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1.
iScience ; 17: 167-181, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279934

RESUMO

The erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) plays an essential role in erythropoiesis and other cellular processes by forming distinct signaling complexes composed of EPOR homodimers or hetero-oligomers between the EPOR and another receptor, but the mechanism of heteroreceptor assembly and signaling is poorly understood. We report here a 46-residue, artificial transmembrane protein aptamer, designated ELI-3, that binds and activates the EPOR and induces growth factor independence in murine BaF3 cells expressing the EPOR. ELI-3 requires the transmembrane domain and JAK2-binding sites of the EPOR for activity, but not the cytoplasmic tyrosines that mediate canonical EPOR signaling. Instead, ELI-3-induced proliferation and activation of JAK/STAT signaling requires the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the cytokine receptor ß-common subunit (ßcR) in addition to the EPOR. Moreover, ELI-3 fails to induce erythroid differentiation of primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells but inhibits nonhematopoietic cell death induced by serum withdrawal.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 209-224, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administration of amplitude modulated 27·12 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (AM RF EMF) by means of a spoon-shaped applicator placed on the patient's tongue is a newly approved treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism of action of tumour-specific AM RF EMF is largely unknown. METHODS: Whole body and organ-specific human dosimetry analyses were performed. Mice carrying human HCC xenografts were exposed to AM RF EMF using a small animal AM RF EMF exposure system replicating human dosimetry and exposure time. We performed histological analysis of tumours following exposure to AM RF EMF. Using an agnostic genomic approach, we characterized the mechanism of action of AM RF EMF. FINDINGS: Intrabuccal administration results in systemic delivery of athermal AM RF EMF from head to toe at levels lower than those generated by cell phones held close to the body. Tumour shrinkage results from differentiation of HCC cells into quiescent cells with spindle morphology. AM RF EMF targeted antiproliferative effects and cancer stem cell inhibiting effects are mediated by Ca2+ influx through Cav3·2 T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CACNA1H) resulting in increased intracellular calcium concentration within HCC cells only. INTERPRETATION: Intrabuccally-administered AM RF EMF is a systemic therapy that selectively block the growth of HCC cells. AM RF EMF pronounced inhibitory effects on cancer stem cells may explain the exceptionally long responses observed in several patients with advanced HCC. FUND: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Centre Support Grant award number P30CA012197 issued to the Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Centre (BP) and by funds from the Charles L. Spurr Professorship Fund (BP). DWG is supported by R01 AA016852 and P50 AA026117.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(14): e84, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165880

RESUMO

In small RNA (smRNA) sequencing studies, highly abundant molecules such as adapter dimer products and tissue-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) inhibit accurate quantification of lowly expressed species. We previously developed a method to selectively deplete highly abundant miRNAs. However, this method does not deplete adapter dimer ligation products that, unless removed by gel-separation, comprise most of the library. Here, we have adapted and modified recently described methods for CRISPR/Cas9-based Depletion of Abundant Species by Hybridization ('DASH') to smRNA-seq, which we have termed miRNA and Adapter Dimer-DASH (MAD-DASH). In MAD-DASH, Cas9 is complexed with single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) targeting adapter dimer ligation products, alongside highly expressed tissue-specific smRNAs, for cleavage in vitro. This process dramatically reduces adapter dimer and targeted smRNA sequences, can be multiplexed, shows minimal off-target effects, improves the quantification of lowly expressed miRNAs from human plasma and tissue derived RNA, and obviates the need for gel-separation, greatly increasing sample throughput. Additionally, the method is fully customizable to other smRNA-seq preparation methods. Like depletion of ribosomal RNA for mRNA-seq and mitochondrial DNA for ATAC-seq, our method allows for greater proportional read-depth of non-targeted sequences.

4.
Genome Res ; 29(5): 809-818, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940688

RESUMO

Large-scale sequencing efforts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have implicated novel genes using gene-based collapsing methods. However, pathogenic mutations may be concentrated in specific genic regions. To address this, we developed two collapsing strategies: One focuses rare variation collapsing on homology-based protein domains as the unit for collapsing, and the other is a gene-level approach that, unlike standard methods, leverages existing evidence of purifying selection against missense variation on said domains. The application of these two collapsing methods to 3093 ALS cases and 8186 controls of European ancestry, and also 3239 cases and 11,808 controls of diversified populations, pinpoints risk regions of ALS genes, including SOD1, NEK1, TARDBP, and FUS While not clearly implicating novel ALS genes, the new analyses not only pinpoint risk regions in known genes but also highlight candidate genes as well.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(10): e59, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869147

RESUMO

Deletions in the 16.6 kb mitochondrial genome have been implicated in numerous disorders that often display muscular and/or neurological symptoms due to the high-energy demands of these tissues. We describe a catalogue of 4489 putative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions, including their frequency and relative read rate, using a combinatorial approach of mitochondria-targeted PCR, next-generation sequencing, bioinformatics, post-hoc filtering, annotation, and validation steps. Our bioinformatics pipeline uses MapSplice, an RNA-seq splice junction detection algorithm, to detect and quantify mtDNA deletion breakpoints rather than mRNA splices. Analyses of 93 samples from postmortem brain and blood found (i) the 4977 bp 'common deletion' was neither the most frequent deletion nor the most abundant; (ii) brain contained significantly more deletions than blood; (iii) many high frequency deletions were previously reported in MitoBreak, suggesting they are present at low levels in metabolically active tissues and are not exclusive to individuals with diagnosed mitochondrial pathologies; (iv) many individual deletions (and cumulative metrics) had significant and positive correlations with age and (v) the highest deletion burdens were observed in major depressive disorder brain, at levels greater than Kearns-Sayre Syndrome muscle. Collectively, these data suggest the Splice-Break pipeline can detect and quantify mtDNA deletions at a high level of resolution.

6.
iScience ; 13: 43-54, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818224

RESUMO

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising targets for cancer therapy, although their individual actions remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify a role for HDAC2 in the regulation of MDM2 acetylation at previously uncharacterized lysines. Upon inactivation of HDAC2, this acetylation creates a structural signal in the lysine-rich domain of MDM2 to prevent the recognition and degradation of its downstream substrate, MCL-1 ubiquitin ligase E3 (MULE). This mechanism further reveals a therapeutic connection between the MULE ubiquitin ligase function and tumor suppression. Specifically, we show that HDAC inhibitor treatment promotes the accumulation of MULE, which diminishes the t(X; 18) translocation-associated synovial sarcomagenesis by directly targeting the fusion product SS18-SSX for degradation. These results uncover a new HDAC2-dependent pathway that integrates reversible acetylation signaling to the anticancer ubiquitin response.

7.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(5): 709-719, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745123

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A small percentage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are caused by genetic mutations with autosomal dominant inheritance. We report a family with a novel variant in PSEN1. METHODS: We performed clinical and genetic evaluation of 93 related individuals from a Colombian admixed population. 31 individuals had whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Genetic analysis revealed a missense variant in PSEN1 (NM_000021.3: c.1247T>C p.Ile416Thr), which originated on an African haplotype and segregated with AD logarithm of the odds score of 6. Their clinical phenotype is similar to sporadic AD except for earlier age at onset: the mean age at onset for mild cognitive impairment was 47.6 years (standard deviation 5.83) and for dementia 51.6 years (standard deviation 5.03). DISCUSSION: Ile416Thr is a novel pathogenic variant that causes AD in the sixth decade of life. The history of the region that included slave importation and admixtures within a confined geographic locale represents a "mini-population bottleneck" and subsequent emergence of a rare dominant mutation.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 14(11): e1007671, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500825

RESUMO

Mutations that alter signaling of RAS/MAPK-family proteins give rise to a group of Mendelian diseases known as RASopathies. However, among RASopathies, the matrix of genotype-phenotype relationships is still incomplete, in part because there are many RAS-related proteins and in part because the phenotypic consequences may be variable and/or pleiotropic. Here, we describe a cohort of ten cases, drawn from six clinical sites and over 16,000 sequenced probands, with de novo protein-altering variation in RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase. All probands present with speech and motor delays, and most have intellectual disability, low weight, short stature, and facial dysmorphism. The observed rate of de novo RALA variants in affected probands is significantly higher (p = 4.93 x 10-11) than expected from the estimated random mutation rate. Further, all de novo variants described here affect residues within the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA; in fact, six alleles arose at only two codons, Val25 and Lys128. The affected residues are highly conserved across both RAL- and RAS-family genes, are devoid of variation in large human population datasets, and several are homologous to positions at which disease-associated variants have been observed in other GTPase genes. We directly assayed GTP hydrolysis and RALA effector-protein binding of the observed variants, and found that all but one tested variant significantly reduced both activities compared to wild-type. The one exception, S157A, reduced GTP hydrolysis but significantly increased RALA-effector binding, an observation similar to that seen for oncogenic RAS variants. These results show the power of data sharing for the interpretation and analysis of rare variation, expand the spectrum of molecular causes of developmental disability to include RALA, and provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of human disease caused by mutations in small GTPases.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1022-1029, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526861

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures and developmental impairment. Sequencing approaches have identified causal genetic variants in only about 50% of individuals with DEEs.1-3 This suggests that unknown genetic etiologies exist, potentially in the ∼98% of human genomes not covered by exome sequencing (ES). Here we describe seven likely pathogenic variants in regions outside of the annotated coding exons of the most frequently implicated epilepsy gene, SCN1A, encoding the alpha-1 sodium channel subunit. We provide evidence that five of these variants promote inclusion of a "poison" exon that leads to reduced amounts of full-length SCN1A protein. This mechanism is likely to be broadly relevant to human disease; transcriptome studies have revealed hundreds of poison exons,4,5 including some present within genes encoding other sodium channels and in genes involved in neurodevelopment more broadly.6 Future research on the mechanisms that govern neuronal-specific splicing behavior might allow researchers to co-opt this system for RNA therapeutics.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382371

RESUMO

Pathogenic variation in MAPT, GRN, and C9ORF72 accounts for at most only half of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases with a family history of neurological disease. This suggests additional variants and genes that remain to be identified as risk factors for FTLD. We conducted a case-control genetic association study comparing pathologically diagnosed FTLD patients (n = 94) to cognitively normal older adults (n = 3541), and found suggestive evidence that gene-wide aggregate rare variant burden in MFSD8 is associated with FTLD risk. Because homozygous mutations in MFSD8 cause neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), similar to homozygous mutations in GRN, we assessed rare variants in MFSD8 for relevance to FTLD through experimental follow-up studies. Using post-mortem tissue from middle frontal gyrus of patients with FTLD and controls, we identified increased MFSD8 protein levels in MFSD8 rare variant carriers relative to non-variant carrier patients with sporadic FTLD and healthy controls. We also observed an increase in lysosomal and autophagy-related proteins in MFSD8 rare variant carrier and sporadic FTLD patients relative to controls. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MFSD8 was expressed in neurons and astrocytes across subjects, without clear evidence of abnormal localization in patients. Finally, in vitro studies identified marked disruption of lysosomal function in cells from MFSD8 rare variant carriers, and identified one rare variant that significantly increased the cell surface levels of MFSD8. Considering the growing evidence for altered autophagy in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, our findings support a role of NCL genes in FTLD risk and suggest that MFSD8-associated lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to FTLD pathology.

11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 14(11): e1006571, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485278

RESUMO

Sequencing of the T cell receptor repertoire is a powerful tool for deeper study of immune response, but the unique structure of this type of data makes its meaningful quantification challenging. We introduce a new method, the Gamma-GPD spliced threshold model, to address this difficulty. This biologically interpretable model captures the distribution of the TCR repertoire, demonstrates stability across varying sequencing depths, and permits comparative analysis across any number of sampled individuals. We apply our method to several datasets and obtain insights regarding the differentiating features in the T cell receptor repertoire among sampled individuals across conditions. We have implemented our method in the open-source R package powerTCR.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3753, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218074

RESUMO

A detailed understanding of the genome-wide variability of single-nucleotide germline mutation rates is essential to studying human genome evolution. Here, we use ~36 million singleton variants from 3560 whole-genome sequences to infer fine-scale patterns of mutation rate heterogeneity. Mutability is jointly affected by adjacent nucleotide context and diverse genomic features of the surrounding region, including histone modifications, replication timing, and recombination rate, sometimes suggesting specific mutagenic mechanisms. Remarkably, GC content, DNase hypersensitivity, CpG islands, and H3K36 trimethylation are associated with both increased and decreased mutation rates depending on nucleotide context. We validate these estimated effects in an independent dataset of ~46,000 de novo mutations, and confirm our estimates are more accurate than previously published results based on ancestrally older variants without considering genomic features. Our results thus provide the most refined portrait to date of the factors contributing to genome-wide variability of the human germline mutation rate.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3594, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185805

RESUMO

The inheritance of gene expression patterns is dependent on epigenetic regulation, but the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic landscapes during T cell differentiation are incompletely understood. Here we show that two stage-specific Cd4 cis-elements, the previously characterized enhancer E4p and a novel enhancer E4m, coordinately promote Cd4 transcription in mature thymic MHC-II-specific T cells, in part through the canonical Wnt pathway. Specifically, E4p licenses E4m to orchestrate DNA demethylation by TET1 and TET3, which in turn poises the Cd4 locus for transcription in peripheral T cells. Cd4 locus demethylation is important for subsequent Cd4 transcription in activated peripheral T cells wherein these cis-elements become dispensable. By contrast, in developing thymocytes the loss of TET1/3 does not affect Cd4 transcription, highlighting an uncoupled event between transcription and epigenetic modifications. Together our findings reveal an important function for thymic cis-elements in governing gene expression in the periphery via a heritable epigenetic mechanism.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200003, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016334

RESUMO

Psychiatric illness is unlikely to arise from pathology occurring uniformly across all cell types in affected brain regions. Despite this, transcriptomic analyses of the human brain have typically been conducted using macro-dissected tissue due to the difficulty of performing single-cell type analyses with donated post-mortem brains. To address this issue statistically, we compiled a database of several thousand transcripts that were specifically-enriched in one of 10 primary cortical cell types in previous publications. Using this database, we predicted the relative cell type content for 833 human cortical samples using microarray or RNA-Seq data from the Pritzker Consortium (GSE92538) or publicly-available databases (GSE53987, GSE21935, GSE21138, CommonMind Consortium). These predictions were generated by averaging normalized expression levels across transcripts specific to each cell type using our R-package BrainInABlender (validated and publicly-released on github). Using this method, we found that the principal components of variation in the datasets strongly correlated with the predicted neuronal/glial content of the samples. This variability was not simply due to dissection-the relative balance of brain cell types appeared to be influenced by a variety of demographic, pre- and post-mortem variables. Prolonged hypoxia around the time of death predicted increased astrocytic and endothelial gene expression, illustrating vascular upregulation. Aging was associated with decreased neuronal gene expression. Red blood cell gene expression was reduced in individuals who died following systemic blood loss. Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder had decreased astrocytic gene expression, mirroring previous morphometric observations. Subjects with Schizophrenia had reduced red blood cell gene expression, resembling the hypofrontality detected in fMRI experiments. Finally, in datasets containing samples with especially variable cell content, we found that controlling for predicted sample cell content while evaluating differential expression improved the detection of previously-identified psychiatric effects. We conclude that accounting for cell type can greatly improve the interpretability of transcriptomic data.

15.
Nature ; 562(7725): 150, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973715

RESUMO

Change History: This Article has been retracted; see accompanying Retraction. Corrected online 20 January: In this Article, author Frank Rigo was incorrectly listed with a middle initial; this has been corrected in the online versions of the paper.

16.
Biol Psychiatry ; 84(8): 555-562, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While downregulation of several growth factors in major depressive disorder is well established, less attention has been paid to the upregulation of other growth factors. Yet, upregulated growth factors may offer better therapeutic targets. We show that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) represents a target based on its upregulation in major depressive disorder and studies in animal models implicating it in negative affect. METHODS: CTGF gene expression was first evaluated in the postmortem human amygdala. The findings were followed up in outbred rats and in two rat lines that were selectively bred for differences in novelty-seeking and anxiety behavior (bred low responders and bred high responders). We studied the impact of social defeat and early-life treatment with fibroblast growth factor 2 on CTGF expression. Finally, we assessed the ability of an anti-CTGF antibody (FG-3019) to alter CTGF expression and emotionality. RESULTS: In the human amygdala, CTGF expression was significantly increased in major depressive disorder compared with control subjects. CTGF expression was also significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of adult bred low responders compared with bred high responders. Social defeat stress in bred low responders significantly increased CTGF expression in the dentate gyrus. Early-life fibroblast growth factor 2, a treatment that reduces anxiety-like behavior throughout life, decreased CTGF expression in the adult dentate gyrus. In outbred rats, CTGF administration increased depression-like behavior. Chronic treatment with FG-3019 decreased CTGF expression, and acute and chronic treatment was antidepressant. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to implicate CTGF as a prodepressant molecule that could serve as a target for the development of novel therapeutics.

17.
Opt Express ; 26(9): 11068-11083, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716034

RESUMO

The direct detection and imaging of exoplanets requires the use of high-contrast adaptive optics (AO). In these systems quasi-static aberrations need to be highly corrected and calibrated. In order to achieve this, a high-sensitivity wavefront sensor, the pupil-modulated point-diffraction interferometer (m-PDI), is presented. This sensor modulates and retrieves both the phase and the amplitude of an incoming electric field. The theory behind the wavefront reconstruction, the visibility of fringes, chromatic effects and noise propagation are developed. Results show this interferometer has a wide chromatic bandwidth. For a bandwidth of Δλ = 50% in units of central wavelength, the visibility of fringes and the response of the WFS to low and high-order aberrations are almost unaffected with respect to the monochromatic case. The WFS is, in contrast, very sensitive to variations in the size of its pinhole. The size of the pinhole is shown to affect the sensor's linearity, the dynamic range and the amount of noise. Larger pinholes make the sensor less sensitive to low-order aberrations, but in turn also decrease the effects of misalignments.

18.
Genet Med ; 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790872

RESUMO

PurposeClinically relevant secondary variants were identified in parents enrolled with a child with developmental delay and intellectual disability.MethodsExome/genome sequencing and analysis of 789 "unaffected" parents was performed.ResultsPathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 21 genes within 25 individuals (3.2%), with 11 (1.4%) participants harboring variation in a gene defined as clinically actionable by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. These 25 individuals self-reported either relevant clinical diagnoses (5); relevant family history or symptoms (13); or no relevant family history, symptoms, or clinical diagnoses (7). A limited carrier screen was performed yielding 15 variants in 48 (6.1%) parents. Parents were also analyzed as mate pairs (n = 365) to identify cases in which both parents were carriers for the same recessive disease, yielding three such cases (0.8%), two of which had children with the relevant recessive disease. Four participants had two findings (one carrier and one noncarrier variant). In total, 71 of the 789 enrolled parents (9.0%) received secondary findings.ConclusionWe provide an overview of the rates and types of clinically relevant secondary findings, which may be useful in the design and implementation of research and clinical sequencing efforts to identify such findings.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 12 April 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.53.

19.
Nat Methods ; 15(5): 330-338, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29638227

RESUMO

A key component of efforts to address the reproducibility crisis in biomedical research is the development of rigorously validated and renewable protein-affinity reagents. As part of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Protein Capture Reagents Program (PCRP), we have generated a collection of 1,406 highly validated immunoprecipitation- and/or immunoblotting-grade mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to 737 human transcription factors, using an integrated production and validation pipeline. We used HuProt human protein microarrays as a primary validation tool to identify mAbs with high specificity for their cognate targets. We further validated PCRP mAbs by means of multiple experimental applications, including immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq), and immunohistochemistry. We also conducted a meta-analysis that identified critical variables that contribute to the generation of high-quality mAbs. All validation data, protocols, and links to PCRP mAb suppliers are available at http://proteincapture.org.

20.
Neuron ; 97(6): 1268-1283.e6, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566793

RESUMO

To identify novel genes associated with ALS, we undertook two lines of investigation. We carried out a genome-wide association study comparing 20,806 ALS cases and 59,804 controls. Independently, we performed a rare variant burden analysis comparing 1,138 index familial ALS cases and 19,494 controls. Through both approaches, we identified kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) as a novel gene associated with ALS. Interestingly, mutations predominantly in the N-terminal motor domain of KIF5A are causative for two neurodegenerative diseases: hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2). In contrast, ALS-associated mutations are primarily located at the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain and patients harboring loss-of-function mutations displayed an extended survival relative to typical ALS cases. Taken together, these results broaden the phenotype spectrum resulting from mutations in KIF5A and strengthen the role of cytoskeletal defects in the pathogenesis of ALS.

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