were subsequently reported as causative of a Mendelian trait and additional data support the association of all other candidate genes with disease endpoints.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692161

RESUMO

Genetic ataxias are associated with mutations in hundreds of genes with high phenotypic overlap complicating the clinical diagnosis. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has increased the overall diagnostic rate considerably. However, the upper limit of this method remains ill-defined, hindering efforts to address the remaining diagnostic gap. To further assess the role of rare coding variation in ataxic disorders, we reanalyzed our previously published exome cohort of 76 predominantly adult and sporadic-onset patients, expanded the total number of cases to 260, and introduced analyses for copy number variation and repeat expansion in a representative subset. For new cases (n = 184), our resulting clinically relevant detection rate remained stable at 47% with 24% classified as pathogenic. Reanalysis of the previously sequenced 76 patients modestly improved the pathogenic rate by 7%. For the combined cohort (n = 260), the total observed clinical detection rate was 52% with 25% classified as pathogenic. Published studies of similar neurological phenotypes report comparable rates. This consistency across multiple cohorts suggests that, despite continued technical and analytical advancements, an approximately 50% diagnostic rate marks a relative ceiling for current WES-based methods and a more comprehensive genome-wide assessment is needed to identify the missing causative genetic etiologies for cerebellar ataxia and related neurodegenerative diseases.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(43): 21715-21726, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591222

RESUMO

Meningiomas account for one-third of all primary brain tumors. Although typically benign, about 20% of meningiomas are aggressive, and despite the rigor of the current histopathological classification system there remains considerable uncertainty in predicting tumor behavior. Here, we analyzed 160 tumors from all 3 World Health Organization (WHO) grades (I through III) using clinical, gene expression, and sequencing data. Unsupervised clustering analysis identified 3 molecular types (A, B, and C) that reliably predicted recurrence. These groups did not directly correlate with the WHO grading system, which classifies more than half of the tumors in the most aggressive molecular type as benign. Transcriptional and biochemical analyses revealed that aggressive meningiomas involve loss of the repressor function of the DREAM complex, which results in cell-cycle activation; only tumors in this category tend to recur after full resection. These findings should improve our ability to predict recurrence and develop targeted treatments for these clinically challenging tumors.

5.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583969

RESUMO

Background: Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is genetically heterogeneous and is associated with mutations in at least 40 different genes. Apart from TTN encoding the giant protein Titin, none of these genes have an expected diagnostic yield of more than 5% complicating genetic diagnosis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful alternative for the identification of the causal gene, however variant interpretation remains challenging. We report on WES in a large family with autosomal dominant DCM complicated by end stage heart failure and non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias in whom no causative mutation was identified using a targeted gene panel including 28 genes. Methods and results: WES was applied on 2 affected cousins. Stringent filtering of the identified genetic variants was performed including population variant frequencies, in silico analysis, orthologous and paralogous conservation. Subsequently Sanger sequencing was performed for 10 potential disease causing variants in order to confirm the presence of the variant and to evaluate co-segregation. Only one variant in exon 9 of the RBM20 gene (c.2714T > A, p.Met950Lys, NM_001334363) showed full co-segregation in the 7 affected family members resulting in a maximum 2-point LOD score of 2.1 and suggesting this as the pathogenic mutation responsible for the phenotype. Recently mutations in RBM20 have been linked to arrhythmogenic dilated cardiomyopathy caused by defective splicing of the giant sarcomere protein titin and abnormal calcium handling. Conclusions: We report the identification of a novel mutation in RBM20 by WES in a large pedigree with DCM.

6.
J Exp Med ; 216(12): 2778-2799, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601675

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to inadequate restraint of overactivated immune cells and is associated with a variable clinical spectrum having overlap with more common pathophysiologies. HLH is difficult to diagnose and can be part of inflammatory syndromes. Here, we identify a novel hematological/autoinflammatory condition (NOCARH syndrome) in four unrelated patients with superimposable features, including neonatal-onset cytopenia with dyshematopoiesis, autoinflammation, rash, and HLH. Patients shared the same de novo CDC42 mutation (Chr1:22417990C>T, p.R186C) and altered hematopoietic compartment, immune dysregulation, and inflammation. CDC42 mutations had been associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders. In vitro and in vivo assays documented unique effects of p.R186C on CDC42 localization and function, correlating with the distinctiveness of the trait. Emapalumab was critical to the survival of one patient, who underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Early recognition of the disorder and establishment of treatment followed by bone marrow transplant are important to survival.

7.
NPJ Genom Med ; 4: 19, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452935

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a genetically heterogeneous condition, caused by a combination of rare de novo and inherited variants as well as common variants in at least several hundred genes. However, significantly larger sample sizes are needed to identify the complete set of genetic risk factors. We conducted a pilot study for SPARK (SPARKForAutism.org) of 457 families with ASD, all consented online. Whole exome sequencing (WES) and genotyping data were generated for each family using DNA from saliva. We identified variants in genes and loci that are clinically recognized causes or significant contributors to ASD in 10.4% of families without previous genetic findings. In addition, we identified variants that are possibly associated with ASD in an additional 3.4% of families. A meta-analysis using the TADA framework at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.1 provides statistical support for 26 ASD risk genes. While most of these genes are already known ASD risk genes, BRSK2 has the strongest statistical support and reaches genome-wide significance as a risk gene for ASD (p-value = 2.3e-06). Future studies leveraging the thousands of individuals with ASD who have enrolled in SPARK are likely to further clarify the genetic risk factors associated with ASD as well as allow accelerate ASD research that incorporates genetic etiology.

9.
Immunogenetics ; 71(8-9): 531-544, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321455

RESUMO

Indian rhesus macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) variation can influence the outcomes of transplantation and infectious disease studies. Frequently, rhesus macaques are MHC genotyped to identify variants that could account for unexpected results. Since the MHC is only one region in the genome where variation could impact experimental outcomes, strategies for simultaneously profiling variation in the macaque MHC and the remainder of the protein coding genome would be useful. Here we determine MHC class I and class II genotypes using target-capture probes enriched for MHC sequences, a method we term macaque exome sequence (MES) genotyping. For a cohort of 27 Indian rhesus macaques, we describe two methods for obtaining MHC genotypes from MES data and demonstrate that the MHC class I and class II genotyping results obtained with these methods are 98.1% and 98.7% concordant, respectively, with expected MHC genotypes. In contrast, conventional MHC genotyping results obtained by deep sequencing of short multiplex PCR amplicons were only 92.6% concordant with expectations for this cohort.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Macaca mulatta/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Haplótipos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 302-316, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256877

RESUMO

Members of a paralogous gene family in which variation in one gene is known to cause disease are eight times more likely to also be associated with human disease. Recent studies have elucidated DHX30 and DDX3X as genes for which pathogenic variant alleles are involved in neurodevelopmental disorders. We hypothesized that variants in paralogous genes encoding members of the DExD/H-box RNA helicase superfamily might also underlie developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD and/or ID) disease phenotypes. Here we describe 15 unrelated individuals who have DD and/or ID, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, vertebral anomalies, and dysmorphic features and were found to have probably damaging variants in DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes. In addition, these individuals exhibit a variety of other tissue and organ system involvement including ocular, outer ear, hearing, cardiac, and kidney tissues. Five individuals with homozygous (one), compound-heterozygous (two), or de novo (two) missense variants in DHX37 were identified by exome sequencing. We identified ten total individuals with missense variants in three other DDX/DHX paralogs: DHX16 (four individuals), DDX54 (three individuals), and DHX34 (three individuals). Most identified variants are rare, predicted to be damaging, and occur at conserved amino acid residues. Taken together, these 15 individuals implicate the DExD/H-box helicases in both dominantly and recessively inherited neurodevelopmental phenotypes and highlight the potential for more than one disease mechanism underlying these disorders.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 132-150, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230720

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis is a clinical finding that is present either as a feature of a neuromuscular condition or as part of a systemic disease in over 400 Mendelian conditions. The underlying molecular etiology remains largely unknown because of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. We applied exome sequencing (ES) in a cohort of 89 families with the clinical sign of arthrogryposis. Additional molecular techniques including array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) were performed on individuals who were found to have pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and mosaicism, respectively. A molecular diagnosis was established in 65.2% (58/89) of families. Eleven out of 58 families (19.0%) showed evidence for potential involvement of pathogenic variation at more than one locus, probably driven by absence of heterozygosity (AOH) burden due to identity-by-descent (IBD). RYR3, MYOM2, ERGIC1, SPTBN4, and ABCA7 represent genes, identified in two or more families, for which mutations are probably causative for arthrogryposis. We also provide evidence for the involvement of CNVs in the etiology of arthrogryposis and for the idea that both mono-allelic and bi-allelic variants in the same gene cause either similar or distinct syndromes. We were able to identify the molecular etiology in nine out of 20 families who underwent reanalysis. In summary, our data from family-based ES further delineate the molecular etiology of arthrogryposis, yielded several candidate disease-associated genes, and provide evidence for mutational burden in a biological pathway or network. Our study also highlights the importance of reanalysis of individuals with unsolved diagnoses in conjunction with sequencing extended family members.

13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(8): 3049-3067, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042289

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) encompasses a spectrum of premature menopause, including both primary and secondary amenorrhea. For 75% to 90% of individuals with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism presenting as POI, the molecular etiology is unknown. Common etiologies include chromosomal abnormalities, environmental factors, and congenital disorders affecting ovarian development and function, as well as syndromic and nonsyndromic single gene disorders suggesting POI represents a complex trait. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contribution of known disease genes to POI and identify molecular etiologies and biological underpinnings of POI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We applied exome sequencing (ES) and family-based genomics to 42 affected female individuals from 36 unrelated Turkish families, including 31 with reported parental consanguinity. RESULTS: This analysis identified likely damaging, potentially contributing variants and molecular diagnoses in 16 families (44%), including 11 families with likely damaging variants in known genes and five families with predicted deleterious variants in disease genes (IGSF10, MND1, MRPS22, and SOHLH1) not previously associated with POI. Of the 16 families, 2 (13%) had evidence for potentially pathogenic variants at more than one locus. Absence of heterozygosity consistent with identity-by-descent mediated recessive disease burden contributes to molecular diagnosis in 15 of 16 (94%) families. GeneMatcher allowed identification of additional families from diverse genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: ES analysis of a POI cohort further characterized locus heterogeneity, reaffirmed the association of genes integral to meiotic recombination, demonstrated the likely contribution of genes involved in hypothalamic development, and documented multilocus pathogenic variation suggesting the potential for oligogenic inheritance contributing to the development of POI.

14.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 30, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing (ES) has been successfully applied in clinical detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels. However, identification of copy number variants (CNVs) using ES data remains challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand the contribution of CNVs and copy neutral runs of homozygosity (ROH) in molecular diagnosis of patients referred for ES. METHODS: In a cohort of 11,020 consecutive ES patients, an Illumina SNP array analysis interrogating mostly coding SNPs was performed as a quality control (QC) measurement and for CNV/ROH detection. Among these patients, clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed at Baylor Genetics (BG) on 3229 patients, either before, concurrently, or after ES. We retrospectively analyzed the findings from CMA and the QC array. RESULTS: The QC array can detect ~ 70% of pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (PCNVs) detectable by CMA. Out of the 11,020 ES cases, the QC array identified PCNVs in 327 patients and uniparental disomy (UPD) disorder-related ROH in 10 patients. The overall PCNV/UPD detection rate was 5.9% in the 3229 ES patients who also had CMA at BG; PCNV/UPD detection rate was higher in concurrent ES and CMA than in ES with prior CMA (7.2% vs 4.6%). The PCNVs/UPD contributed to the molecular diagnoses in 17.4% (189/1089) of molecularly diagnosed ES cases with CMA and were estimated to contribute in 10.6% of all molecularly diagnosed ES cases. Dual diagnoses with both PCNVs and SNVs were detected in 38 patients. PCNVs affecting single recessive disorder genes in a compound heterozygous state with SNVs were detected in 4 patients, and homozygous deletions (mostly exonic deletions) were detected in 17 patients. A higher PCNV detection rate was observed for patients with syndromic phenotypes and/or cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical genomics study demonstrates that detection of PCNV/UPD through the QC array or CMA increases ES diagnostic rate, provides more precise molecular diagnosis for dominant as well as recessive traits, and enables more complete genetic diagnoses in patients with dual or multiple molecular diagnoses. Concurrent ES and CMA using an array with exonic coverage for disease genes enables most effective detection of both CNVs and SNVs and therefore is recommended especially in time-sensitive clinical situations.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5941, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976018

RESUMO

Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is an emerging biomarker used to monitor glycemic control in persons with diabetes. We performed whole-exome sequencing, examining the association between rare, coding genetic variants and 1,5-AG among European ancestry (N = 6,589) and African ancestry (N = 2,309) participants without diagnosed diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Five variants representing 3 independent signals on chromosome 17 in SLC5A10, a glucose transporter not previously known to transport 1,5-AG, were associated with 1,5-AG levels up to 10.38 µg/mL lower per allele (1,5-AG range 3.4-32.8 µg/mL) in the European ancestry sample and validated in the African ancestry sample. Together these variants explained 6% of the variance in 1,5-AG. Two of these variants (rs61741107, p = 8.85E-56; rs148178887, p = 1.13E-36) were rare, nonsynonymous, and predicted to be damaging or deleterious by multiple algorithms. Gene-based SKAT-O analysis supported these results (SLC5A10 p = 5.13E-64 in European ancestry, validated in African ancestry, p = 0.006). Interestingly, these novel variants are not associated with other biomarkers of hyperglycemia or diabetes (p > 0.2). The large effect sizes and protein-altering, multiple independent signals suggest SLC5A10 may code for an important transporter of 1,5-AG in the kidney, with a potential nonglucose-related effect on 1,5-AG, impacting its clinical utility as a diabetes biomarker in this subpopulation.

16.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 25, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrachromosomal triplications (TRP) can contribute to disease etiology via gene dosage effects, gene disruption, position effects, or fusion gene formation. Recently, post-zygotic de novo triplications adjacent to copy-number neutral genomic intervals with runs of homozygosity (ROH) have been shown to result in uniparental isodisomy (UPD). The genomic structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) shows a consistent pattern of an inverted triplication flanked by duplications (DUP-TRP/INV-DUP) formed by an iterative DNA replisome template-switching mechanism during replicative repair of a single-ended, double-stranded DNA (seDNA), the ROH results from an interhomolog or nonsister chromatid template switch. It has been postulated that these CGRs may lead to genetic abnormalities in carriers due to dosage-sensitive genes mapping within the copy-number variant regions, homozygosity for alleles at a locus causing an autosomal recessive (AR) disease trait within the ROH region, or imprinting-associated diseases. METHODS: Here, we report a family wherein the affected subject carries a de novo 2.2-Mb TRP followed by 42.2 Mb of ROH and manifests clinical features overlapping with those observed in association with chromosome 14 maternal UPD (UPD(14)mat). UPD(14)mat can cause clinical phenotypic features enabling a diagnosis of Temple syndrome. This CGR was then molecularly characterized by high-density custom aCGH, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and methylation arrays, exome sequencing (ES), and the Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing technology. RESULTS: We confirmed the postulated DUP-TRP/INV-DUP structure by multiple orthogonal genomic technologies in the proband. The methylation status of known differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on chromosome 14 revealed that the subject shows the typical methylation pattern of UPD(14)mat. Consistent with these molecular findings, the clinical features overlap with those observed in Temple syndrome, including speech delay. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide experimental evidence that, in humans, triplication can lead to segmental UPD and imprinting disease. Importantly, genotype/phenotype analyses further reveal how a post-zygotically generated complex structural variant, resulting from a replication-based mutational mechanism, contributes to expanding the clinical phenotype of known genetic syndromes. Mechanistically, such events can distort transmission genetics resulting in homozygosity at a locus for which only one parent is a carrier as well as cause imprinting diseases.

17.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(3): 449-461, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005411

RESUMO

Accurate diagnosis and stratification of children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain challenging. Given the central role of recurrent abdominal pain in IBS, we evaluated the relationships of pediatric IBS and abdominal pain with intestinal microbes and fecal metabolites using a comprehensive clinical characterization and multiomics strategy. Using rigorous clinical phenotyping, we identified preadolescent children (aged 7 to 12 years) with Rome III IBS (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 22) and characterized their fecal microbial communities using whole-genome shotgun metagenomics and global unbiased fecal metabolomic profiling. Correlation-based approaches and machine learning algorithms identified associations between microbes, metabolites, and abdominal pain. IBS cases differed from controls with respect to key bacterial taxa (eg, Flavonifractor plautii and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA), metagenomic functions (eg, carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism), and higher-order metabolites (eg, secondary bile acids, sterols, and steroid-like compounds). Significant associations between abdominal pain frequency and severity and intestinal microbial features were identified. A random forest classifier built on metagenomic and metabolic markers successfully distinguished IBS cases from controls (area under the curve, 0.93). Leveraging multiple lines of evidence, intestinal microbes, genes/pathways, and metabolites were associated with IBS, and these features were capable of distinguishing children with IBS from healthy children. These multi-omics features, and their links to childhood IBS coupled with nutritional interventions, may lead to new microbiome-guided diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

18.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaau6947, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854422

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that closely related species can accumulate substantial genetic and phenotypic differences despite ongoing gene flow, thus challenging traditional ideas regarding the genetics of speciation. Baboons (genus Papio) are Old World monkeys consisting of six readily distinguishable species. Baboon species hybridize in the wild, and prior data imply a complex history of differentiation and introgression. We produced a reference genome assembly for the olive baboon (Papio anubis) and whole-genome sequence data for all six extant species. We document multiple episodes of admixture and introgression during the radiation of Papio baboons, thus demonstrating their value as a model of complex evolutionary divergence, hybridization, and reticulation. These results help inform our understanding of similar cases, including modern humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans, and other ancient hominins.

20.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2135-2144, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890783

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a validated method to confidently identify exon-containing copy-number variants (CNVs), with a low false discovery rate (FDR), in targeted sequencing data from a clinical laboratory with particular focus on single-exon CNVs. METHODS: DNA sequence coverage data are normalized within each sample and subsequently exonic CNVs are identified in a batch of samples, when the target log2 ratio of the sample to the batch median exceeds defined thresholds. The quality of exonic CNV calls is assessed by C-scores (Z-like scores) using thresholds derived from gold standard samples and simulation studies. We integrate an ExonQC threshold to lower FDR and compare performance with alternate software (VisCap). RESULTS: Thirteen CNVs were used as a truth set to validate Atlas-CNV and compared with VisCap. We demonstrated FDR reduction in validation, simulation, and 10,926 eMERGESeq samples without sensitivity loss. Sixty-four multiexon and 29 single-exon CNVs with high C-scores were assessed by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). CONCLUSION: Atlas-CNV is validated as a method to identify exonic CNVs in targeted sequencing data generated in the clinical laboratory. The ExonQC and C-score assignment can reduce FDR (identification of targets with high variance) and improve calling accuracy of single-exon CNVs respectively. We propose guidelines and criteria to identify high confidence single-exon CNVs.

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