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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(7)2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886025

RESUMO

Early growth response factor 1 (EGR1) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that plays a vital role in the development of hair follicles. According to our previous studies, EGR1 is a transcriptional promoter of the bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), a candidate gene involved in the proliferation of dermal papilla cells. Since hair follicles are the basis of lambskin pattern formation and dermal papilla cells (DPCs) act on hair follicle growth, in order to elucidate the role of EGR1 and hair follicles, this study aimed to investigate the biological role of EGR1 in DPCs. In our study, the EGR1 coding sequence (CDS) region was firstly cloned by polymerase chain reaction, and bioinformatics analysis was performed. Then, the function of EGR1 was detected by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EDU) and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), and Western blot (WB) was conducted to analyze the cellular effect of EGR1 on DPCs. The proliferative effect of EGR1 on DPCs was also further confirmed by detecting its expression by qPCR and WB on marker genes of proliferation, including PCNA and CDK2. The sequence of the EGR1 CDS region of a lamb was successfully cloned, and its nucleic acid sequence was analyzed and found to be highly homologous to Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Bos taurus and Homo sapiens. Predictive analysis of the protein encoded by EGR1 revealed that it is an extra-membrane protein, and not a secretory protein, with subcellular localization in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The proliferative effect of DPCs was significantly stronger (p < 0.01) in EGR1 up-regulated DPCs compared to the controls, while the opposite result was observed in EGR1 down-regulated DPCs. Markers of proliferation including PCNA and CDK2 also appeared to be differentially upregulated in EGR1 gene overexpression compared to the controls, with the opposite result in EGR1 gene downregulation. In summary, our study revealed that EGR1 promotes the proliferation of DPCs, and we speculate that EGR1 may be closely associated with hair follicle growth and development.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso , Animais , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/farmacologia , Camundongos , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ratos , Ovinos/genética
2.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544537

RESUMO

Escherichia coli (E. coli) F17 is one of the main pathogens causing diarrhea in young livestock. The specific F17 fimbriae and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the surface components of E. coli F17 induces immune activation via interacting with the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)-expressed innate immune toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathway. In this study, the expression patterns of eight canonical genes from the TLR signaling pathway (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, TLR4, MyD88, CD14, TNF-α and TRAF6) were analyzed in LPS-induced IECs, E. coli F17-infected IECs and ileum tissue of E. coli F17-infected lambs. The results showed that increased expression levels of all the studied genes were observed following post-LPS-induced and E. coli F17-infected treatment, with TLR4 having the highest up-regulated expression multiple (compared to NC, fold change = 17.94 and 20.11, respectively), and CD14 having the lowest up-regulated expression multiple (fold change = 2.68 and 1.59, respectively), and higher expression levels of all the studied TLR signaling pathway genes were observed in ileum tissue of E. coli F17 antagonistic (AN) lambs than in E. coli F17 sensitive (SE) lambs. Furthermore, when compared to LPS-induced IECs, E. coli F17-infected IECs showed a more pronounced increase in the expression of IL6, TLR4 and TNF-α, indicating the different roles of these genes in the IECs resistance to E. coli F17 infection. Our results demonstrate that the TLR signaling pathway likely promotes immune activation and provide the first evidence that TLRs have a significant potential to protect against E. coli F17 infections.

3.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 819917, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498757

RESUMO

It has long been recognized that enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major pathogen responsible for vomiting and diarrhea. E. coli F17, a main subtype of ETEC, is characterized by high morbidity and mortality in young livestock. However, the transcriptomic basis underlying E. coli F17 infection has not been fully understood. In the present study, RNA sequencing was conducted to explore the expression profiles of mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the jejunum of lambs who were identified as resistant or sensitive to E. coli F17 that was obtained in a challenge experiment. A total of 772 differentially expressed (DE) mRNAs and 190 DE lncRNAs were detected between the E. coli F17-resistance and E. coli F17-sensitive lambs (i.e., TFF2, LOC105606142, OLFM4, LYPD8, REG4, APOA4, TCONS_00223467, and TCONS_00241897). Then, a two-step machine learning approach (RX) combination Random Forest and Extreme Gradient Boosting were performed, which identified 16 mRNAs and 17 lncRNAs as potential biomarkers, within which PPP2R3A and TCONS_00182693 were prioritized as key biomarkers involved in E. coli F17 infection. Furthermore, functional enrichment analysis showed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway was significantly enriched in response to E. coli F17 infection. Our finding will help to improve the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying E. coli F17 infection and may provide novel targets for future treatment of E. coli F17 infection.

4.
Anim Genet ; 53(3): 447-451, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428998

RESUMO

In recent times, community-based breeding programs (CBBPs) have been advocated as the best strategy for genetic improvement of local breeds in smallholder farms in developing countries. Since 2009, CBBPs have been implemented for Ethiopian Bonga and Menz sheep to improve growth rates resulting in significant genetic gains in 6-month weights. With the hypothesis that selection could be impacting their genomes, we systematically screened for possible genome changes in the two breeds by analyzing 600K BeadChip genotype data of 151 individuals (with the highest breeding values for 6-month weights) from CBBP flocks against 98 individuals from non-CBBP flocks. We observed no differences in genetic diversity and demographic dynamics between CBBP and non-CBBP flocks. Selection signature analysis employing ROH, logistic regression genome-wide association study , FST , XP-EHH and iHS revealed 5 (Bonga) and 11 (Menz) overlapping regions under selection, that co-localized with QTLs for production (body size/weight, growth, milk yield), meat/milk quality, and health/parasite resistance, suggesting that the decade-long selection has likely started to impact their genomes. However, genome-wide genetic differentiation between the CBBP and non-CBBP flocks is not yet clearly evident.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genoma , Animais , Etiópia , Genômica , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Ovinos/genética
5.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336723

RESUMO

It has long been recognized that enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major pathogen responsible for vomiting and diarrhea. E. coli F17, a main subtype of ETEC, is characterized by high morbidity and mortality in young livestock. However, the transcriptomic basis underlying E. coli F17 infection has not been fully understood. In this study, RNA sequencing was performed to explore the expression profiles of circRNAs and miRNAs in the jejunum of E. coli F17-antagonism (AN) and -sensitive (SE) lambs. A total of 16,534 circRNAs and 271 miRNAs (125 novel miRNAs and 146 annotated miRNAs) were screened, and 214 differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs and 53 DE miRNAs were detected between the AN and SE lambs (i.e., novel_circ_0025840, novel_circ_0022779, novel_miR_107, miR-10b). Functional enrichment analyses showed that source genes of DE circRNAs were mainly involved in metabolic-related pathways, while target genes of DE miRNAs were mainly enriched in the immune response pathways. Then, a two-step machine learning approach combining Random Forest (RF) and XGBoost (candidates were first selected by RF and further assessed by XGBoost) was performed, which identified 44 circRNAs and 39 miRNAs as potential biomarkers (i.e., novel_circ_0000180, novel_circ_0000365, novel_miR_192, oar-miR-496-3p) for E. coli infection. Furthermore, circRNA-related and lncRNA-related ceRNA networks were constructed, containing 46 circRNA-miRNA-mRNA competing triplets and 630 lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA competing triplets, respectively. By conducting a serious of bioinformatic analyses, our results revealed important circRNAs and miRNAs that could be potentially developed as candidate biomarkers for intestinal inflammatory response against E. coli F17 infection; our study can provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of intestinal immunity.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328074

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA) is of great importance to muscle growth and development, including the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs). In our research group's previous study, we found that miR-181a is differentially expressed in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Hu sheep at different stages. We speculated that miR-181a may participate in the growth and development process of Hu sheep. To understand the mechanism of miR-181a regulating the growth and development of Hu sheep skeletal muscle, we extracted skeletal muscle satellite cells from the longissimus dorsi muscle of 3-month-old Hu sheep fetuses and performed a series of experiments. Our results showed that miR-181a suppressed SMSCs' proliferation using QRT-PCR, Western blot, CCK-8, EDU, and Flow cytometry cycle tests. In addition, QRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence indicated that miR-181a facilitated the differentiation of SMSCs. Then, we used dual-luciferase reporter gene detection, QRT-PCR, and Western blot to find that the Yes1-related transcription regulator (YAP1) is the target gene of miR-181a. Our study supplies a research basis for understanding the regulation mechanism of miR-181a on the growth of Hu sheep skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Ovinos/genética
7.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 167, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites considered second to mosquitos as vectors and reservoirs of multiple pathogens of global concern. Individual variation in tick infestation has been reported in indigenous sheep, but its genetic control remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, we report 397 genome-wide signatures of selection overlapping 991 genes from the analysis, using ROH, LR-GWAS, XP-EHH, and FST, of 600 K SNP genotype data from 165 Tunisian sheep showing high and low levels of tick infestations and piroplasm infections. We consider 45 signatures that are detected by consensus results of at least two methods as high-confidence selection regions. These spanned 104 genes which included immune system function genes, solute carriers and chemokine receptor. One region spanned STX5, that has been associated with tick resistance in cattle, implicating it as a prime candidate in sheep. We also observed RAB6B and TF in a high confidence candidate region that has been associated with growth traits suggesting natural selection is enhancing growth and developmental stability under tick challenge. The analysis also revealed fine-scale genome structure indicative of cryptic divergence in Tunisian sheep. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a genomic reference that can enhance the understanding of the genetic architecture of tick resistance and cryptic divergence in indigenous African sheep.


Assuntos
Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Bovinos , Genoma , Genótipo , Mosquitos Vetores , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ovinos/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205246

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the structurally similar and highly conserved type of functional proteins that play an important role in hair follicle growth and development. BMP7 was a differentially expressed gene in different patterns of Hu sheep lambskin identified using Agilent microarray. Since hair follicle is the basis of pattern formation of lambskin, and its growth and development is governed by dermal papilla cells (DPCs), to clarify the role of BMP7 and hair follicle, our study was designed to investigate the regulation between BMP7 and DPCs. Firstly, the CDS region of BMP7 was cloned by 3'Race and PCR in Hu sheep and performed serious of bioinformatic analysis. Then, the effects of BMP7 on DPCs were analyzed after overexpression and interference of BMP7 in dermal papilla cells by CCK8, EdU, and PI assay. Additionally, qPCR was also conducted to clarify the relationship between BMP7 and the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway. A total of 1296 bp of the BMP7 CDS region sequence was sucessfully cloned in Hu sheep, encoding a signal peptide of 431 amino acids, molecular weight was 49,316.9 Da and the isoelectric point (Pi) was 7.75. Nucleotide sequencing analysis of BMP7 revealed that Hu sheep had high homology with Bos taurus, Homo sapiens, and Canis lupus familiaris. Structure domain prediction showed that TGF-ß superfamily domain exist between 330th-431th amino acid, BMP7 protein is a secreted protein. In BMP7 up-regulated DPCs, DPCs proliferation rate and cell cycle were significantly higher than that of NC group (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the expression level of Smad3, Smad4, Samd6, and TGF-ß1 in TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway were significantly lower than that in NC group (p < 0.05). In BMP7 down-regulated DPCs, it presented the opposite result. In conclusion, our study showed that BMP7 had a positive effect on DPCs by accelerating the proliferation and cell cycle of DPCs, and hypothesized that regulate hair follicles growth and development via TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway. These findings may provide a synergistic target for the subsequent research of hair follicle growth and development.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Animais , Bovinos , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Cães , Ovinos/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205386

RESUMO

Hair follicle development is closely associated with wool curvature. Current studies reveal the crucial role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in hair follicle growth and development. However, few studies are known regarding their role in wool curvature. To reveal the potential roles of miRNAs in Hu sheep lambskin with different patterns, a total of 37 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were identified in hair follicles between small waves (SM) and straight wool (ST) groups using RNA-seq. Through functional enrichment and miRNA-mRNA co-expression analysis, some key miRNAs (oar-miR-143, oar-miR-200b, oar-miR-10a, oar-miR-181a, oar-miR-10b, oar-miR-125b, etc.) and miRNA-mRNA pairs (miR-125b target CD34, miR-181a target FGF12, LMO3, miR-200b target ZNF536, etc.) were identified. Though direct or indirect ways affecting hair follicle development, these miRNAs and mRNAs may have possible effects on wool curvature, and this study thus provides valuable insight on potential pattern formation.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso , MicroRNAs , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ovinos/genética ,
10.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011220

RESUMO

The growth and development of skeletal muscle require a series of regulatory factors. MiRNA is a non-coding RNA with a length of about 22 nt, which can inhibit the expression of mRNA and plays an important role in the growth and development of muscle cells. The role of miR-22-3p in C2C12 cells and porcine skeletal muscle has been reported, but it has not been verified in Hu sheep skeletal muscle. Through qPCR, CCK-8, EdU and cell cycle studies, we found that overexpression of miR-22-3p inhibited proliferation of skeletal muscle cells (p < 0.01). The results of qPCR and immunofluorescence showed that overexpression of miR-22-3p promoted differentiation of skeletal muscle cells (p < 0.01), while the results of inhibiting the expression of miR-22-3p were the opposite. These results suggested that miR-22-3p functions in growth and development of sheep skeletal muscle cells. Bioinformatic analysis with mirDIP, miRTargets, and RNAhybrid software suggested IGFBP3 was the target of miR-22-3p, which was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter system assay. IGFBP3 is highly expressed in sheep skeletal muscle cells. Overexpression of IGFBP3 was found to promote proliferation of skeletal muscle cells indicated by qPCR, CCK-8, EdU, and cell cycle studies (p < 0.01). The results of qPCR and immunofluorescence experiments proved that overexpression of IGFBP3 inhibited differentiation of skeletal muscle cells (p < 0.01), while the results of interfering IGFBP3 with siRNA were the opposite. These results indicate that miR-22-3p is involved in proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells by targeting IGFBP3.

11.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
12.
Front Genet ; 12: 742808, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868214

RESUMO

Theileria annulata, which causes tropical theileriosis, is a major impediment to improving cattle production in Sudan. Tropical theileriosis disease is prevalent in the north and central regions of Sudan. Outbreaks of the disease have been observed outside the known endemic areas, in east and west regions of the country, due to changes in tick vector distribution and animal movement. A live schizont attenuated vaccination based on tissue culture technology has been developed to control the disease. The parasite in the field as well as the vaccine strain need to be genotyped before the vaccinations are practiced, in order to be able to monitor any breakthrough or breakdown, if any, after the deployment of the vaccine in the field. Nine microsatellite markers were used to genotype 246 field samples positive for T. annulata DNA and the vaccine strain. North and central populations have a higher multiplicity of infection than east and west populations. The examination of principal components showed two sub-structures with a mix of all four populations in both clusters and the vaccine strain used being aligned with left-lower cluster. Only the north population was in linkage equilibrium, while the other populations were in linkage disequilibrium, and linkage equilibrium was found when all samples were regarded as single population. The genetic identity of the vaccine and field samples was 0.62 with the north population and 0.39 with west population. Overall, genetic investigations of four T. annulata populations in Sudan revealed substantial intermixing, with only two groups exhibiting regional origin independence. In the four geographically distant regions analyzed, there was a high level of genetic variation within each population. The findings show that the live schizont attenuated vaccine, Atbara strain may be acceptable for use in all Sudanese regions where tropical theileriosis occurs.

13.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943272

RESUMO

Escherichia coli (E. coli) F17 is a member of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, which can cause massive diarrhea and high mortality in newborn lambs. ß-defensin is mainly produced by the epithelial tissue of the gastrointestinal tract in response to microbial infection. However, the molecular mechanism of sheep ß-defensin 2 (SBD-2) against E. coli F17 remains unclear. This study aims to reveal the antibacterial ability of SBD-2 against E. coli F17 infection in sheep. Firstly, we established the culture system of ovine intestinal epithelial cells (OIECs) in vitro, treated with different concentrations of E. coli F17 for an indicated time. Secondly, we performed RNA interference and overexpression to investigate the effect of SBD-2 expression on E. coli F17 adhesion to OIECs. Finally, inhibitors of NF-κB and MAPK pathways were pre-treated to explore the possible relationship involving in E. coli F17 infection regulating SBD-2 expression. The results showed that E. coli F17 markedly (p < 0.01) upregulated the expression levels of SBD-2 mRNA and protein in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Overexpression of SBD-2 contributed to enhancing E. coli F17 resistance in OIECs, while silencing SBD-2 dramatically improved the adhesion of E. coli F17 to OIECs (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Furthermore, E. coli F17 stimulated SBD-2 expression was obviously decreased by pre-treatment with NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and ERK1/2 MAPK inhibitor PD98095 (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Interestingly, adhesion of E. coli F17 to OIECs were highly enhanced by pre-treated with PDTC, SB202190 and PD98095. Our data suggested that SBD-2 could inhibit E. coli F17 infection in OIECs, possibly through NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Our results provide useful theoretical basis on developing anti-infective drug and breeding for E. coli diarrhea disease-resistant sheep.

14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946965

RESUMO

Wool curvature is the determining factor for lambskin quality of Hu lambs. However, the molecular mechanism of wool curvature formation is not yet known. miRNA has been proved to play an important role in hair follicle development, and we have discovered a differentially expressed miRNA, miR-143, in hair follicles of different curl levels. In this study, we first examined the effects of miR-143 on the proliferation and cell cycle of dermal papilla cells using CCK8, EdU and flow cytometry and showed that miR-143 inhibited the proliferation of dermal papilla cells and slowed down the cell cycle. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the target genes KRT71 and CUX1 of miR-143, and both two genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in small waves than in straight lambskin wool (p < 0.05) as detected by qPCR and Western blot (WB). Then, the target relationships between miR-143 and KRT71 and CUX1 were verified through the dual-luciferase assay in 293T cells. Finally, after overexpression and suppression of miR-143 in dermal papilla cells, the expression trend of CUX1 was contrary to that of miR-143. Meanwhile, KRT71 was not detected because KRT71 was not expressed in dermal papilla cells. Therefore, we speculated that miR-143 can target CUX1 to inhibit the proliferation of dermal papilla cells, while miR-143 can target KRT71 to regulate the growth and development of hair follicles, so as to affect the development of hair follicles and ultimately affect the formation of wool curvature.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Folículo Piloso/citologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Ovinos
15.
Front Genet ; 12: 659507, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349777

RESUMO

With climate change bound to affect food and feed production, emphasis will shift to resilient and adapted indigenous livestock to sustain animal production. However, indigenous livestock comprise several varieties, strains and ecotypes whose genomes are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated genomic variation in an African thin-tailed Desert Sheep sampled in Sudan, using 600K genotype data generated from 92 individuals representing five ecotypes. We included data from 18 fat-tailed and 45 thin-tailed sheep from China, to investigate shared ancestry and perform comparative genomic analysis. We observed a clear genomic differentiation between the African thin-tailed Desert Sheep and the Chinese thin-tailed and fat-tailed sheep, suggesting a broad genetic structure between the fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep in general, and that at least two autosomal gene pools comprise the genome profile of the thin-tailed sheep. Further analysis detected two distinct genetic clusters in both the African thin-tailed Desert Sheep and the Chinese thin-tailed sheep, suggesting a fine-scale and complex genome architecture in thin-tailed sheep. Selection signature analysis suggested differences in adaptation, production, reproduction and morphology likely underly the fine-scale genetic structure in the African thin-tailed Desert Sheep. This may need to be considered in designing breeding programs and genome-wide association studies.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17202, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433838

RESUMO

Autochthonous Sudanese cattle breeds, namely Baggara for beef and Butana and Kenana for dairy, are characterized by their adaptive characteristics and high performance in hot and dry agro-ecosystems. They are thus used largely by nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralists. We analyzed the diversity and genetic structure of the BoLA-DRB3 gene, a genetic locus linked to the immune response, for the indigenous cattle of Sudan and in the context of the global cattle repository. Blood samples (n = 225) were taken from three indigenous breeds (Baggara; n = 113, Butana; n = 60 and Kenana; n = 52) distributed across six regions of Sudan. Nucleotide sequences were genotyped using the sequence-based typing method. We describe 53 alleles, including seven novel alleles. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the protein pockets implicated in the antigen-binding function of the MHC complex revealed that pockets 4 and 9 (respectively) differentiate Kenana-Baggara and Kenana-Butana breeds from other breeds. Venn analysis of Sudanese, Southeast Asian, European and American cattle breeds with 115 alleles showed 14 were unique to Sudanese breeds. Gene frequency distributions of Baggara cattle showed an even distribution suggesting balancing selection, while the selection index (ω) revealed the presence of diversifying selection in several amino acid sites along the BoLA-DRB3 exon 2 of these native breeds. The results of several PCA were in agreement with clustering patterns observed on the neighbor joining (NJ) trees. These results provide insight into their high survival rate for different tropical diseases and their reproductive capacity in Sudan's harsh environment.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Haplótipos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Sudão
17.
Evol Appl ; 14(7): 1716-1731, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295359

RESUMO

Knowledge on how adaptive evolution and human socio-cultural and economic interests shaped livestock genomes particularly in sub-Saharan Africa remains limited. Ethiopia is in a geographic region that has been critical in the history of African agriculture with ancient and diverse human ethnicity and bio-climatic conditions. Using 52K genome-wide data analysed in 646 individuals from 13 Ethiopian indigenous goat populations, we observed high levels of genetic variation. Although runs of homozygosity (ROH) were ubiquitous genome-wide, there were clear differences in patterns of ROH length and abundance and in effective population sizes illustrating differences in genome homozygosity, evolutionary history, and management. Phylogenetic analysis incorporating patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow with ancestry modelling highlighted past and recent intermixing and possible two deep ancient genetic ancestries that could have been brought by humans with the first introduction of goats in Africa. We observed four strong selection signatures that were specific to Arsi-Bale and Nubian goats. These signatures overlapped genomic regions with genes associated with morphological, adaptation, reproduction and production traits due possibly to selection under environmental constraints and/or human preferences. The regions also overlapped uncharacterized genes, calling for a comprehensive annotation of the goat genome. Our results provide insights into mechanisms leading to genome variation and differentiation in sub-Saharan Africa indigenous goats.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2466, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510350

RESUMO

The identification of genome-wide selection signatures can provide insights on the mechanisms of natural and/or artificial selection and uncover genes related to biological functions and/or phenotypes. Tibetan sheep are an important livestock in Tibet, providing meat and wool for Tibetans who are renown for breeding livestock that adapt well to high altitudes. Using whole-genome sequences with an effective sequencing depth of 5×, we investigated the genomic diversity and structure and, identified selection signatures of White Tibetan, Oula and Poll Dorset sheep. We obtained 30,163,679 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5,388,372 indels benchmarked against the ovine Oar_v4.0 genome assembly. Next, using FST, ZHp and XP-EHH approaches, we identified selection signatures spanning a set of candidate genes, including HIF1A, CAPN3, PRKAA1, RXFP2, TRHR and HOXA10 that are associated with pathways and GO categories putatively related to hypoxia responses, meat traits and disease resistance. Candidate genes and GO terms associated with coat color were also identified. Finally, quantification of blood physiological parameters, revealed higher levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin measurement and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in Tibetan sheep compared with Poll Dorset, suggesting a greater oxygen-carrying capacity in the Tibetan sheep and thus better adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia. In conclusion, this study provides a greater understanding of genome diversity and variations associated with adaptive and production traits in sheep.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Genome Biol Evol ; 13(3)2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501931

RESUMO

Great progress has been made over recent years in the identification of selection signatures in the genomes of livestock species. This work has primarily been carried out in commercial breeds for which the dominant selection pressures are associated with artificial selection. As agriculture and food security are likely to be strongly affected by climate change, a better understanding of environment-imposed selection on agricultural species is warranted. Ethiopia is an ideal setting to investigate environmental adaptation in livestock due to its wide variation in geo-climatic characteristics and the extensive genetic and phenotypic variation of its livestock. Here, we identified over three million single nucleotide variants across 12 Ethiopian sheep populations and applied landscape genomics approaches to investigate the association between these variants and environmental variables. Our results suggest that environmental adaptation for precipitation-related variables is stronger than that related to altitude or temperature, consistent with large-scale meta-analyses of selection pressure across species. The set of genes showing association with environmental variables was enriched for genes highly expressed in human blood and nerve tissues. There was also evidence of enrichment for genes associated with high-altitude adaptation although no strong association was identified with hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF) genes. One of the strongest altitude-related signals was for a collagen gene, consistent with previous studies of high-altitude adaptation. Several altitude-associated genes also showed evidence of adaptation with temperature, suggesting a relationship between responses to these environmental factors. These results provide a foundation to investigate further the effects of climatic variables on small ruminant populations.


Assuntos
Genômica , Ovinos/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Altitude , Animais , Cruzamento , Etiópia , Genoma , Ruminantes/genética , Seleção Genética
20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
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