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1.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103157, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors that influence kidney traits have been understudied for low frequency and ancestry-specific variants. METHODS: We combined whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 23,732 participants from 10 NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program multi-ethnic studies to identify novel loci for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Participants included European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestries. We applied linear mixed models using a genetic relationship matrix estimated from the WGS data and adjusted for age, sex, study, and ethnicity. FINDINGS: When testing single variants, we identified three novel loci driven by low frequency variants more commonly observed in non-European ancestry (PRKAA2, rs180996919, minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.04%, P = 6.1 × 10-11; METTL8, rs116951054, MAF 0.09%, P = 4.5 × 10-9; and MATK, rs539182790, MAF 0.05%, P = 3.4 × 10-9). We also replicated two known loci for common variants (rs2461702, MAF=0.49, P = 1.2 × 10-9, nearest gene GATM, and rs71147340, MAF=0.34, P = 3.3 × 10-9, CDK12). Testing aggregated variants within a gene identified the MAF gene. A statistical approach based on local ancestry helped to identify replication samples for ancestry-specific variants. INTERPRETATION: This study highlights challenges in studying variants influencing kidney traits that are low frequency in populations and more common in non-European ancestry.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(17): e017039, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851884

RESUMO

Background APOL1 high-risk genotypes are associated with increased risk for hypertension-attributed kidney disease among Black adults in the United States. Biopsy studies show differences in kidney vasculature by APOL1 status; less is known about the variants' associations with systemic vascular and endothelial function. Whether APOL1 risk variants are associated with blood pressure (BP) is also uncertain. Methods and Results Using linear regression, we examined cross-sectional associations of APOL1 risk genotypes (high=2 risk alleles, low=0 or 1 risk allele) with subclinical measures of vascular function (small arterial elasticity, n=1586; large arterial elasticity, n=1586; ascending aortic distensibility, n=985) and endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation, n=777). Using linear mixed-effects models, we studied longitudinal associations of APOL1 risk genotypes with BP (n=1619), adjusting for age, sex, and African ancestry. Among 1619 (12% APOL1 high-risk) Black participants in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), mean age was 62 years old, 58% had hypertension, and mean systolic BP was 131 mm Hg at baseline. At examination 1 (2000-2002), there was no significant difference in small arterial elasticity, large arterial elasticity, ascending aortic distensibility, or flow-mediated dilation in participants with APOL1 high- versus low-risk genotypes (P>0.05 for all). Over a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, relative annual changes in systolic and diastolic BP and pulse pressure did not differ significantly by APOL1 risk status (between-group differences of -0.20, -0.14, and -0.25, respectively; P>0.05 for all). Conclusions Among Black participants in MESA, APOL1 high-risk genotypes were not associated with subclinical vascular and endothelial function or BP trajectories. The relationship of APOL1 with kidney disease may be intrinsic to the kidney rather than through peripheral effects on systemic vasculature or BP.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157282

RESUMO

Secretor status controls mucosal histoblood group antigen expression and is associated with susceptibility to rotavirus diarrhea, with non-secretors less susceptible to symptomatic infection. The role of breast milk secretor status on oral live-attenuated rotavirus vaccine response in breastfed infants has not been explored. In a monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RotarixTM) trial in Bangladesh, rotavirus-specific plasma IgA antibody seroconversion rates were higher among infants of maternal non-secretors (39% vs 23%, P=0.001). Maternal status remained a significant predictor when correcting for infant status (P=0.002). Maternal secretor status should be considered when interpreting oral rotavirus vaccine responses in low- and middle-income settings.

4.
Mol Metab ; 31: 124-137, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from intestinal L-cells upon nutrient intake. While recent evidence has shown that GLP-1 is released in a circadian manner in rats, whether this occurs in mice and if this pattern is regulated by the circadian clock remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, although circadian GLP-1 secretion parallels expression of the core clock gene Bmal1, the link between the two remains largely unknown. Secretagogin (Scgn) is an exocytotic SNARE regulatory protein that demonstrates circadian expression and is essential for insulin secretion from ß-cells. The objective of the current study was to establish the necessity of the core clock gene Bmal1 and the SNARE protein SCGN as essential regulators of circadian GLP-1 secretion. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted at different times of the day on 4-hour fasted C57BL/6J, Bmal1 wild-type, and Bmal1 knockout mice. Mass spectrometry, RNA-seq, qRT-PCR and/or microarray analyses, and immunostaining were conducted on murine (m) and human (h) primary L-cells and mGLUTag and hNCI-H716 L-cell lines. At peak and trough GLP-1 secretory time points, the mGLUTag cells were co-stained for SCGN and a membrane-marker, ChIP was used to analyze BMAL1 binding sites in the Scgn promoter, protein interaction with SCGN was tested by co-immunoprecipitation, and siRNA was used to knockdown Scgn for GLP-1 secretion assay. RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice displayed a circadian rhythm in GLP-1 secretion that peaked at the onset of their feeding period. Rhythmic GLP-1 release was impaired in Bmal1 knockout (KO) mice as compared to wild-type controls at the peak (p < 0.05) but not at the trough secretory time point. Microarray identified SNARE and transport vesicle pathways as highly upregulated in mGLUTag L-cells at the peak time point of GLP-1 secretion (p < 0.001). Mass spectrometry revealed that SCGN was also increased at this time (p < 0.001), while RNA-seq, qRT-PCR, and immunostaining demonstrated Scgn expression in all human and murine primary L-cells and cell lines. The mGLUTag and hNCI-H716 L-cells exhibited circadian rhythms in Scgn expression (p < 0.001). The ChIP analysis demonstrated increased binding of BMAL1 only at the peak of Scgn expression (p < 0.01). Immunocytochemistry showed the translocation of SCGN to the cell membrane after stimulation at the peak time point only (p < 0.05), while CoIP showed that SCGN was pulled down with SNAP25 and ß-actin, but only the latter interaction was time-dependent (p < 0.05). Finally, Scgn siRNA-treated cells demonstrated significantly blunted GLP-1 secretion (p < 0.01) in response to stimulation at the peak time point only. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate, for the first time, that mice display a circadian pattern in GLP-1 secretion, which is impaired in Bmal1 knockout mice, and that Bmal1 regulation of Scgn expression plays an essential role in the circadian release of the incretin hormone GLP-1.

5.
Diabetes ; 69(4): 771-783, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974142

RESUMO

The cardiovascular benefits of fibrates have been shown to be heterogeneous and to depend on the presence of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We investigated whether genetic variability in the PPARA gene, coding for the pharmacological target of fibrates (PPAR-α), could be used to improve the selection of patients with type 2 diabetes who may derive cardiovascular benefit from addition of this treatment to statins. We identified a common variant at the PPARA locus (rs6008845, C/T) displaying a study-wide significant influence on the effect of fenofibrate on major cardiovascular events (MACE) among 3,065 self-reported white subjects treated with simvastatin and randomized to fenofibrate or placebo in the ACCORD-Lipid trial. T/T homozygotes (36% of participants) experienced a 51% MACE reduction in response to fenofibrate (hazard ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.34-0.72), whereas no benefit was observed for other genotypes (P interaction = 3.7 × 10-4). The rs6008845-by-fenofibrate interaction on MACE was replicated in African Americans from ACCORD (N = 585, P = 0.02) and in external cohorts (ACCORD-BP, ORIGIN, and TRIUMPH, total N = 3059, P = 0.005). Remarkably, rs6008845 T/T homozygotes experienced a cardiovascular benefit from fibrate even in the absence of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Among these individuals, but not among carriers of other genotypes, fenofibrate treatment was associated with lower circulating levels of CCL11-a proinflammatory and atherogenic chemokine also known as eotaxin (P for rs6008845-by-fenofibrate interaction = 0.003). The GTEx data set revealed regulatory functions of rs6008845 on PPARA expression in many tissues. In summary, we have found a common PPARA regulatory variant that influences the cardiovascular effects of fenofibrate and that could be used to identify patients with type 2 diabetes who would derive benefit from fenofibrate treatment, in addition to those with atherogenic dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Fenofibrato/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , PPAR alfa/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Quimiocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/complicações , Dislipidemias/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(5): 698-707, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infant linear-growth faltering remains a major public health issue in low- and middle-income countries and suboptimal breast milk composition may be a local, population-specific risk factor. The relationship between early post-natal breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition and infant growth at 1 and 2 years of age was investigated prospectively in 563 families in Dhaka, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A maternal breast milk sample drawn before infant age 6 weeks was analyzed for percentage composition of 26 FAs, and infant length for age Z score (LAZ) was measured longitudinally to infant age 2 years. Individual FAs were tested as predictors of the infant growth outcomes. RESULTS: Of 26 tested FAs, %gamma-linolenic acid (%GLA) was mostly significantly associated with increase in LAZ from 6 to 52 weeks (ΔLAZ(52-6w)), and also to 104 weeks. The association was consistent over all breast milk stages with estimated effect size of +0.05 ΔLAZ(52-6w) per 20% change in %GLA (p value = 3 × 10-6), and stronger for ΔLAZ(104-6w) at +0.06 (p value = 8 × 10-7), explaining 1% of the outcome variance. Infant serum zinc measurements at 6 and 18 weeks of age were included in adjusted analyses, suggesting at least partial independence of infant zinc levels. The association was strongest in 417/563 (74.1%) families with %GLA <0.2%. Breast milk arachidonic acid fraction was within normal range with weaker evidence of association in early breast milk stages. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that %GLA in breast milk was independently associated with infant linear growth, albeit with small effect size, in a predominantly slum-dwelling, low-income, Bangladeshi cohort.

7.
Diabetes ; 68(8): 1649-1662, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127053

RESUMO

Genetic factors have been postulated to be involved in the etiology of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), but their identity remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic search for genetic variants influencing DPN risk using two well-characterized cohorts. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) testing 6.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms was conducted among participants of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) clinical trial. Included were 4,384 white case patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prevalent or incident DPN (defined as a Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument clinical examination score >2.0) and 784 white control subjects with T2D and no evidence of DPN at baseline or during follow-up. Replication of significant loci was sought among white subjects with T2D (791 DPN-positive case subjects and 158 DPN-negative control subjects) from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial. Association between significant variants and gene expression in peripheral nerves was evaluated in the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database. A cluster of 28 SNPs on chromosome 2q24 reached GWAS significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in ACCORD. The minor allele of the lead SNP (rs13417783, minor allele frequency = 0.14) decreased DPN odds by 36% (odds ratio [OR] 0.64, 95% CI 0.55-0.74, P = 1.9 × 10-9). This effect was not influenced by ACCORD treatment assignments (P for interaction = 0.6) or mediated by an association with known DPN risk factors. This locus was successfully validated in BARI 2D (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.80, P = 9 × 10-4; summary P = 7.9 × 10-12). In GTEx, the minor, protective allele at this locus was associated with higher tibial nerve expression of an adjacent gene (SCN2A) coding for human voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.2 (P = 9 × 10-4). To conclude, we have identified and successfully validated a previously unknown locus with a powerful protective effect on the development of DPN in T2D. These results may provide novel insights into DPN pathogenesis and point to a potential target for novel interventions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Neuropatias Diabéticas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Alelos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2 , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
8.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 21, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a significant public health concern disproportionately affecting African Americans (AAs). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the leading cause of ESKD in the USA, and efforts to uncover genetic susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have had limited success. A prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs with T2D-ESKD was expanded with additional AA cases and controls and genotypes imputed to the higher density 1000 Genomes reference panel. The discovery analysis included 3432 T2D-ESKD cases and 6977 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls (N = 10,409), followed by a discrimination analysis in 2756 T2D non-nephropathy controls to exclude T2D-associated variants. RESULTS: Six independent variants located in or near RND3/RBM43, SLITRK3, ENPP7, GNG7, and APOL1 achieved genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with T2D-ESKD. Following extension analyses in 1910 non-diabetic ESKD cases and 908 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls, a meta-analysis of 5342 AA all-cause ESKD cases and 6977 AA non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls revealed an additional novel all-cause ESKD locus at EFNB2 (rs77113398; P = 9.84 × 10-9; OR = 1.94). Exclusion of APOL1 renal-risk genotype carriers identified two additional genome-wide significant T2D-ESKD-associated loci at GRAMD3 and MGAT4C. A second variant at GNG7 (rs373971520; P = 2.17 × 10-8, OR = 1.46) remained associated with all-cause ESKD in the APOL1-negative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide further evidence for genetic factors associated with advanced kidney disease in AAs with T2D.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 29, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604766

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~10% of the global population, with considerable ethnic differences in prevalence and aetiology. We assemble genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function that defines CKD, in 312,468 individuals of diverse ancestry. We identify 127 distinct association signals with homogeneous effects on eGFR across ancestries and enrichment in genomic annotations including kidney-specific histone modifications. Fine-mapping reveals 40 high-confidence variants driving eGFR associations and highlights putative causal genes with cell-type specific expression in glomerulus, and in proximal and distal nephron. Mendelian randomisation supports causal effects of eGFR on overall and cause-specific CKD, kidney stone formation, diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. These results define novel molecular mechanisms and putative causal genes for eGFR, offering insight into clinical outcomes and routes to CKD treatment development.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Cálculos Renais/genética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/etnologia , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
10.
Diabetes Care ; 42(1): 93-101, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are targets for intervention to reduce high risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and deaths. This study compares risks of these outcomes in four international cohorts. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the 1990s and early 2000s, Caucasian patients with type 1 diabetes with persistent macroalbuminuria in chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 were identified in the Joslin Clinic (U.S., 432), Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane) (Finland, 486), Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen (Denmark, 368), and INSERM (France, 232) and were followed for 3-18 years with annual creatinine measurements to ascertain ESRD and deaths unrelated to ESRD. RESULTS: During 15,685 patient-years, 505 ESRD cases (rate 32/1,000 patient-years) and 228 deaths unrelated to ESRD (rate 14/1,000 patient-years) occurred. Risk of ESRD was associated with male sex; younger age; lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); higher albumin/creatinine ratio, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure; and smoking. Risk of death unrelated to ESRD was associated with older age, smoking, and higher baseline eGFR. In adjusted analysis, ESRD risk was highest in Joslin versus reference FinnDiane (hazard ratio [HR] 1.44, P = 0.003) and lowest in Steno (HR 0.54, P < 0.001). Differences in eGFR slopes paralleled risk of ESRD. Mortality unrelated to ESRD was lowest in Joslin (HR 0.68, P = 0.003 vs. the other cohorts). Competing risk did not explain international differences in the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Despite almost universal renoprotective treatment, progression to ESRD and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes with advanced nephropathy are still very high and differ among countries. Finding causes of these differences may help reduce risk of these outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/mortalidade , Nefropatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Adulto , Albuminúria/urina , Pressão Sanguínea , Colesterol/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Dinamarca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , França , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 13(11): 1693-1702, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In people with type 2 diabetes, aggressive control of glycemia, BP, and lipids have resulted in conflicting short-term (<5 years) kidney outcomes. We aimed to determine the long-term kidney effects of these interventions. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) was a multifactorial intervention study in people with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular disease (n=10,251), to examine the effects of intensive glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c <6.0% versus 7%-7.9%), BP control (systolic BP <120 mm Hg versus <140 mm Hg) or fenofibrate versus placebo added to simvastatin on cardiovascular events and death. The glycemia trial lasted 3.7 years and participants were followed for another 6.5 years in ACCORDION, the ACCORD Follow-On Study. The post hoc primary composite kidney outcome was defined as incident macroalbuminuria, creatinine doubling, need for dialysis, or death by any cause. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated the effect of each intervention on the composite outcome and individual components. In secondary outcome analyses, competing risk regression was used to account for the risk of death in incident kidney outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographics, randomization groups, and clinical factors. RESULTS: There were 988 cases of incident macroalbuminuria, 954 with doubling of creatinine, 351 requiring dialysis, and 1905 deaths. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the composite outcome with intensive glycemic, BP control, and fenofibrate use compared with standard therapy were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.86 to 0.98), 1.16 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.28), and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27). Multivariable, secondary outcome analyses showed that in the glycemia trial, only macroalbuminuria was significantly decreased (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77). In the BP and lipid trials, only creatinine doubling was affected (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.06 and HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.49, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In people with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular disease, intensive glycemic control may result in a long-term reduction in macroalbuminuria; however, intensive BP control and fenofibrates may increase the risk for adverse kidney events.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Fenofibrato/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminúria/etiologia , Albuminúria/urina , Pressão Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Diabetes Care ; 41(11): 2404-2413, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether the increasing number of genetic loci for coronary artery disease (CAD) identified in the general population could be used to predict the risk of major CAD events (MCE) among participants with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A weighted genetic risk score (GRS) derived from 204 variants representative of all the 160 CAD loci identified in the general population as of December 2017 was calculated in 5,360 and 1,931 white participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) and Outcome Reduction With Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) studies, respectively. The association between GRS and MCE (combining fatal CAD events, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina) was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The GRS was associated with MCE risk in both ACCORD and ORIGIN (hazard ratio [HR] per SD 1.27, 95% CI 1.18-1.37, P = 4 × 10-10, and HR per SD 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.58, P = 2 × 10-4, respectively). This association was independent from interventions tested in the trials and persisted, though attenuated, after adjustment for classic cardiovascular risk predictors. Adding the GRS to clinical predictors improved incident MCE risk classification (relative integrated discrimination improvement +8%, P = 7 × 10-4). The performance of this GRS was superior to that of GRS based on the smaller number of CAD loci available in previous years. CONCLUSIONS: When combined into a GRS, CAD loci identified in the general population are associated with CAD also in type 2 diabetes. This GRS provides a significant improvement in the ability to correctly predict future MCE, which may increase further with the discovery of new CAD loci.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fenofibrato/administração & dosagem , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem
13.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175238

RESUMO

Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. Results: We identified significant (P<2·8x10 -7) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in RPAP1, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( SEC24C, CASC17 and UQCC1) and two intergenic SNPs near to LY86 and FGF10. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including TYRO3 and PLAU. Conclusions: Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.

14.
J Med Genet ; 55(7): 459-468, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast milk is the sole nutrition source during exclusive breastfeeding, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) are critical micronutrients in infant physical and cognitive development. There has been no prior genomewide association study of breast milk, hence our objective was to test for genetic association with breast milk FA composition. METHODS: We measured the fractional composition of 26 individual FAs in breast milk samples from three cohorts totalling 1142 Bangladeshi mothers whose infants were genotyped on the Illumina MEGA chip and replicated on a custom Affymetrix 30K SNP array (n=616). Maternal genotypes were imputed using IMPUTE. RESULTS: After running 33 separate FA fraction phenotypes, we found that SNPs known to be associated with serum FAs in the FADS1/2/3 region were also associated with breast milk FA composition (experiment-wise significance threshold 4.2×10-9). Hypothesis-neutral comparison of the 33 fractions showed that the most significant genetic association at the FADS1/2/3 locus was with fraction of arachidonic acid (AA) at SNP rs174556, with a very large per major allele effect size of 17% higher breast milk AA level. There was no evidence of independent association at FADS1/2/3 with any other FA or SNP after conditioning on AA and rs174556. We also found novel significant experiment-wise SNP associations with: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 6/PUFA3 ratio (sorting nexin 29), eicosenoic (intergenic) and capric (component of oligomeric Golgi complex 3) acids; and six additional loci at genomewide significance (<5×10-8). CONCLUSIONS: AA is the primary FA in breast milk influenced by genetic variation at the FADS1/2/3 locus, extending the potential phenotypes under genetic selection to include breast milk composition, thereby possibly affecting infant growth or cognition. Breast milk FA composition is influenced by maternal genetics in addition to diet and body composition.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Micronutrientes/genética , Alelos , Ácido Araquidônico/genética , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mães , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(2): 186-192, 2018 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394355

RESUMO

Background: Rotavirus (RV)-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses following oral RV vaccination are impaired in low-income countries, where the utility of RV-IgA as a correlate of protection (CoP) remains unclear. In a monovalent oral RV vaccine (Rotarix) efficacy trial among infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we identified factors associated with poor RV-IgA responses and explored the utility of RV-IgA as a CoP. Methods: Infants were randomized to receive Rotarix or no Rotarix at 10 and 17 weeks of life and followed with active diarrheal surveillance. RV-IgA concentration, seroconversion, and seropositivity were determined at 18 weeks of life and analyzed for correlation(s) with rotavirus diarrhea (RVD) and for contribution to Rotarix vaccine effect. Results: Among vaccinated infants, overall RV-IgA geometric mean concentration was 21 U/mL; only 27% seroconverted and 32% were seropositive after vaccination. Increased RV-specific maternal antibodies significantly impaired immunogenicity. Seroconversion was associated with reduced risk of RVD through 1 year of life, but RV-IgA seropositivity only explained 7.8% of the vaccine effect demonstrated by the clinical endpoint (RVD). Conclusions: RV-IgA responses were low among infants in Bangladesh and were significantly impaired by maternal antibodies. RV-IgA is a suboptimal CoP in this setting; an improved CoP for RV in low-income countries is needed. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01375647.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Bangladesh , Diarreia/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lactente , Rotavirus , Soroconversão , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico
16.
J Infect Dis ; 217(9): 1399-1407, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390150

RESUMO

Background: Lewis and secretor histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been associated with decreased susceptibility to P[8] genotype rotavirus (RV) infections. Efficacy of vaccines containing attenuated P[8] strains is decreased in low-income countries. Host phenotype might impact vaccine efficacy (VE) by altering susceptibility to vaccination or RV diarrhea (RVD). We performed a substudy in a monovalent RV vaccine (RV1) efficacy trial in Bangladesh to determine the impact of Lewis and secretor status on risk of RVD and VE. Methods: In infants randomized to receive RV1 or no RV1 at 10 and 17 weeks with 1 year of complete active diarrheal surveillance, we performed Lewis and secretor phenotyping and genotyped the infecting strain of each episode of RVD. Results: A vaccine containing P[8] RV protected secretors and nonsecretors similarly. However, unvaccinated nonsecretors had a reduced risk of RVD (relative risk, 0.53 [95% confidence interval, .36-.79]) mediated by complete protection from P[4] but not P[8] RVs. This effect reduced VE in nonsecretors to 31.7%, compared to 56.2% among secretors, and decreased VE for the overall cohort. Conclusions: Host HBGA status may impact VE estimates by altering susceptibility to RV in unvaccinated children; future trials should therefore account for HBGA status. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01375647.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Genótipo , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Bangladesh , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
17.
Diabetes Care ; 41(2): 348-355, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A genome-wide association study in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial identified two markers (rs57922 and rs9299870) that were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality during intensive glycemic control and could potentially be used, when combined into a genetic risk score (GRS), to identify patients with diabetes likely to derive benefit from intensive control rather than harm. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the pathways involved in the modulatory effect of these variants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fasting levels of 65 biomarkers were measured at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up in the ACCORD-Memory in Diabetes (ACCORD-MIND) MRI substudy (n = 562). Using linear regression models, we tested the association of the GRS with baseline and 12-month biomarker levels, and with their difference (Δ), among white subjects, with genotype data (n = 351) stratified by intervention arm. RESULTS: A significant association was observed between GRS and ΔGLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1, active) in the intensive arm (P = 3 × 10-4). This effect was driven by rs57922 (P = 5 × 10-4). C/C homozygotes, who had been found to derive cardiovascular benefits from intensive treatment, showed a 22% increase in GLP-1 levels during follow-up. By contrast, T/T homozygotes, who had been found to experience increased cardiac mortality with intensive treatment, showed a 28% reduction in GLP-1 levels. No association between ΔGLP-1 and GRS or rs57922 was observed in the standard treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in GLP-1 axis activation may mediate the modulatory effect of variant rs57922 on the cardiovascular response to intensive glycemic control. These findings highlight the importance of GLP-1 as a cardioprotective factor.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2(11): 1247-1255, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049454

RESUMO

Importance: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a core component of the aging process and may play a key role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), which represents the number of mitochondria per cell and number of mitochondrial genomes per mitochondrion, is an indirect biomarker of mitochondrial function. Objective: To determine whether mtDNA-CN, measured in an easily accessible tissue (buffy coat/circulating leukocytes), can improve risk classification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and help guide initiation of statin therapy for primary prevention of CVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective, population-based cohort analysis including 21 870 participants (20 163 free from CVD at baseline) from 3 studies: Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC), and Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The mean follow-up was 13.5 years. The study included 11 153 participants from ARIC, 4830 from CHS, and 5887 from MESA. Analysis of the data was conducted from March 10, 2014, to January 29, 2017. Exposures: Mitochondrial DNA-CN measured from buffy coat/circulating leukocytes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident CVD, which combines coronary heart disease, defined as the first incident myocardial infarction or death owing to coronary heart disease, and stroke, defined as the first nonfatal stroke or death owing to stroke. Results: Of the 21 870 participants, the mean age was 62.4 years (ARIC, 57.9 years; MESA, 62.4 years; and CHS, 72.5 years), and 54.7% of participants were women. The hazard ratios for incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and CVD associated with a 1-SD decrease in mtDNA-CN were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.24-1.33), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06-1.16), and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.19-1.26). The associations persisted after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. Addition of mtDNA-CN to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohorts Equations for estimating 10-year hard atherosclerosis CVD risk was associated with improved risk classification (continuous net reclassification index, 0.194; 95% CI, 0.130-0.258; P < .001). Mitochondrial DNA-CN further improved sensitivity and specificity for the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association recommendations on initiating statin therapy for primary prevention of ASCVD (net 221 individuals appropriately downclassified and net 15 individuals appropriately upclassified). Conclusions and Relevance: Mitochondrial DNA-CN was independently associated with incident CVD in 3 large prospective studies and may have potential clinical utility in improving CVD risk classification.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Idoso , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Buffy Coat , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Matern Child Nutr ; 13(4)2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28198164

RESUMO

The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low-income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected within 6 weeks postpartum from two low-income maternal cohorts of exclusively breastfed infants, from Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 683) and Kolkata, India (n = 372) and assayed for percentage composition of 26 fatty acids. Mature milk (>15 days) in Dhaka (n = 99) compared to Kolkata (n = 372) was higher in total saturated fatty acid (SFA; mean 48% vs. 44%) and disproportionately lower in ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), hence the ω6- and ω3-PUFA ratio in Dhaka were almost double the value in Kolkata. In both sites, after adjusting for days of lactation, increased maternal education was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA, and increasing birth order or total pregnancies was associated with decreasing ω6-PUFA or ω3-PUFA by a factor of 0.95 for each birth and pregnancy. In Dhaka, household prosperity was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA and increased ω6- and ω3-PUFA. Maternal height was associated with increased SFA and PUFA in Kolkata (1% increase per 1 cm), but body mass index showed no independent association with either ratio in either cohort. In summary, the socioeconomic factors of maternal education and household prosperity were associated with breast milk composition, although prosperity may only be important in higher cost of living communities. Associated maternal biological factors were height and infant birth order, but not adiposity. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Leite Humano/química , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana , Adulto , Bangladesh , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Lactação , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 34(3): 559-574, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100790

RESUMO

Despite its population, geographic size, and emerging economic importance, disproportionately little genome-scale research exists into genetic factors that predispose Brazilians to disease, or the population genetics of risk. After identification of suitable proxy populations and careful analysis of tri-continental admixture in 1,538 North-Eastern Brazilians to estimate individual ancestry and ancestral allele frequencies, we computed 400,000 genome-wide locus-specific branch length (LSBL) Fst statistics of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and a similar set of differentiation statistics for their Amerindian component compared with the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population (surprisingly, Bengalis in Bangladesh). After ranking SNPs by these statistics, we identified the top 10 highly differentiated SNPs in five genome regions in the LSBL tests of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and the top 10 SNPs in eight regions comparing their Amerindian component to the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population. We found SNPs within or proximal to the genes CIITA (rs6498115), SMC6 (rs1834619), and KLHL29 (rs2288697) were most differentiated in the Amerindian-specific branch, while SNPs in the genes ADAMTS9 (rs7631391), DOCK2 (rs77594147), SLC28A1 (rs28649017), ARHGAP5 (rs7151991), and CIITA (rs45601437) were most highly differentiated in the Asian comparison. These genes are known to influence immune function, metabolic and anthropometry traits, and embryonic development. These analyses have identified candidate genes for selection within Amerindian ancestry, and by comparison of the two analyses, those for which the differentiation may have arisen during the migration from Asia to the Americas.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Alelos , Brasil , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Genótipo , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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