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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2138, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837222

RESUMO

It is largely unknown how South America's Andean forests affect the global carbon cycle, and thus regulate climate change. Here, we measure aboveground carbon dynamics over the past two decades in 119 monitoring plots spanning a range of >3000 m elevation across the subtropical and tropical Andes. Our results show that Andean forests act as strong sinks for aboveground carbon (0.67 ± 0.08 Mg C ha-1 y-1) and have a high potential to serve as future carbon refuges. Aboveground carbon dynamics of Andean forests are driven by abiotic and biotic factors, such as climate and size-dependent mortality of trees. The increasing aboveground carbon stocks offset the estimated C emissions due to deforestation between 2003 and 2014, resulting in a net total uptake of 0.027 Pg C y-1. Reducing deforestation will increase Andean aboveground carbon stocks, facilitate upward species migrations, and allow for recovery of biomass losses due to climate change.

2.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 46(6): 100823, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789171

RESUMO

We continue to increase our cognizance and recognition of the importance of healthy living (HL) behaviors and HL medicine (HLM) to prevent and treat chronic disease. The continually unfolding events precipitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have further highlighted the importance of HL behaviors, as indicated by the characteristics of those who have been hospitalized and died from this viral infection. There has already been recognition that leading a healthy lifestyle, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, may have a substantial protective effect in those who become infected with the virus. Now more than ever, HL behaviors and HLM are essential and must be promoted with a renewed vigor across the globe. In response to the rapidly evolving world since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clear need to change lifestyle behaviors to promote human resilience and quality of life, the HL for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) network was established. The 4 major areas of focus for the network are: (1) knowledge discovery and dissemination; (2) education; (3) policy; (4) implementation. This HL-PIVOT network position statement provides a current synopsis of the major focus areas of the network, including leading research in the field of HL behaviors and HLM, examples of best practices in education, policy, and implementation, and recommendations for the future.

3.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; : 1-11, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) exhibit muscle wasting and impaired physical function which can be reversed with regular exercise, but accessibility to exercise programs for this unique population is lacking. We assessed the efficacy of a home-based exercise program on a broad range of indices of physical function, quality of life (QoL), and cognitive decline in patients with MHD. DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-eight MHD patients, mean age 66 ± 7 years, were randomized to a 12-week home-based, case-managed aerobic and resistance exercise program or to usual care (13 exercise and 15 usual care). Comparisons were made for peak VO2, ventilatory inefficiency, 6-min walk test (6MWT), 1-min sit-to-stand (1STS), muscle strength, body composition, QoL, and cognitive measures. RESULTS: Peak VO2 improved significantly in the exercise group (p = 0.01 between groups); exercise time improved by 41 and 36% at the ventilatory threshold and peak exercise, respectively (p < 0.01 between groups), but there were no differences in ventilatory efficiency. Trends for improvements in 6MWT and 1STS in the exercise group were observed, but no differences were observed in strength or body composition. Among measures of QoL, general health determined by the SF-36 improved in the exercise group, but there were no differences between groups in cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: MHD patients improved exercise capacity and some indices of QoL following a 12-week home-based exercise program. Home-based exercise is feasible for patients undergoing MHD and may help to obviate accessibility barriers to regular exercise.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757787

RESUMO

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently present reduced exercise capacity. We aimed to explore the extent to which peripheral extraction relates to exercise capacity in asymptomatic patients with DM. We prospectively enrolled 98 asymptomatic patients with type-2 DM (mean age of 59±11 years and 56% male sex), and compared with 31 age, sex and body mass index (BMI)-matched normoglycemic controls. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) with resting echocardiography was performed. Exercise response was assessed using peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and ventilatory efficiency was measured using the slope of the relationship between minute ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2). Peripheral extraction was calculated as the ratio of VO2to cardiac output. Cardiac function was evaluated using left ventricular longitudinal strain (LVLS), E/e', and relative wall thickness (RWT). Among patients with DM, 26 patients (27%) presented reduced percent-predicted-peak VO2(<80%) and 18 (18%) presented abnormal VE/VCO2slope (>34). There was no significant difference in peak cardiac output; peripheral extraction was lower in patients with DM compared to controls. Higher peak E/e' (beta=-0.24, p=0.004) was associated with lower peak VO2along with age, sex and BMI (R2=0.53). A network correlation map revealed the connectivity of peak VO2as a central feature and cluster analysis found LVLS, E/e', RWT and peak VO2in different clusters. In conclusion, impaired peripheral extraction may contribute to reduced peak VO2in asymptomatic patients with DM. Furthermore, cluster analysis suggests that CPX and echocardiography may be complementary for defining subclinical heart failure in patients with DM.

5.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 32(3): 275-279, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653980

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive summary of in-vivo imaging techniques of the aqueous outflow system and discuss its role in improving our understanding of glaucoma pathogenesis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Our understanding of the aqueous outflow system is largely derived from ex-vivo studies. Recent innovations in imaging technology and techniques enable in-vivo evaluation of the conventional outflow system in real-time. Optical coherence tomography allows for noninvasive, high-resolution, volumetric imaging of ocular tissues. Dynamic structural changes have been observed at the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. In parallel, aqueous angiography using injected tracers show a similar dynamism with variable and pulsatile flow signals. SUMMARY: In-vivo imaging enable real-time evaluation of the conventional aqueous outflow pathway. This emerging field shows great promise to expand our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of glaucoma.

7.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical function is impaired in end stage renal disease (ESRD). Various instruments have been used to assess the functional capabilities and health status of patients with ESRD, but it is not known which has the best association with peak VO2. AIMS: To assess the association between functional measures in ESRD. METHODS: Thirty nine elderly ESRD patients were evaluated with commonly used functional, health status, and quality of life measures, including maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), 6-min walk (6MWT), sit-to-stand test (STS), Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ), upper and lower body strength, pulmonary function tests, and body composition determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. The association between performance on these functional tools, clinical variables, and exercise test responses was assessed, and a non-exercise test multivariate model was developed to predict peak VO2. RESULTS: Peak VO2 was modestly related to VSAQ score (r = 0.59, p < 0.01), indices of upper and lower body strength (r = 0.45, p < 0.01 for both), and FEV1 (r = 0.51, p < 0.01). Functional and quality of life questionnaires were generally poorly related to one another and to peak VO2. In a multivariate model, 6MWT performance, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and VSAQ score were the best predictors of peak VO2, yielding a multiple R = 0.82, accounting for 67% of the variance in peak VO2. CONCLUSION: Exercise capacity can be reasonably estimated using non-exercise test variables in patients with ESRD, including a symptom questionnaire (VSAQ), 6MWT and FEV1. CLINICAL TRIAL INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01990495. Registered Nov 21, 2013.

8.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549590

RESUMO

COVID-19 is one of the biggest health crises that the world has seen. Whilst measures to abate transmission and infection are ongoing, there continues to be growing numbers of patients requiring chronic support, which is already putting a strain on health care systems around the world and which may do so for years to come. A legacy of COVID-19 will be a long-term requirement to support patients with dedicated rehabilitation and support services. With many clinical settings characterized by a lack of funding and resources, the need to provide these additional services could overwhelm clinical capacity. This position statement from the Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) Network provides a collaborative blueprint focused on leading research and developing clinical guidelines, bringing together professionals with expertise in clinical services and the exercise sciences to develop the evidence base needed to improve outcomes for patients infected by COVID-19.

9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(2): 342-349, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine population-attributable risk (PAR) and exposure impact number (EIN) for mortality associated with impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical inactivity, and other risk markers among veteran subjects. METHODS: The sample included 5890 male subjects (mean age 58±15) who underwent a maximal exercise test for clinical reasons between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2014. All-cause mortality was the end point. Cox multivariable hazard models were performed to determine clinical, demographic, and exercise-test determinants of mortality. Population-attributable risks and EIN for the lowest quartile of CRF and for inactive behavior were analyzed, accounting for competing events. RESULTS: There were 2728 deaths during a mean ± standard deviation follow-up period of 9.9±5.8 years. Having low CRF (<5.0 metabolic equivalents [METs]) was associated with an approximate 3-fold higher risk of mortality and a PAR of 12.9%. Each higher MET achieved on the treadmill was associated with a 15% reduction in mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.88; P<.001). Nearly half the sample was inactive, and these subjects had a 23% higher mortality risk and a PAR of 8.8%. The least fit quartile (<5.0 METs) had relative risks of ≈6.0 compared with the most-fit group (HR=5.99; 95% CI, 4.9 to 7.3). The least-active tertile had ≈2-fold higher risks of mortality vs the most active subjects (HR=1.9; 95% CI, 0.91 to 4.1). The lowest EIN was observed for low fitness (3.8; 95% CI, 3.4 to 4.3, P<.001), followed by diabetes, smoking, hypertension, and physical inactivity (all P<.001 except for diabetes, P=.008). CONCLUSION: Both higher CRF and physical activity provide protection against all-cause mortality in subjects referred for exercise testing for clinical reasons. Encouraging physical activity with the aim of increasing CRF would have a significant impact on reducing mortality.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Causas de Morte , Exercício Físico , Veteranos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1242, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623042

RESUMO

Indirect climate effects on tree fecundity that come through variation in size and growth (climate-condition interactions) are not currently part of models used to predict future forests. Trends in species abundances predicted from meta-analyses and species distribution models will be misleading if they depend on the conditions of individuals. Here we find from a synthesis of tree species in North America that climate-condition interactions dominate responses through two pathways, i) effects of growth that depend on climate, and ii) effects of climate that depend on tree size. Because tree fecundity first increases and then declines with size, climate change that stimulates growth promotes a shift of small trees to more fecund sizes, but the opposite can be true for large sizes. Change the depresses growth also affects fecundity. We find a biogeographic divide, with these interactions reducing fecundity in the West and increasing it in the East. Continental-scale responses of these forests are thus driven largely by indirect effects, recommending management for climate change that considers multiple demographic rates.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Árvores/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Geografia , Modelos Teóricos , América do Norte , Estações do Ano
11.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) impact on the association between exercise blood pressure (BP) and mortality risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed CRF in 15,004 US Veterans (mean age 57.5 ± 11.2 years) who completed a standardized treadmill test between January 1, 1988 and July 28, 2017 and had no evidence of ischemia. They were classified as Unfit or Fit according to the age-specific metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved <50% (6.2 ± 1.6 METs; n = 8440) or ≥ 50% (10.5 ± 2.4 METs; n = 6264). To account for the impact of resting systolic BP (SBP) on outcomes, we calculated the difference (Peak SBP-Resting SBP) and termed it SBP-Reserve. We noted a significant increase in mortality associated with SBP-Reserve ≤52 mmHg and stratified the cohort accordingly (SBP-Reserve ≤52 mmHg and > 52 mmHg). We applied multivariable Cox models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for outcomes. RESULTS: Mortality risk was significantly elevated only in Unfit individuals with SBP-Reserve ≤52 mmHg compared to those with SBP-Reserve >52 mmHg (HR = 1.35; CI: 1.24-1.46; P < 0.001). We then assessed the CRF and SBP-Reserve interaction on mortality risk with Fit individuals with SBP-Reserve >52 mmHg serving as the referent. Mortality risk was 92% higher (HR = 1.92%; 95% CI: 1.77-2.09; P < 0.001) in Unfit individuals with SBP-Reserve ≤52 mmHg and 47% higher (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.33-1.62; P < 0.001) in those with SBP-Reserve >52 mmHg. CONCLUSION: Low CRF was associated with increased mortality risk regardless of peak exercise SBP. The risk was substantially higher in individuals unable to augment their exercise SBP >52 mmHg beyond resting levels.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512981

RESUMO

While cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation programs traditionally involve exercise therapy and risk management following an event (eg, myocardial infarction and stroke), or an intervention (eg, coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention), prehabilitation involves enhancing functional capacity and optimizing risk profile prior to a scheduled intervention. The concept of prehabilitation is based on the principle that patients with higher functional capabilities will better tolerate an intervention, and will have better pre- and post-surgical outcomes. In addition to improving fitness, prehabilitation has been extended to include multifactorial risk intervention prior to surgery, including psychosocial counseling, smoking cessation, diabetes control, nutrition counseling, and alcohol abstinence. A growing number of studies have shown that patients enrolled in prehabilitation programs have reduced post-operative complications and demonstrate better functional, psychosocial, and surgery-related outcomes. These studies have included interventions such as hepatic transplantation, lung cancer resection, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (repair, upper gastrointestinal surgery, bariatric surgery, and coronary artery bypass grafting). Studies have also suggested that incorporation of prehabilitation before an intervention in addition to traditional rehabilitation following an intervention further enhances physical function, lowers risk for adverse events, and better prepares a patient to resume normal activities, including return to work. In this overview, we discuss prehabilitation coming of age, including key elements related to optimizing pre-surgical fitness, factors to consider in developing a prehabilitation program, and exercise training strategies to improve pre-surgical fitness.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of tube shunt type [Ahmed (AGV) versus Baerveldt (BGI)] on the frequency of tube-cornea touch and corneal decompensation after tube shunt surgery. METHODS: This retrospective comparative study included 145 eyes of 130 patients with uveitic glaucoma who underwent AGV (75 eyes) or BGI (70 eyes) implantations. Electronic medical records were reviewed to document demographic factors, intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, frequency of tube-cornea touch, corneal decompensation, and need for subsequent corneal transplantation. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 27.7±3.3 months for AGV and 32.8±3.8 months for BGI (p=0.30). Tube-cornea touch was observed in 5 eyes after BGI and 1 eye in the AGV group (p=0.08). The BGI group reported a significantly higher rate of corneal decompensation (9 versus 0; p=0.001) and transplantation (6 versus 0; p=0.01) compared to the AGV group. Previous trabeculectomy was a significant risk factor for corneal complications in eyes undergoing BGI implantation (odds ratio [OR]= 8.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.78-37.45, p=0.007). CONCLUSION: Similar rates of tube-cornea touch were observed in both shunt types; BGI shunts were associated with a greater incidence of corneal complications and transplantation as compared to AGV in this retrospective series of uveitic glaucoma cases.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470730

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is the gold standard approach for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The primary aim of the current study was to determine reference standards for the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (V˙E/V˙CO2) slope in a cohort from the "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database" (FRIEND) Registry. METHODS: The current analysis included 2512 tests from 10 CPX laboratories in the United States. Inclusion criteria included CPX data on apparently healthy men and women: (1) age ≥20 yr; and (2) with a symptom-limited exercise test performed on a treadmill. Ventilation and V˙CO2 data, from the initiation of exercise to peak, were used to calculate the V˙E/V˙CO2 slope via least-squares linear regression. Reference values were determined for men and women by decade of life. RESULTS: On average, V˙E/V˙CO2 slope values were lower in men and increased with age independent of sex. Fiftieth percentile values increased from 27.1 in the second decade to 33.9 in the eighth decade in men and from 28.5 in the second decade to 33.7 in the eighth decade in women. In the overall group, correlations with baseline characteristics and the V˙E/V˙CO2 slope were statistically significant (P < .05) although generally weak, particularly for age and body mass index. CONCLUSION: The results of the current study establish reference values for the V˙E/V˙CO2 slope when treadmill testing is performed, and all exercise data are used for the slope calculation. These results may prove useful in enhancing the interpretation of CPX results when assessing CRF.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence and quantification of inadvertent electroencephalographic burst suppression during total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for spine instrumentation surgery has not previously been reported. METHODS: The primary aim of this retrospective observational quality improvement project was to establish the prevalence of burst suppression during spine instrumentation surgery with TIVA. The secondary outcome was the incidence of postoperative delirium. RESULTS: One hundred twelve consecutive patients, aged between 20 and 88 years, underwent spinal instrumentation surgery. Seventy-eight (69.6%) patients experienced inadvertent burst suppression; the maximal degree of burst suppression ratio was 20% to 100%. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) time spent in burst suppression was 44 (77) minutes, and burst suppression was present for 22% (range: 2% to 93%) of the monitoring period. Average (±SD) propofol dose was lower in patients with burst suppression (87±19 vs. 93±15 µg/kg/min, P=0.04). Ten (8.9%) patients experienced postoperative delirium. Intraoperative burst suppression was more prevalent in those that experienced delirium (100% vs. 66.7%, P=0.03, relative risk: 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-1.7). The proportion of the monitoring period spent in maximal burst suppression (15.3 [25.9]% vs.11.7 [21.7]%) was similar between those that did, and did not, experience delirium. CONCLUSIONS: High rates and prolonged periods of inadvertent burst suppression may be prevalent during spine instrumentation surgery with TIVA. Our findings suggest that usage of electroencephalography alone is incomplete without prompt interpretation and intervention, mandating close communication between neuromonitoring and anesthesia teams. The dose-response relationship between burst suppression, total time spent in maximal burst suppression, and their association with delirium warrants further evaluation.

16.
Ophthalmol Glaucoma ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the incidence of glaucoma surgery cancellations, as well as their characteristics, underlying reasons, resultant surgical delay, and estimated lost potential reimbursement, at a tertiary eye hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of planned surgical procedures of 4 glaucoma specialists at a tertiary eye center over a 2-year period (May 2017-May 2019). An additional prospective survey of patients was conducted. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who canceled glaucoma surgeries. METHODS: Demographics and clinical information were recorded from the electronic medical record. A brief phone survey was implemented to determine the reason for cancellation and whether the patient rescheduled. Lost reimbursement was estimated assuming Medicare reimbursement rates for each procedure based on facility fee, surgeon fee, and anesthesia fee. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reasons for surgical cancellation, delay related to surgical cancellations, and annual lost reimbursement potential. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three of 1384 glaucoma surgeries (8.9%) to be performed by 4 glaucoma specialists at Wills Eye Hospital during the 2-year study period were canceled. Among those canceled, the mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of the patients was 70.3 ± 14.4 years and 51% were men. Of the cancellations, 56.9% were made within 1 day of the planned date of surgery and 96.7% were canceled within 7 days. Of the reasons for surgical cancellation, 28% were considered preventable, 50% were considered unpreventable, and 23% were categorized as "no reason given." Most of the surgeries eventually were performed-to-date (64.2%); the mean ± SD delay in surgery was 63.4 ± 68.6 days. The 3 most common preventable reasons for cancellation were lack of transportation (34%), lack of timely clearance (26%), and insurance-related issues (14%). Assuming Medicare reimbursement rates, the estimated annual lost potential reimbursement from surgical cancellations of the 4 glaucoma specialists was $208 306. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a significant number of cancellations in a glaucoma practice, most of which occurred within 1 day of planned surgery. Minimizing preventable causes of cancellations could decrease the likelihood of surgical delays as well as lost reimbursement. Further comparison with patients who successfully underwent surgery performed without delay may identify predictive factors or interventions that could decrease the number of surgical cancellations.

17.
Ophthalmol Glaucoma ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To model the global test-retest variability of visual fields (VFs) in glaucoma. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Test-retest VFs from 4044 eyes of 4044 participants. METHODS: We selected 2 reliable VFs per eye measured with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Swedish interactive threshold algorithm 24-2) within 30 days of each other. Each VF had fixation losses (FLs) of 33% or less, false-negative results (FNRs) of 20% or less, and false-positive results (FPRs) of 20% or less. Stepwise linear regression was applied to select the model best predicting the global test-retest variability from 3 categories of features of the first VF: (1) base parameters (age, mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, glaucoma hemifield test results, FPR, FNR, and FL); (2) total deviation (TD) at each location; and (3) computationally derived archetype VF loss patterns. The global test-retest variability was defined as root mean square deviation (RMSD) of TD values at all 52 VF locations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Archetype models to predict the global test-retest variability. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of the root mean square deviation was 4.39 ± 2.55 dB. Between the 2 VF tests, TD values were correlated more strongly in central than in peripheral VF locations (intraclass coefficient, 0.66-0.89; P < 0.001). Compared with the model using base parameters alone (adjusted R2 = 0.45), adding TD values improved prediction accuracy of the global variability (adjusted R2 = 0.53; P < 0.001; Bayesian information criterion [BIC] decrease of 527; change of >6 represents strong improvement). Lower TD sensitivity in the outermost peripheral VF locations was predictive of higher global variability. Adding archetypes to the base model improved model performance with an adjusted R2 of 0.53 (P < 0.001) and lowering of BIC by 583. Greater variability was associated with concentric peripheral defect, temporal hemianopia, inferotemporal defect, near total loss, superior peripheral defect, and central scotoma (listed in order of decreasing statistical significance), and less normal VF results and superior paracentral defect. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of archetype VF loss patterns and TD values based on first VF improved the prediction of the global test-retest variability than using traditional global VF indices alone.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last half-century, different stoichiometric equations for calculating the energy cost of exercise based upon the combustion of mixtures of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins have been proposed and modified. With the means of indirect calorimetry, while measuring oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and urinary urea nitrogen excretion, the contribution of specific substrates to overall energy production can be estimated. However, even with their long history of application, no previous studies have evaluated whether the use of different stoichiometric equations provides similar or distinct maximal fat oxidation rate (MFO) responses and information regarding MFO location (FATmax) in male athletes. METHODS: Twenty healthy male athletes performed graded exercise testing (GXT) cycle ergometry using breath by breath gas analysis to assess fat oxidation and maximal oxygen uptake. Analysis of variance followed by within-equation effects, within-equation factors, and post hoc pairwise comparisons were used to examine within-equation differences. RESULTS: Compared stoichiometric equations demonstrated significant differences in the mean and maximal fat oxidation rates, varying up to nearly 7 %. FATmax differences, however, were not noticed. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that for within-study designs, the equation used appears to be less important, but when inter-study comparisons are planned, caution is in order due to the presence of inter-equation differences.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe reoperations that occurred within 90 days of minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) at a single institution over a 30-month period. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Charts of adult patients who underwent trabecular microbypass stents, gel microstents, and goniotomy procedures (including gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy) from October 1, 2017 to March 15, 2020 at Wills Eye Hospital were examined. Outcome measures were unanticipated reoperations within the first 90 days after MIGS procedures and the complications that led to these reoperations. RESULTS: 448 MIGS procedures were performed on 436 eyes of 348 patients over a 30-month period by 6 glaucoma surgeons. Of these, 206 (46.0 %) were trabecular microbypass stents (198 iStent/iStent inject, 8 Hydrus), 152 (33.9%) were gel microstents, 90 (20.1%) were goniotomy procedures. Combined phacoemulsification took place in 256 (58.7%) of eyes. Reoperation within 90 days took place in 23/436 eyes (5.3%), including 16/152 eyes in the gel microstent group (10.5%), 4/198 eyes in iStent/iStent inject group (2.0%), 3/90 eyes in the goniotomy group (3.3%). Indications for reoperation were elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in 16/23 eyes (69.6%), gel microstent tip exposure with wound leakage in 3/23 eyes (13%), and early gel microstent encapsulation without elevated IOP in 1/23 eye (4.3%). 2/23 eyes (8.7%) required reoperation for lens complications while 1/23 eye (4.3%) had elevated IOP and aphakia requiring reoperation. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of reoperation within the first 90 days after MIGS was low. Elevated IOP and complications associated with gel microstents were the main indications for reoperation.

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