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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 836-843, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564437

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a genetically heterogeneous group of skeletal fragility diseases. Here, we report on five independent families with a progressively deforming type of OI, in whom we identified four homozygous truncation or frameshift mutations in MESD. Affected individuals had recurrent fractures and at least one had oligodontia. MESD encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein for the canonical Wingless-related integration site (WNT) signaling receptors LRP5 and LRP6. Because complete absence of MESD causes embryonic lethality in mice, we hypothesized that the OI-associated mutations are hypomorphic alleles since these mutations occur downstream of the chaperone activity domain but upstream of ER-retention domain. This would be consistent with the clinical phenotypes of skeletal fragility and oligodontia in persons deficient for LRP5 and LRP6, respectively. When we expressed wild-type (WT) and mutant MESD in HEK293T cells, we detected WT MESD in cell lysate but not in conditioned medium, whereas the converse was true for mutant MESD. We observed that both WT and mutant MESD retained the ability to chaperone LRP5. Thus, OI-associated MESD mutations produce hypomorphic alleles whose failure to remain within the ER significantly reduces but does not completely eliminate LRP5 and LRP6 trafficking. Since these individuals have no eye abnormalities (which occur in individuals completely lacking LRP5) and have neither limb nor brain patterning defects (both of which occur in mice completely lacking LRP6), we infer that bone mass accrual and dental patterning are more sensitive to reduced canonical WNT signaling than are other developmental processes. Biologic agents that can increase LRP5 and LRP6-mediated WNT signaling could benefit individuals with MESD-associated OI.

2.
J Pathol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595971

RESUMO

Prekallikrein (PKK, also known as Fletcher factor and encoded by the gene KLKB1 in humans) is a component of the contact system. Activation of the contact system has been implicated in lethality in fulminant sepsis models. Pneumonia is the most frequent cause of sepsis. We sought to determine the role of PKK in host defense during pneumosepsis. To this end, mice were infected with the common human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae via the airways, causing an initially localized infection of the lungs with subsequent bacterial dissemination and sepsis. Mice were treated with a selective PKK-directed antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) or a scrambled control ASO for 3 weeks prior to infection. Host response readouts were determined at 12 or 36 h postinfection, including genome-wide messenger RNA profiling of lungs, or mice were followed for survival. PKK ASO treatment inhibited constitutive hepatic Klkb1 mRNA expression by >80% and almost completely abolished plasma PKK activity. Klkb1 mRNA could not be detected in lungs. Pneumonia was associated with a progressive decline in PKK expression in mice treated with control ASO. PKK ASO administration was associated with a delayed mortality, reduced bacterial burdens and diminished distant organ injury. While PKK depletion did not influence lung pathology or neutrophil recruitment, it was associated with an upregulation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways in the lungs already prior to infection. Activation of the contact system could not be detected, either during infection in vivo or at the surface of Klebsiella in vitro. These data suggest that circulating PKK confines proinflammatory signaling in the lung by a mechanism that does not involve contact system activation, which in the case of respiratory tract infection may impede early protective innate immunity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485028

RESUMO

Gallstones Disease (GSD) is one of the most common digestive diseases requiring hospitalization and surgical procedures in the world. GSD has a high prevalence in populations with European or Amerindian ancestry (10-20%) and the influence of genetic factors is broadly acknowledged. However, known genetic variants do not entirely explain the disease heritability suggesting that additional genetic variants remain to be identified. Here, we examined the association of copy number variants (CNVs) with GSD in a sample of 4778 individuals (1929 GSD cases and 2849 controls) including two European cohorts from Germany (n = 3702) and one admixed Latin American cohort from Chile (n = 1076). We detected 2936 large and rare CNVs events (size > 100 kb, frequency < 1%). Case-control burden analysis and generalized linear regression models revealed significant association of CNVs with GSD in men, with the strongest effect observed with CNVs overlapping lipid metabolism genes (p-value = 6.54 × 10-4; OR = 2.76; CI 95% = 1.53-4.89). Our results indicate a clear link between CNVs and GSD in men and provides additional evidence that the genetic components of risk for GSD are complex, can be sex specific and include CNVs affecting genes involved in lipid metabolism.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(9): e1008385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550250

RESUMO

Iran, despite its size, geographic location and past cultural influence, has largely been a blind spot for human population genetic studies. With only sparse genetic information on the Iranian population available, we pursued its genome-wide and geographic characterization based on 1021 samples from eleven ethnic groups. We show that Iranians, while close to neighboring populations, present distinct genetic variation consistent with long-standing genetic continuity, harbor high heterogeneity and different levels of consanguinity, fall apart into a cluster of similar groups and several admixed ones and have experienced numerous language adoption events in the past. Our findings render Iran an important source for human genetic variation in Western and Central Asia, will guide adequate study sampling and assist the interpretation of putative disease-implicated genetic variation. Given Iran's internal genetic heterogeneity, future studies will have to consider ethnic affiliations and possible admixture.

5.
J Hum Genet ; 64(10): 1051-1054, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388109

RESUMO

Rapid progress has recently been made in the elucidation of the genetic basis of childhood-onset inherited generalized dystonia (IGD) due to the implementation of genomic sequencing methodologies. We identified four patients with childhood-onset IGD harboring novel disease-causing mutations in lysine-specific histone methyltransferase 2B gene (KMT2B) by whole-exome sequencing. The main focus of this paper is to gain novel pathophysiological insights through understanding the molecular consequences of these mutations.The disease course is mostly progressive, evolving from lower limbs into generalized dystonia, which could be associated with dysarthria, dysphonia, intellectual disability, orofacial dyskinesia, and sometimes distinct dysmorphic facial features. In two patients, motor performances improved after bilateral implantation of deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS). Pharmacotherapy with trihexyphenidyl reduced dystonia in two patients.We discovered three novel KMT2B mutations. Our analyses revealed that the mutation in patient 1 (c.7463 A > G, p.Y2488C) is localized in the highly conserved FYRC domain of KMT2B. This mutation holds the potential to alter the inter-domain FYR interactions, which could lead to KMT2B instability. The mutations in patients 2 and 3 (c.3602dupC, p.M1202Dfs*22; c.4229delA, p.Q1410Rfs*12) lead to predicted unstable transcripts, likely to be subject to degradation by non-sense mediated decay.Childhood-onset progressive dystonia with orofacial involvement is one of the main clinical manifestations of KMT2B mutations. In all, 26% (18/69) of the reported cases have T2 signal alterations of the globus pallidus internus, mostly at a younger age. Anticholinergic medication and GPi-DBS are promising treatment options and shall be considered early.An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464095

RESUMO

Rare coding variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) gene have been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and homozygous TREM2 loss-of-function variants have been reported in families with monogenic frontotemporal-like dementia with/without bone abnormalities. In a whole-exome sequencing study of a family with probable AD-type dementia without pathogenic variants in known autosomal dominant dementia disease genes and negative for the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, we identified an extremely rare TREM2 coding variant, that is, a glycine-to-tryptophan substitution at amino acid position 145 (NM_018965.3:c.433G>T/p.[Gly145Trp]). This alteration is found in only 1 of 251,150 control alleles in gnomAD. It was present in both severely affected as well as in another putatively affected and one 61 years old as yet unaffected family member suggesting incomplete penetrance and/or a variable age of onset. Gly145 maps to an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) of TREM2 between the immunoglobulin-like and transmembrane domain. Subsequent cellular studies showed that the variant led to IDR shortening and structural changes of the mutant protein resulting in an impairment of cellular responses upon receptor activation. Our results, suggest that a p.(Gly145Trp)-induced structural disturbance and functional impairment of TREM2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of an AD-like form of dementia.

7.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280495

RESUMO

The host immune response is characterized by a complex interplay of signal-specific cellular transcriptional responses. The magnitude of the immune response is dependent on the strength of the external stimulus. Knowledge on leukocyte transcriptional responses altered in response to different stimulus dosages in man is lacking. Here, we sought to identify leukocyte transcriptional signatures dependent on LPS dose in humans. Healthy human volunteers were administered 1 ng/kg (n = 7), 2 ng/kg (n = 6), or 4 ng/kg (n = 7) LPS intravenously. Blood was collected before (pre-LPS) and 4 h after LPS administration. Total RNA was analyzed by microarrays and generalized linear models. Pathway analysis was performed by using Ingenuity pathway analysis. Leukocyte transcriptomes altered per LPS dosage were predominantly shared, with 47% common signatures relative to pre-LPS. A univariate linear model identified a set of 3736 genes that exhibited a dependency on differing LPS dosages. Neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts explained 38.9% of the variance in the LPS dose-dependent gene set. A multivariate linear model including leukocyte composition delineated a set of 295 genes with a dependency on LPS dose. Evaluation of the 295 gene signature in patients with sepsis due to abdominal infections showed significant correlations. Promoter regions of the LPS dose gene set were enriched for YY1, EGR1, ELK1, GABPA, KLF4, and REL transcription factor binding sites. Intravenous injection of 1, 2, or 4 ng/kg LPS was accompanied by both shared and distinct leukocyte transcriptional alterations. These data may assist in assessing the severity of the insult in patients with abdominal sepsis.

8.
Ann Neurol ; 86(3): 368-383, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) starts in early childhood with loss of visual acuity and color vision deficits. OPA1 mutations are responsible for the majority of cases, but in a portion of patients with a clinical diagnosis of ADOA, the cause remains unknown. This study aimed to identify novel ADOA-associated genes and explore their causality. METHODS: Linkage analysis and sequencing were performed in multigeneration families and unrelated patients to identify disease-causing variants. Functional consequences were investigated in silico and confirmed experimentally using the zebrafish model. RESULTS: We defined a new ADOA locus on 7q33-q35 and identified 3 different missense variants in SSBP1 (NM_001256510.1; c.113G>A [p.(Arg38Gln)], c.320G>A [p.(Arg107Gln)] and c.422G>A [p.(Ser141Asn)]) in affected individuals from 2 families and 2 singletons with ADOA and variable retinal degeneration. The mutated arginine residues are part of a basic patch that is essential for single-strand DNA binding. The loss of a positive charge at these positions is very likely to lower the affinity of SSBP1 for single-strand DNA. Antisense-mediated knockdown of endogenous ssbp1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in zebrafish resulted in compromised differentiation of retinal ganglion cells. A similar effect was achieved when mutated mRNAs were administered. These findings point toward an essential role of ssbp1 in retinal development and the dominant-negative nature of the identified human variants, which is consistent with the segregation pattern observed in 2 multigeneration families studied. INTERPRETATION: SSBP1 is an essential protein for mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance. Our data have established pathogenic variants in SSBP1 as a cause of ADOA and variable retinal degeneration. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:368-383.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(11): 1738-1744, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358956

RESUMO

It is challenging to estimate genetic variant burden across different subtypes of epilepsy. Herein, we used a comparative approach to assess the genetic variant burden and genotype-phenotype correlations in four most common brain lesions in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Targeted sequencing analysis was performed for a panel of 161 genes with a mean coverage of >400×. Lesional tissue was histopathologically reviewed and dissected from hippocampal sclerosis (n = 15), ganglioglioma (n = 16), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (n = 8), and focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 15). Peripheral blood (n = 12) or surgical tissue samples histopathologically classified as lesion-free (n = 42) were available for comparison. Variants were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. Overall, we identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in 25.9% of patients with a mean coverage of 383×. The highest number of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants was observed in patients with ganglioglioma (43.75%; all somatic) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (37.5%; all somatic), and in 20% of cases with focal cortical dysplasia type II (13.33% somatic, 6.67% germline). Pathogenic/likely pathogenic positive genes were disorder specific and BRAF V600E the only recurrent pathogenic variant. This study represents a reference for the genetic variant burden across the four most common lesion entities in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The observed large variability in variant burden by epileptic lesion type calls for whole exome sequencing of histopathologically well-characterized tissue in a diagnostic setting and in research to discover novel disease-associated genes.

10.
FASEB J ; 33(10): 11507-11527, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345061

RESUMO

We previously reported that inactivation of the transmembrane taurine transporter (TauT or solute carrier 6a6) causes early retinal degeneration in mice. Compatible with taurine's indispensability for cell volume homeostasis, protein stabilization, cytoprotection, antioxidation, and immuno- and neuromodulation, mice develop multisystemic dysfunctions (hearing loss; liver fibrosis; and behavioral, heart, and skeletal muscle abnormalities) later on. Here, by genetic, cell biologic, in vivo 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we conducted in-depth characterization of a novel disorder: human TAUT deficiency. Loss of TAUT function due to a homozygous missense mutation caused panretinal degeneration in 2 brothers. TAUTp.A78E still localized in the plasma membrane but is predicted to impact structural stabilization. 3H-taurine uptake by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reduced by 95%, and taurine levels were severely reduced in plasma, skeletal muscle, and brain. Extraocular dysfunctions were not yet detected, but significantly increased urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine indicated generally enhanced (yet clinically unapparent) oxidative stress and RNA oxidation, warranting continuous broad surveillance.-Preising, M. N., Görg, B., Friedburg, C., Qvartskhava, N., Budde, B. S., Bonus, M., Toliat, M. R., Pfleger, C., Altmüller, J., Herebian, D., Beyer, M., Zöllner, H. J., Wittsack, H.-J., Schaper, J., Klee, D., Zechner, U., Nürnberg, P., Schipper, J., Schnitzler, A., Gohlke, H., Lorenz, B., Häussinger, D., Bolz, H. J. Biallelic mutation of human SLC6A6 encoding the taurine transporter TAUT is linked to early retinal degeneration.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine if a genetic background of high blood pressure is a survival factor in preterm infants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients were enrolled in 53 neonatal intensive care units. PATIENTS: Preterm infants with a birth weight below 1500 g. EXPOSURES: Genetic score blood pressure estimates were calculated based on adult data. We compared infants with high genetic blood pressure estimates (>75th percentile of the genetic score) to infants with low genetic blood pressure estimates (<25th percentile of the genetic score). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lowest blood pressure on the first day of life and mortality. RESULTS: 5580 preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 28.1±2.2 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1022±299 g were genotyped and analysed. Infants with low genetic blood pressure estimates had significantly lower blood pressure if compared with infants with high genetic blood pressure estimates (27.3±6.2vs 27.9±6.4, p=0.009, t-test). Other risk factors for low blood pressure included low gestational age (-1.26 mm Hg/week) and mechanical ventilation (-2.24 mm Hg, p<0.001 for both variables, linear regression analysis). Mortality was significantly reduced in infants with high genetic blood pressure estimates (28-day mortality: 21/1395, 1.5% vs 44/1395, 3.2%, p=0.005, Fisher's exact test). This survival advantage was independent of treatment with catecholamines. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides first evidence that a genetic background of high blood pressure may be beneficial with regard to survival of preterm infants.

12.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 205, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In our recent clinical trial, increased peripheral concentrations of pro-inflammatory molecular mediators were determined in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients. After 3 months adjunctive unilateral, selective L4 dorsal root ganglion stimulation (L4-DRGSTIM), significantly decreased serum IL-10 and increased saliva oxytocin levels were assessed along with an improved pain and functional state. The current study extended molecular profiling towards gene expression analysis of genes known to be involved in the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor and neuroinflammatory (cytokines/chemokines) signaling pathways. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 12 CRPS patients for whole-transcriptome profiling in order to assay 18,845 inflammation-associated genes from frozen blood at baseline and after 3 months L4-DRGSTIM using PANTHER™ pathway enrichment analysis tool. RESULTS: Pathway enrichment analyses tools (GOrilla™ and PANTHER™) showed predominant involvement of inflammation mediated by chemokines/cytokines and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor pathways. Further, screening of differentially regulated genes showed changes in innate immune response related genes. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 21 genes (predominantly immunoinflammatory) were significantly changed after L4-DRGSTIM. Seven genes including TLR1, FFAR2, IL1RAP, ILRN, C5, PKB and IL18 were down regulated and fourteen genes including CXCL2, CCL11, IL36G, CRP, SCGB1A1, IL-17F, TNFRSF4, PLA2G2A, CREB3L3, ADAMTS12, IL1F10, NOX1, CHIA and BDKRB1 were upregulated. CONCLUSIONS: In our sub-group analysis of L4-DRGSTIM treated CRPS patients, we found either upregulated or downregulated genes involved in immunoinflammatory circuits relevant for the pathophysiology of CRPS indicating a possible relation. However, large biobank-based approaches are recommended to establish genetic phenotyping as a quantitative outcome measure in CRPS patients. Trial registration The study protocol was registered at the 15.11.2016 on German Register for Clinical Trials (DRKS ID 00011267). https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00011267.

13.
J Hum Genet ; 64(8): 803-813, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165786

RESUMO

Rapid progress has recently been made in the elucidation of the genetic basis of childhood-onset inherited generalized dystonia (IGD) due to the implementation of genomic sequencing methodologies. We identified four patients with childhood-onset IGD harboring novel disease-causing mutations in lysine-specific histone methyltransferase 2B gene (KMT2B) by whole-exome sequencing. The main focus of this paper is to gain novel pathophysiological insights through understanding the molecular consequences of these mutations. The disease course is mostly progressive, evolving from lower limbs into generalized dystonia, which could be associated with dysarthria, dysphonia, intellectual disability, orofacial dyskinesia, and sometimes distinct dysmorphic facial features. In two patients, motor performances improved after bilateral implantation of deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS). Pharmacotherapy with trihexyphenidyl reduced dystonia in two patients. We discovered three novel KMT2B mutations. Our analyses revealed that the mutation in patient 1 (c.7463A > G, p.Y2488C) is localized in the highly conserved FYRC domain of KMT2B. This mutation holds the potential to alter the inter-domain FYR interactions, which could lead to KMT2B instability. The mutations in patients 2 and 3 (c.3596_3697insC, p.M1202Dfs*22; c.4229delA, p.Q1410Rfs*12) lead to predicted unstable transcripts, likely to be subject to degradation by non-sense-mediated decay. Childhood-onset progressive dystonia with orofacial involvement is one of the main clinical manifestations of KMT2B mutations. In all, 26% (18/69) of the reported cases have T2 signal alterations of the globus pallidus internus, mostly at a younger age. Anticholinergic medication and GPi-DBS are promising treatment options and shall be considered early.

14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120506

RESUMO

Importance: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common threat to vision loss in individuals older than 50 years. While neovascular complications in AMD are treatable, there is currently no therapy for geographic atrophy secondary to AMD. Geographic atrophy lesion progression over time shows considerable interindividual variability, but little is known about prognostic factors. Objective: To elucidate the contribution of common genetic variants to geographic atrophy lesion growth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis combined 4 independent studies: the Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (FAM) study, the Directional Spread in Geographic Atrophy (DSGA) study, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), and the Geographic Atrophy Treatment Evaluation (GATE) study. Each provided data for geographic atrophy lesion growth in specific designs. Patients with geographic atrophy secondary to AMD were recruited to these studies. Genotypes were retrieved through the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (for AREDS) or generated at the Cologne Center for Genomics (for FAM, DSGA, and GATE). Main Outcomes: The correlation between square root-transformed geographic atrophy growth rate and 7 596 219 genetic variants passing quality control was estimated using linear regression. The calculations were adjusted for known factors influencing geographic atrophy growth, such as the presence of bilateral geographic atrophy as well as the number of lesion spots and follow-up times. Main Outcomes and Measures: Slopes per allele, 95% CIs, and P values of genetic variants correlated with geographic atrophy lesion growth. Results: A total of 935 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.7 [7.8] years; 547 female participants [59.0%]) were included. Two gene loci with conservative genome-wide significance were identified. Each minor allele of the genome-wide associated variants increased the geographic atrophy growth rate by a mean of about 15% or 0.05 mm per year. Gene prioritization within each locus suggests the protein arginine methyltransferase 6 gene (PRMT6; chromosome 1; slope, 0.046 [95% CI, 0.026-0.066]; P = 4.09 × 10-8) and the lanosterol synthase gene (LSS; chromosome 21; slope, 0.105 [95% CI, 0.068-0.143]; P = 4.07 × 10-7) as the most likely progression-associated genes. Conclusions and Relevance: These data provide further insight into the genetic architecture of geographic atrophy lesion growth. Geographic atrophy is a clinical outcome with a high medical need for effective therapy. The genes PRMT6 and LSS are promising candidates for future studies aimed at understanding functional aspects of geographic atrophy progression and also for designing novel and targeted treatment options.

15.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086968

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The correct classification of missense variants as benign or pathogenic remains challenging. Pathogenic variants are expected to have higher deleterious prediction scores than benign variants in the same gene. However, most of the existing variant annotation tools do not reference the score range of benign population variants on gene level. RESULTS: We present a web-application, Variant Score Ranker, which enables users to rapidly annotate variants and perform gene-specific variant score ranking on the population level. We also provide an intuitive example of how gene- and population-calibrated variant ranking scores can improve epilepsy variant prioritization. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://vsranker.broadinstitute.org. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(W1): W99-W105, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114901

RESUMO

Clinical genetic testing has exponentially expanded in recent years, leading to an overwhelming amount of patient variants with high variability in pathogenicity and heterogeneous phenotypes. A large part of the variant level data is aggregated in public databases such as ClinVar. However, the ability to explore this rich resource and answer general questions such as 'How many genes inside ClinVar are associated with a specific disease? or 'In which part of the protein are patient variants located?' is limited and requires advanced bioinformatics processing. Here, we present Simple ClinVar (http://simple-clinvar.broadinstitute.org/) a web server application that is able to provide variant, gene and disease level summary statistics based on the entire ClinVar database in a dynamic and user-friendly web-interface. Overall, our web application is able to interactively answer basic questions regarding genetic variation and its known relationships to disease. By typing a disease term of interest, the user can identify in seconds the genes and phenotypes most frequently reported to ClinVar. Subsets of variants can then be further explored, filtered or mapped and visualized in the corresponding protein sequences. Our website will follow ClinVar monthly releases and provide easy access to ClinVar resources to a broader audience including basic and clinical scientists.

17.
Exp Neurol ; 320: 112958, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132363

RESUMO

We identified a homozygous missense mutation in the gene encoding NAD synthesizing enzyme NMNAT2 in two siblings with childhood onset polyneuropathy with erythromelalgia. No additional homozygotes for this rare allele, which leads to amino acid substitution T94M, were present among the unaffected relatives tested or in the 60,000 exomes of the ExAC database. For axons to survive, axonal NMNAT2 activity has to be maintained above a threshold level but the T94M mutation confers a partial loss of function both in the ability of NMNAT2 to support axon survival and in its enzymatic properties. Electrophysiological tests and histological analysis of sural nerve biopsies in the patients were consistent with loss of distal sensory and motor axons. Thus, it is likely that NMNAT2 mutation causes this pain and axon loss phenotype making this the first disorder associated with mutation of a key regulator of Wallerian-like axon degeneration in humans. This supports indications from numerous animal studies that the Wallerian degeneration pathway is important in human disease and raises important questions about which other human phenotypes could be linked to this gene.

18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 55, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the BARD1 gene in breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition remains elusive, as published case-control investigations have revealed controversial results. We aimed to assess the role of deleterious BARD1 germline variants in BC/OC predisposition in a sample of 4920 BRCA1/2-negative female BC/OC index patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). METHODS: A total of 4469 female index patients with BC, 451 index patients with OC, and 2767 geographically matched female control individuals were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging rare missense variants in BARD1. All patients met the inclusion criteria of the GC-HBOC for germline testing and reported at least one relative with BC or OC. Additional control datasets (Exome Aggregation Consortium, ExAC; Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy, FLOSSIES) were included for the calculation of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified LoF variants in 23 of 4469 BC index patients (0.51%) and in 36 of 37,265 control individuals (0.10%), resulting in an OR of 5.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.17-9.04; P < 0.00001). BARD1-mutated BC index patients showed a significantly younger mean age at first diagnosis (AAD; 42.3 years, range 24-60 years) compared with the overall study sample (48.6 years, range 17-92 years; P = 0.00347). In the subgroup of BC index patients with an AAD < 40 years, an OR of 12.04 (95% CI = 5.78-25.08; P < 0.00001) was observed. An OR of 7.43 (95% CI = 4.26-12.98; P < 0.00001) was observed when stratified for an AAD < 50 years. LoF variants in BARD1 were not significantly associated with BC in the subgroup of index patients with an AAD ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.82-6.45; P = 0.11217). Overall, rare and predicted damaging BARD1 missense variants were significantly more prevalent in BC index patients compared with control individuals (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26-3.67; P = 0.00723). Neither LoF variants nor predicted damaging rare missense variants in BARD1 were identified in 451 familial index patients with OC. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the significant association of germline LoF variants in BARD1 with early-onset BC, we suggest that intensified BC surveillance programs should be offered to women carrying pathogenic BARD1 gene variants.

19.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 8(8): 785-796, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033196

RESUMO

Adult mesenchymal stem cells exert immunomodulatory effects that might improve the host response during sepsis. Knowledge on the effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in sepsis is limited. Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae is a common cause of gram-negative pneumonia and sepsis. This study sought to determine the effect of human ASCs on the host response during pneumosepsis in mice. Mice were infected with K. pneumoniae via the airways to induce a gradually evolving infection in the lung culminating pneumosepsis. One or 6 hours after infection, mice were infused intravenously with ASCs or vehicle, and euthanized after 16 hours or 48 hours, respectively. The effects of freshly cultured and cryopreserved ASCs were compared, the latter formulation being more clinically relevant. Intravenously administered ASCs were visualized in lung tissue by immunostaining at 1 and 3 hours, but not at 15 hours after infusion. Although early after infection, ASCs did not or only modestly influence bacterial loads, they reduced bacterial burdens in lungs and distant organs at 48 hours. ASCs reduced the lung levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and attenuated lung pathology, but did not influence distant organ injury. ASCs strongly modified the lung transcriptome in uninfected mice and especially mice with pneumosepsis. Cryopreserved and cultured ASCs induced largely similar effects on the lung transcriptome. These data indicate that human ASCs induce profound immune modulatory effects in the lungs, resulting in reduced bacterial burdens and lung inflammation during pneumosepsis caused by a common human pathogen, suggesting that ASCs may be an adjunctive therapeutic in this condition. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:785&796.

20.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 574-580, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For individuals with ovarian cancer (OC), therapy options mainly depend on BRCA1/2 germline status. What is the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants, that is, does genetic tumour testing identify subgroups of individuals who also might benefit from targeted therapy? METHODS: Paired analysis of tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA to determine the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants in OC predisposition genes (ATM, BRCA1/2, BRIP1, MSH2/6, PALB2, RAD51C/D and TP53) and the PIK3CA and PTEN genes in individuals with OC (AGO-TR1 study, NCT02222883). Results were complemented by BRCA1, PALB2 and RAD51C promoter methylation analyses and stratified by histological subtype; 473 individuals were included. RESULTS: The combined analyses revealed that deleterious germline variants in established OC predisposition genes (all: 125/473, 26.4%; BRCA1/2: 97/473, 20.5%), deleterious somatic variants in established OC predisposition genes excluding TP53 (all: 39/473, 8.2%; BRCA1/2: 30/473, 6.3%) and promoter methylation (all: 67/473, 14.2%; BRCA1: 57/473, 12.1%; RAD51C: 10/473, 2.1%; PALB2: 0/473) were mutually exclusive, with a few exceptions. The same holds true for deleterious somatic PIK3CA and/or PTEN variants (33/473, 7.0%) found to be enriched in endometrioid and clear cell OC (16/35, 45.7%); 84.3 % of the deleterious single-nucleotide/indel germline variants in established OC predisposition genes showed significantly higher variant fractions (VFs) in the tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA, indicating a loss of the wild-type alleles. CONCLUSION: Tumour sequencing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, PIK3CA and PTEN genes along with BRCA1 and RAD51C promoter methylation analyses identified large subgroups of germline mutation-negative individuals who may be addressed in interventional studies using PARP or PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02222883.

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