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1.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581552

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an important lifestyle factor that is associated with several health conditions and a behavioral link with smoking is well established. Metabolic alterations after alcohol consumption have yet to be comprehensively investigated. We studied the association of alcohol consumption with metabolite patterns (MPs) among 2433 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study, and a potential modification by smoking. Alcohol consumption was self-reported through dietary questionnaires and serum metabolites were measured by a targeted approach. The metabolites were summarized as MPs using the treelet transform analysis (TT). We fitted linear models with alcohol consumption continuously and in five categories. We stratified the continuously modelled alcohol consumption by smoking status. All models were adjusted for potential confounders. Among men, alcohol consumption was positively associated with six MPs and negatively associated with one MP. In women, alcohol consumption was inversely associated with one MP. Heavy consumers differed from other consumers with respect to the "Long and short chain acylcarnitines" MP. Our findings suggest that long and short chain acylcarnitines might play an important role in the adverse effects of heavy alcohol consumption on chronic diseases. The relations seem to depend on gender and smoking status.

2.
J Nutr ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although dietary intakes and dietary intake patterns (DPs) have been associated with single metabolites, it is unclear whether DPs are also reflected in specific metabolite patterns (MPs). Moreover, the influence of groups of gut bacteria on the relationship between DPs and MPs is underexplored. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association of DPs and serum MPs and also the modifying effect of the gut bacteria compositional patterns (BCPs). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional investigation among 225 individuals (median age: 63 y; 53% women) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Dietary intakes were assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls, gut bacteria composition was quantified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the serum metabolome was profiled by an untargeted approach. We identified DPs and BCPs by the treelet transform analysis. We modeled associations between DPs and 8 previously published MPs and the modifying effect of BCPs by fitting generalized linear models using DataSHIELD R. RESULTS: We identified 5 DPs and 7 BCPs. The "bread, margarine, and processed meat" and "fruiting vegetables and vegetable oils" DPs were positively associated with the "amino acids" (ß = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.69; P = 0.03) and "fatty acids" MPs (ß = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.74; P = 0.01), respectively. The "tea and miscellaneous" was inversely associated with the "amino acids" (ß = -0.28; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.05; P = 0.02) and "amino acid derivatives" MPs (ß = -0.21; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.02; P = 0.03). One BCP negatively modified the association between the "bread, margarine, and processed meat" DP and the "amino acids" MP (P-interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In older German adults, DPs are reflected in MPs, and the gut bacteria attenuate 1 DP-MP association. These MPs should be explored as biomarkers of these jointly consumed foods while taking into account a potentially modifying role of the gut bacteria.

3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(2): 252-264.e10, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399369

RESUMO

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic disorders that are linked to microbiome alterations. However, their co-occurrence poses challenges in disentangling microbial features unique to each condition. We analyzed gut microbiomes of lean non-diabetic (n = 633), obese non-diabetic (n = 494), and obese individuals with T2D (n = 153) from German population and metabolic disease cohorts. Microbial taxonomic and functional profiles were analyzed along with medical histories, serum metabolomics, biometrics, and dietary data. Obesity was associated with alterations in microbiome composition, individual taxa, and functions with notable changes in Akkermansia, Faecalibacterium, Oscillibacter, and Alistipes, as well as in serum metabolites that correlated with gut microbial patterns. However, microbiome associations were modest for T2D, with nominal increases in Escherichia/Shigella. Medications, including antihypertensives and antidiabetics, along with dietary supplements including iron, were significantly associated with microbiome variation. These results differentiate microbial components of these interrelated metabolic diseases and identify dietary and medication exposures to consider in future studies.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to derive overall and sex-specific dietary patterns associated with inflammatory biomarkers in a general population sample from Northern Germany. METHODS: The present analysis included 1158 participants (477 men, 681 women, mean age: 53.1 years; mean body mass index: 26.2 kg/m2) of the Food Chain Plus (FoCus) cohort in Kiel, Germany. Participants completed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Reduced rank regression with C-reactive protein (CRP) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) as response variables was used to derive dietary patterns. After a mean follow-up of 1.7 years, a second blood sample was obtained in a subsample of 112 individuals. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns at baseline and inflammatory biomarkers at follow-up. RESULTS: The overall pattern characterised by high intakes of soft drinks, meat, potatoes and sauce, and low intakes of other cereals (except pasta/rice), wine, nuts, seeds, vegetarian dishes, vegetable oil, and fish was positively associated with CRP (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.12, 4.35) and IL-6 (OR 3.14; 95% CI 1.26, 7.87) at follow-up. In men, the dietary pattern was higher in soft drinks, processed meat and low in cereals and plant-based fats. In women, the pattern was characterised by soft drinks, meat, vegetables and low in other cereals, wine, nuts, and seeds. The association between sex-specific patterns with inflammatory biomarkers was weaker for CRP. CONCLUSION: We identified dietary patterns positively associated with established biomarkers of chronic low-grade inflammation.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034016

RESUMO

CONTEXT: CD36 is a class B scavenger-receptor involved in the uptake of fatty acids in liver and adipose tissue. It is unknown whether plasma CD36 levels are related to liver fat content or adipose tissue in the general population. METHODS: We measured plasma CD36 from 575 participants of the community-based PopGen-cohort who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue and liver signal intensity (LSI), a proxy for liver fat content. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was defined as LSI ≥3.0 in the absence of high alcohol intake. The relations between plasma CD36 and body mass index (BMI), VAT, SAT, LSI, and NAFLD were evaluated using multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Plasma CD36 concentrations were correlated with BMI (r=0.11; P=0.01), SAT (r=0.16; P<0.001), and VAT (r=0.15, P<0.001), but not with LSI (P=0.44). In multivariable-adjusted regression models, mean BMI values rose across CD36-quartiles (Q1: 27.8 kg/m2; Q4: 28.9 kg/m2; P-trend=0.013). Similarly, VAT (Q1: 4.13 dm3; Q4: 4.71 dm3; P-trend<0.001) and SAT (Q1: 7.61 dm3; Q4: 8.74 dm3; P-trend<0.001) rose across CD36 quartiles. Plasma CD36 concentrations were unrelated to LSI (P-trend=0.36), and NAFLD (P-trend=0.64). Participants with NAFLD and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker for liver damage, had higher CD36 compared to NAFLD participants with normal ALT. CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma concentrations of CD36 were associated with greater general and abdominal adiposity, but not with liver fat content or NAFLD in this community-based sample. However, plasma CD36 may reflect more severe liver damage in NAFLD.

6.
J Community Genet ; 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927239

RESUMO

The significance of human biorepositories for modern medical research, particularly for comprehensive population-based genetic analyses, is constantly growing. While large and centralized institutions are usually considered best suited to meet the increasing demand for high-quality "biobanks," most medical research institutions still host rather heterogeneous and fragmented biobanking activities, undertaken by clinical departments with oftentimes rather different scientific scope. Undoubtedly, most clinicians and medical researchers would appreciate infrastructural support in terms of the storage and handling of their biosamples, but they are also likely to expect access to their samples avoiding extensive formal requirements. We report on the establishment of the PopGen 2.0 Network (P2N), an overarching alliance of initially seven biobanks from Northern Germany which adopted a joint but lean governance structure and use-and-access policy for their samples and data. In addition, the members of P2N have pursued an intense collaboration on ethical, legal and social issues and maintain a common IT infrastructure. The implementation of P2N has substantially improved the prospects of biobank-based research at the participating institutions. The network may thus serve as a role model for similar initiatives geared at linking pre-existing biorepositories for the benefit of research quality, efficiency, and transparency.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 73(11): 1480-1491, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe a novel dietary assessment strategy based on two instruments complemented by information from an external population applied to estimate usual food intake in the large-scale multicenter German National Cohort (GNC). As proof of concept, we applied the assessment strategy to data from a pretest study (2012-2013) to assess the feasibility of the novel assessment strategy. SUBJECTS/METHODS: First, the consumption probability for each individual was modeled using three 24 h food lists (24h-FLs) and frequencies from one food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Second, daily consumed food amounts were estimated from the representative German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II) taking the characteristics of the participants into account. Usual food intake was estimated using the product of consumption probability and amounts. RESULTS: We estimated usual intake of 41 food groups in 318 men and 377 women. The participation proportion was 100, 84.4, and 68.5% for the first, second, and third 24h-FL, respectively. We observed no associations between the probability of participating and lifestyle factors. The estimated distributions of usual food intakes were plausible and total energy was estimated to be 2707 kcal/day for men and 2103 kcal/day for women. The estimated consumption frequencies did not differ substantially between men and women with only few exceptions. The differences in energy intake between men and women were mostly due to differences in estimated daily amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of repeated 24h-FLs, a FFQ, and consumption-day amounts from a reference population represents a user-friendly dietary assessment approach having generated plausible, but not yet validated, food intake values in the pretest study.

8.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 9, 2019 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports on body mass index (BMI) trajectories from childhood into late adolescence, their determinants, and subsequent cardiometabolic risk markers, particularly among European populations have been few. Moreover, sex-specific investigation is necessary considering the sex difference in BMI, and the sex-specific association between BMI and some cardiometabolic risk markers. METHODS: Using a sample from the DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study, we explored sex-specific trajectories of the BMI standard deviation score (SDS) from 4 to 18 years of age in 354 males and 335 females by latent (class) growth models. The determinants of trajectory were assessed by logistic regression. We identified cardiometabolic risk markers that were highly associated with BMI SDS trajectory by random forest regression, and finally we used generalized linear models to investigate differences in the identified cardiometabolic risk markers between pairs of trajectories. RESULTS: We observed four: 'low-normal weight', 'mid-normal weight', 'high-normal weight', and 'overweight', and three: ''low-normal weight', 'mid-normal weight', and 'high-normal weight' trajectories in males and females, respectively. Higher maternal prepregnancy BMI was associated with the 'overweight' trajectory, and with 'high-normal weight' trajectory in both sexes. In addition, employed mothers and first-born status were associated with 'high-normal weight' trajectory in females. BMI SDS trajectory was associated with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in males, and diastolic blood pressure and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in females. However, only males following the 'overweight' trajectory had significantly higher IL-18 when compared to their 'low-normal weight' counterpart. CONCLUSIONS: We identified sex-specific distinct trajectories of BMI SDS from childhood into late adolescence, higher maternal prepregnancy BMI as a common determinant of the 'high-normal weight' and 'overweight' trajectories, and 'overweight' trajectory being associated with elevated IL-18 in late adolescence-young adulthood. This study emphasizes the role of maternal prepregnancy BMI in overweight, and highlights IL-18 as a cardiometabolic signature of overweight across life.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-18/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Res ; 169: 417-433, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of biomarkers of environmental exposure to explore new risk factors for pancreatic cancer presents clinical, logistic, and methodological challenges that are also relevant in research on other complex diseases. OBJECTIVES: First, to summarize the main design features of a prospective case-control study -nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort- on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk. And second, to assess the main methodological challenges posed by associations among characteristics and habits of study participants, fasting status, time from blood draw to cancer diagnosis, disease progression bias, basis of cancer diagnosis, and plasma concentrations of lipids and POPs. Results from etiologic analyses on POPs and pancreatic cancer risk, and other analyses, will be reported in future articles. METHODS: Study subjects were 1533 participants (513 cases and 1020 controls matched by study centre, sex, age at blood collection, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status) enrolled between 1992 and 2000. Plasma concentrations of 22 POPs were measured by gas chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). To estimate the magnitude of the associations we calculated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios by unconditional logistic regression, and adjusted geometric means by General Linear Regression Models. RESULTS: There were differences among countries in subjects' characteristics (as age, gender, smoking, lipid and POP concentrations), and in study characteristics (as time from blood collection to index date, year of last follow-up, length of follow-up, basis of cancer diagnosis, and fasting status). Adjusting for centre and time of blood collection, no factors were significantly associated with fasting status. Plasma concentrations of lipids were related to age, body mass index, fasting, country, and smoking. We detected and quantified 16 of the 22 POPs in more than 90% of individuals. All 22 POPs were detected in some participants, and the smallest number of POPs detected in one person was 15 (median, 19) with few differences by country. The highest concentrations were found for p,p'-DDE, PCBs 153 and 180 (median concentration: 3371, 1023, and 810 pg/mL, respectively). We assessed the possible occurrence of disease progression bias (DPB) in eight situations defined by lipid and POP measurements, on one hand, and by four factors: interval from blood draw to index date, tumour subsite, tumour stage, and grade of differentiation, on the other. In seven of the eight situations results supported the absence of DPB. CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of differences across study centres in some design features and participant characteristics is of relevance to other multicentre studies. Relationships among subjects' characteristics and among such characteristics and design features may play important roles in the forthcoming analyses on the association between plasma concentrations of POPs and pancreatic cancer risk.

10.
Int J Cardiol ; 274: 372-377, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We estimated the association of changes in body weight, waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) with changes in blood pressure and incident hypertension using data from four German population-based studies. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4467 participants, aged 21 to 82 years not taking antihypertensive medication and not having type 2 diabetes mellitus or a history of myocardial infarction at baseline and follow-up, from four population-based studies conducted in Germany. Body weight, WC, and blood pressure were measured at baseline and follow-up (median follow-up of the single studies 4 to 7 years). FM and FFM were calculated based on height-weight models derived from bioelectrical impedance studies. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. Confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regressions were used to associate changes in anthropometric markers with changes in blood pressure, incident hypertension, and incident normalization of blood pressure. RESULTS: In a pooled dataset including all four studies, increments in body weight, WC, FM, and FFM were statistically significantly associated with incident hypertension and changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure over time. Decreases in body weight, FM, and FFM were significantly associated with incident normalization of blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that the well-established association between obesity and blood pressure levels might be more related to body composition rather than to total body weight per se. Our findings indicate that gaining or losing FFM has substantial impact on the development or reversion of hypertension.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1156, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The group of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors continues to grow worldwide. Understanding health-related quality of life (HRQOL) determinants and consequences of HRQOL impairments in long-term CRC survivors may help to individualize survivorship care plans. We aimed to i) examine the HRQOL status of CRC long-term survivors, ii) identify cross-sectional sociodemographic and clinical correlates of HRQOL, and iii) investigate the prospective association of HRQOL after CRC diagnosis with all-cause mortality. METHODS: We assessed HRQOL within a Northern German cohort of 1294 CRC survivors at a median of 6 years after CRC diagnosis using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Cross-sectional correlates of different HRQOL dimensions were analyzed using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models with HRQOL as a binary variable. With multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, hazard ratios (HR) of all-cause mortality were estimated per 10-point-increments of an HRQOL summary score, a global quality of life scale, and HRQOL functioning and symptom domains. RESULTS: The median HRQOL summary score was 87 (interquartile range: 75-94). Sex, age, education, tumor location, metastases, other cancers, type of therapy, and current stoma were identified as correlates of different HRQOL scales. After a median follow-up time of 7 years after HRQOL assessment, 175 participants had died. Nearly all HRQOL domains, except for cognitive functioning and diarrhea, were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. A 10-point-increment in the summary score decreased the risk of death by 24% (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.70-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: HRQOL in CRC survivors appeared to be relatively high in the long term. Various clinical and sociodemographic factors were cross-sectionally associated with HRQOL in long-term CRC survivors. Lower HRQOL was associated with increased all-cause mortality. Individualized healthcare programs for CRC survivors (including psychosocial screening and interventions) are needed to detect decreased HRQOL and to further improve long-term HRQOL and survival.

12.
Endocrine ; 2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Selenoprotein P (SELENOP) has been previously related to various metabolic traits with partially conflicting results. The identification of SELENOP-associated metabolites, using an untargeted metabolomics approach, may provide novel biological insights relevant to disentangle the role of SELENOP in human health. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 572 serum metabolites were identified by comparing the obtained LC-MS/MS spectra with spectra stored in Metabolon's spectra library. Serum SELENOP levels were measured in 832 men and women using an ELISA kit. RESULTS: Circulating SELENOP levels were associated with 24 out of 572 metabolites after accounting for the number of independent dimensions in the metabolomics data, including inverse associations with alanine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and valine, an unknown compound X-12063, urate and the peptides gamma-glutamyl-leucine, and N-acetylcarnosine. Positive associations were observed between SELENOP and several lipid compounds. Of the identified metabolites, each standard deviation increase in the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine), alanine and gamma-glutamyl-leucine was related to higher odds of having T2DM [OR (95% CI): 1.96 (1.41-2.73); 1.62 (1.15-2.28); 1.94 (1.45-2.60), 1.57 (1.17-2.11), and 1.52 (1.13-2.05), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum SELENOP levels were associated with an overall healthy metabolomics profile, which may provide further insights into potential mechanisms of SELENOP-associated metabolic disorders.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303515

RESUMO

Pro-inflammatory dietary factors have been shown to be associated with the incidence of a range of cancers. However, there are many fewer studies on the association between the inflammatory potential of diet and survival after cancer diagnosis. We examined the association between post-diagnosis dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores and all-cause mortality in long-term survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC). DII scores were calculated from dietary data of 1,404 CRC survivors collected at a median of 6 years after CRC diagnosis. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association of DII scores, modeled continuous and in quartiles, with all-cause mortality. After a median follow-up time of 7 years (after dietary assessment), 204 study participants had died. Overall, in the fully adjusted model there was a suggestion of a positive association between DII score and all-cause mortality (HRDIIquartile4vs1 : 1.36; 95% CI: 0.88-2.09 and HRDIIcontinuous : 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97-1.20). However, in subgroup analyses, we found significant differences in individuals with metastatic disease (HRDIIcontinuous : 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07-1.67) and the absence of stoma (HRDIIcontinuous : 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.29). Overall, the post-diagnosis DII was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality in CRC long-term survivors; however, there was suggestive evidence of an association in select subgroups.

14.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(4): 555-564, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241617

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Several studies investigated lifestyle indices to account for interrelations between lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular disease risk. So far, no systematic review has been conducted. Thus, the aim is to summarize the evidence of associations between lifestyle indices and cardiovascular disease risk in observational prospective studies. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature search was conducted in two databases in February 2018. Multivariable-adjusted risk estimates were combined using random effects models comparing the highest with the lowest healthy lifestyle score. Additionally, meta-analyses for cardiovascular disease types, such as stroke and heart failure, were conducted. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 index. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The search identified 27 studies, of which 22 were included in the meta-analyses. Most lifestyle indices included physical activity, smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, and body weight. A healthy lifestyle was associated with a reduced risk of 66% for cardiovascular disease (95% CI=0.28, 0.41, I2=79.1%), 60% for stroke, and 69% for heart failure. A dose-response effect for adherence to an increasing number of healthy behaviors and cardiovascular disease risk was observed. Statistical heterogeneity was found, suggesting that the definition of the lifestyle indices and components varied substantially between the studies. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to several healthy lifestyle behaviors simultaneously was associated with a 66% reduced cardiovascular disease risk compared with adopting none or only one behavior. Despite heterogeneity of indices, consistent inverse associations across studies underscore the relevance of adopting healthy behaviors at all. More research on other lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep duration or sedentary behavior in combination, is warranted.

15.
Adv Nutr ; 9(5): 544-560, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107475

RESUMO

Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are important tools for nutrition policies and public health. FBDGs provide guidelines on healthy food consumption and are based on scientific evidence. In the past, disease prevention and nutrient recommendations dominated the process of establishing FBDGs. However, scientific advances and social developments such as changing lifestyles, interest in personalized health, and concerns about sustainability require a reorientation of the creation of FBDGs to include a wider range of aspects of dietary behavior. The present review evaluates current European FBDGs with regard to the concepts and aspects used in their derivation, and summarizes the major aspects currently discussed to be considered in future establishment or updates of FBDGs. We identified English information on official European FBDGs through an Internet search (FAO, PubMed, Google) and analyzed the aspects used for their derivation. Furthermore, we searched literature databases (PubMed, Google Scholar) for conceptional considerations dealing with FBDGs. A total of 34 out of 53 European countries were identified as having official FBDGs, and for 15 of these, documents with information on the scientific basis could be identified and described. Subsequently, aspects underlying the derivation of current FBDGs and aspects considered in the literature as important for future FBDGs were discussed. Eight aspects were identified: diet-health relations, nutrient supply, energy supply, dietary habits, sustainability, food-borne contaminants, target group segmentation, and individualization. The first 4 have already been widely applied in existing FBDGs; the others have almost never been taken into account. It remains a future challenge to (re)conceptionalize the development of FBDGs, to operationalize the aspects to be incorporated in their derivation, and to convert concepts into systematic approaches. The current review may assist national expert groups and clarifies the options for future development of local FBDGs.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(1): 49-61, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931039

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired glucose metabolism. Bioactive compounds in fruits and vegetables such as polyphenols have been suggested to influence glucose metabolism. Objective: The aim of the current study was to systematically review the literature and conduct dose-response meta-analyses to summarize evidence of polyphenol exposure in association with incident type 2 diabetes. Design: Prospective epidemiologic studies published before January 2018 were searched through 2 databases. Log-transformed multivariable adjusted hazard and odds ratios were combined in a random-effects model. Meta-analyses comparing extreme quantiles of polyphenol exposure were further explored with the use of linear and nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses. Results: Eighteen studies investigated the association between polyphenols (51 different compounds in total) and type 2 diabetes. A comparison of extreme quantiles revealed inverse associations for intakes of polyphenols (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.93), flavonoids (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96), flavonols (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.98), flavan-3-ols (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), catechins (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.97), anthocyanidins (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.91), isoflavones (HR: 0.92; 0.86, 0.97), daidzein (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.95), genistein (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99), and stilbenes (HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.72), and biomarkers of daidzein (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99) and genistein (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.99). In the dose-response meta-analysis, nonlinear associations were observed for intakes of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanones, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, and biomarkers of genistein. A linear dose-response association was observed for phenolic acids. Conclusions: This study adds to the evidence showing that diets rich in polyphenols, and particularly flavonoids, play a role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. For most associations evidence for nonlinearity was found, suggesting a recommendable amount of intake associated with the lowest risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, future studies are warranted in which nonlinear associations are further explored.

17.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 21(5): 343-351, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939967

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A promising direction for improving dietary intake measurement in epidemiologic studies is the combination of short-term and long-term dietary assessment methods using statistical methods. Thereby, web-based instruments are particularly interesting as their application offers several potential advantages such as self-administration and a shorter completion time. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of new web-based short-term instruments and to describe their features. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of web-based short-term dietary assessment tools for application in different countries and age-groups have been developed so far. Particular attention should be paid to the underlying database and the search function of the tool. Moreover, web-based instruments can improve the estimation of portion sizes by offering several options to the user. SUMMARY: Web-based dietary assessment methods are associated with lower costs and reduced burden for participants and researchers, and show a comparable validity with traditional instruments. When there is a need for a web-based tool researcher should consider the adaptation of existing tools rather than developing new instruments. The combination of short-term and long-term instruments seems more feasible with the use of new technology.

18.
J Nutr ; 148(2): 285-297, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490094

RESUMO

Background: Joint data analysis from multiple nutrition studies may improve the ability to answer complex questions regarding the role of nutritional status and diet in health and disease. Objective: The objective was to identify nutritional observational studies from partners participating in the European Nutritional Phenotype Assessment and Data Sharing Initiative (ENPADASI) Consortium, as well as minimal requirements for joint data analysis. Methods: A predefined template containing information on study design, exposure measurements (dietary intake, alcohol and tobacco consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, anthropometric measures, and sociodemographic and health status), main health-related outcomes, and laboratory measurements (traditional and omics biomarkers) was developed and circulated to those European research groups participating in the ENPADASI under the strategic research area of "diet-related chronic diseases." Information about raw data disposition and metadata sharing was requested. A set of minimal requirements was abstracted from the gathered information. Results: Studies (12 cohort, 12 cross-sectional, and 2 case-control) were identified. Two studies recruited children only and the rest recruited adults. All studies included dietary intake data. Twenty studies collected blood samples. Data on traditional biomarkers were available for 20 studies, of which 17 measured lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin and 13 measured inflammatory biomarkers. Metabolomics, proteomics, and genomics or transcriptomics data were available in 5, 3, and 12 studies, respectively. Although the study authors were willing to share metadata, most refused, were hesitant, or had legal or ethical issues related to sharing raw data. Forty-one descriptors of minimal requirements for the study data were identified to facilitate data integration. Conclusions: Combining study data sets will enable sufficiently powered, refined investigations to increase the knowledge and understanding of the relation between food, nutrition, and human health. Furthermore, the minimal requirements for study data may encourage more efficient secondary usage of existing data and provide sufficient information for researchers to draft future multicenter research proposals in nutrition.


Assuntos
Dieta , Epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Genômica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Metabolômica , Estatística como Assunto/métodos
19.
Nutrients ; 10(2)2018 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382041

RESUMO

In addition to well-established risk factors like older age, female gender, and adiposity, oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of gallstone disease. Since vitamin E exerts important anti-oxidative functions, we hypothesized that circulating vitamin E levels might be inversely associated with prevalence of gallstone disease. In a cross-sectional study, we measured plasma levels of α- and γ-tocopherol using high performance liquid chromatography in a community-based sample (582 individuals; median age 62 years; 38.5% women). Gallstone disease status was assessed by ultrasound. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of circulating α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio levels with prevalent gallstone disease. Lower probabilities of having gallstone disease were observed in the top (compared to the bottom) tertile of the plasma α-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio in multivariable-adjusted models (OR (Odds Ratio): 0.31; 95% CI (Confidence Interval): 0.13-0.76). A lower probability of having gallstone disease was also observed for the γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio, though the association did not reach statistical significance (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.35-1.69 for 3rd vs 1st tertile). In conclusion, our observations are consistent with the concept that higher vitamin E levels might protect from gallstone disease, a premise that needs to be further addressed in longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , gama-Tocoferol/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Exercício , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , gama-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, serum SELENOP levels were measured in 853 individuals. In a subsample of 553 participants, whole-body MRI was performed to assess body fat distribution and liver fat. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and the dietary pattern identified using reduced-rank regression (RRR). Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between dietary pattern score and metabolic traits. RESULTS: Characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables and antioxidant beverages, the RRR-derived dietary pattern displayed inverse associations with VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes in multivariable-adjusted restricted cubic splines. Each unit increase in dietary pattern score was associated with 31% higher SELENOP levels, 12% lower VAT (95% CI: - 19%; - 5%), 13% (95% CI: - 20%; - 6%) lower SAT values and 46% (95% CI: 27%; 60%) and 53% (95% CI: 22%; 72%) lower odds of having MetS or diabetes, respectively. No meaningful relations were observed between the dietary pattern and liver traits. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations propose diet-related regulation in SELENOP levels and that the identified dietary pattern is inversely related to VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes.

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