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1.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 22(1): 11, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-intensity statin therapy is typically used in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for secondary prevention. However, there have been consistent concerns regarding its association with diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effect of high-intensity atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) and cardiovascular outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period. METHODS: Data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry were collected from November 2011 to October 2015, and 13,104 patients with AMI were enrolled from major cardiovascular centers. Among them, 2221 patients without diabetes who had been administered with high-intensity atorvastatin (40-80 mg) and rosuvastatin (20 mg) were investigated. The atorvastatin and rosuvastatin groups were evaluated for the incidence of NODM and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization cases in the following 3 years. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Event-free survival rate of NODM was not significantly different between the atorvastatin and rosuvastatin groups (92.5% vs. 90.8%, respectively; Log-rank P-value = 0.550). The event-free survival rate of MACE was also not significantly different between atorvastatin and rosuvastatin groups (89.0% vs. 89.6%, respectively; Log rank P-value = 0.662). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that statin type was not a prognostic factor in the development of NODM and MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Administering high-intensity atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in patients with AMI produced comparable effects on NODM and clinical outcomes, suggesting their clinical equivalence in secondary prevention.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462618

RESUMO

AIMS: Emotional stress is associated with future cardiovascular events. However, the mechanistic linkage of brain emotional neural activity with acute plaque instability is not fully elucidated. We aimed to prospectively estimate the relationship between brain amygdalar activity (AmygA), arterial inflammation (AI), and macrophage haematopoiesis (HEMA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as compared with controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) imaging was performed within 45 days of the index episode in 62 patients (45 with AMI, mean 60.0 years, 84.4% male; 17 controls, mean 59.6 years, 76.4% male). In 10 patients of the AMI group, serial 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed after 6 months to estimate the temporal changes. The signals were compared using a customized 3D-rendered PET reconstruction. AmygA [target-to-background ratio (TBR), mean ± standard deviation: 0.65 ± 0.05 vs. 0.60 ± 0.05; P = 0.004], carotid AI (TBR: 2.04 ± 0.39 vs. 1.81 ± 0.25; P = 0.026), and HEMA (TBR: 2.60 ± 0.38 vs. 2.22 ± 0.28; P < 0.001) were significantly higher in AMI patients compared with controls. AmygA correlated significantly with those of the carotid artery (r = 0.350; P = 0.005), aorta (r = 0.471; P < 0.001), and bone marrow (r = 0.356; P = 0.005). Psychological stress scales (PHQ-9 and PSS-10) and AmygA assessed by PET/CT imaging correlated well (P < 0.001). Six-month after AMI, AmygA, carotid AI, and HEMA decreased to a level comparable with the controls. CONCLUSION: AmygA, AI, and HEMA were concordantly enhanced in patients with AMI, showing concurrent dynamic changes over time. These results raise the possibility that stress-associated neurobiological activity is linked with acute plaque instability via augmented macrophage activity and could be a potential therapeutic target for plaque inflammation in AMI.

3.
J Hypertens ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand grip strength (HGS) has been associated with cardiovascular events. However, the exact mechanism responsible for the inverse association between HGS and cardiovascular events has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess whether arterial stiffness mediates this association. METHODS: We studied 1508 participants (age; 60 ±â€Š5, men; 47.5%) from the Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study. Participants were assessed for various parameters of arterial stiffness as well as HGS. The augmentation index (AIx) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were evaluated by using an applanation tonometer and automated waveform analyzer, respectively. Carotid intima medial thickness (IMT) was measured by B-mode ultrasonogram with a 7.5-MHz linear array transducer. HGS was evaluated using a Jamar dynamometer. RESULTS: With increased grip strength, AIx decreased (r = 0.437, P < 0.001). baPWV (r = 0.044, P = 0.107) and carotid IMT (r = 0.005, P = 0.856) had no significant correlation with grip strength. This trend was consistently observed regardless of hypertension, but was more pronounced in participants with hypertension. CONCLUSION: HGS was significantly correlated with AIx, but not with baPWV and carotid IMT. Our findings suggest that central arterial stiffness could mediate the association between HGS and cardiovascular events.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340144

RESUMO

Studies on anaemia in diabetic patients are well known. However, the data regarding association of anaemia on the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) are very limited. We aimed to evaluate the association of anaemia on the development of DM and major clinical outcomes in a series of the Korean population during 5-year clinical follow-up. The patients were retrospectively enrolled using the electronic database of Korea University Guro Hospital from January 2004 to February 2013. A total of 17 515 subjects without a history of DM were analysed. The World Health Organization definition of anaemia was used. Patients were divided into the anaemia group (n = 2907 patients) and the non-anaemia group (n = 14 608 patients). The primary endpoint was the development of DM. To adjust baseline potential confounders, a propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed. After PSM analysis, two matched groups (2731 pairs) were generated and their baselines characteristics were balanced. During 5-year follow-up, the anaemia group had a higher incidence of type 2 DM (10.7% vs 7.7%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.356; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.021-1.802; P = .035), and total death (2.6% vs 1.2%; HR, 2.449; 95% CI, 1.337-4.486; P = .004) compared to the non-anaemia group. In the present study, anaemia was associated with higher rate of the development of DM and mortality during 5-year clinical follow-up. A randomized trial is needed to determine whether this results can be reproducible or not for the final conclusion.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e017016, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241769

RESUMO

Background Sleep fragmentation and sleep apnea are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the impact of radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) on sleep quality in patients with paroxysmal AF and the effect of a change in sleep quality on recurrence of AF. Methods and Results Of 445 patients who underwent RFCA for paroxysmal AF between October 2007 and January 2017, we analyzed 225 patients who had a 24-hour Holter test within 6 months before RFCA. Sleep quality was assessed by cardiopulmonary coupling analysis using 24-hour Holter data. We compared cardiopulmonary coupling parameters (high-frequency coupling, low-frequency coupling, very-low-frequency coupling) before and after RFCA. Six months after RFCA, the high-frequency coupling (marker of stable sleep) and very-low-frequency coupling (rapid eye movement/wake marker) was significantly increased (29.84%-36.15%; P<0.001; and 26.20%-28.76%; P=0.002, respectively) while low-frequency coupling (unstable sleep marker) was decreased (41.25%-32.13%; P<0.001). We divided patients into 3 tertiles according to sleep quality before RFCA, and the risk of AF recurrence in each group was compared. The second tertile was used as a reference; patients with unstable sleep (Tertile 3) had a significantly lower risk of AF recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% CI, 0.12-0.83 for high-frequency coupling; and HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09-0.58 for low-frequency coupling). Conclusions Sleep quality improved after RFCA in patients with paroxysmal AF. The recurrence rate was significantly lower in patients who had unstable sleep before RFCA. These results suggest that RFCA can influence sleep quality, and sleep quality assessment before RFCA may provide a risk marker for recurrence after RFCA in patients with paroxysmal AF.

6.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 4354759, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042223

RESUMO

To investigate whether specific time series patterns for blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and sympathetic tone are associated with metabolic factors and the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). A total of 989 patients who underwent simultaneous 24-hour ambulatory BP and Holter electrocardiogram monitoring were enrolled. The patients were categorized into sixteen groups according to their circadian patterns using the consensus clustering analysis method. Metabolic factors, including cholesterol profiles and apolipoprotein, were compared. The 10-year ASCVD risk was estimated based on the Framingham risk model. Overall, 16 significant associations were found between the clinical variables and cluster groups. Age was commonly associated with all clusters in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), HR, and sympathetic tone. Metabolic indicators, including diabetes, body mass index, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein, were associated with the four sympathetic tone clusters. In the crude analysis, the ASCVD risk increased incrementally from clusters 1 to 4 across SBP, DBP, HR, and sympathetic tone. After adjustment for multiple variables, however, only sympathetic tone clusters 3 and 4 showed a significantly high proportion of patients at high risk (≥7.5%) of 10-year ASCVD (odds ratio (OR) = 5.90, 95% confidential interval (CI) = 1.27-27.46, and P value = 0.024 and OR = 15.28, 95% CI = 3.59-65.11, and P value < 0.001, respectively). Time series patterns of BP, HR, and sympathetic tone can serve as an indicator of aging. Circadian variations in sympathetic tone can provide prognostic information about patient metabolic profiles and indicate future ASCVD risk.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/inervação , Ritmo Circadiano , Frequência Cardíaca , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(5): 518-529, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding the risk for adverse clinical events with concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment after myocardial infarction (MI). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk for cardiovascular and bleeding events according to groups of antithrombotic medications and subtypes of NSAIDs in patients with MI. METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study to enroll a study population from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database in Korea between 2009 and 2013. Patients were divided into groups on the basis of the prescribed antithrombotic medications. The primary and secondary outcomes were thromboembolic cardiovascular and clinically relevant bleeding events. The risk for adverse clinical events was assessed by ongoing NSAID treatment and subtypes of NSAIDs. RESULTS: In total, 108,232 patients (mean age 64.2 ± 12.8 years, 72.1% men, mean follow-up duration 2.3 ± 1.8 years) with first diagnosed MI were enrolled. Concomitant NSAID treatment significantly increased the risk for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.24 to 6.77; p < 0.001) and bleeding events (HR: 4.08; 95% CI: 3.51 to 4.73; p < 0.001) compared with no NSAID treatment. Among NSAID subtypes, the risk for cardiovascular and bleeding events was lowest with the use of celecoxib (HR: 4.65; 95% CI: 3.17 to 6.82; p < 0.001, and 3.44; 95% CI: 2.20 to 5.39; p < 0.001, respectively) and meloxicam (HR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.68 to 5.47; p < 0.001, and 2.80; 95% CI: 1.40 to 5.60; p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant NSAID treatment significantly increased the risk for cardiovascular and bleeding events after MI. Although NSAID treatment should be avoided after MI, celecoxib and meloxicam could be considered as alternative options in cases in which NSAID use is unavoidable.

8.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2188-2196, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) analysis is an easily assessable method to evaluate sleep-disordered breathing (SDB); however, its prognostic impact in patients with acute ischemic stroke needs to be investigated. We performed a CPC analysis using Holter monitoring at the early stage of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke to investigate the prognostic effect of SDB on functional impairment at the 3-month follow-up. METHODS: A total 615 patients with acute noncardioembolic ischemic stroke who underwent Holter monitoring within 30 days of stroke onset were enrolled from a multicenter, prospective, all-comer cohort. CPC analysis was conducted, and SDB was defined by the presence of narrow-band coupling during sleep time. We investigated the association between SDB and functional impairment at 3 months as measured by the modified Rankin Scale. RESULT: Narrow-band coupling was present in 191 (31.1%) of 615 patients (mean age 64.5±12.6 years). The narrow-band group showed a significantly higher rate of severe functional impairment (modified Rankin Scale score >2; 45.5% versus 12.9%, P<0.001) and persistent disability (Δmodified Rankin Scale score ≤0; 53.9% versus 39.8%, P<0.001) at the 3-month follow-up. In multivariate analysis, narrow-band coupling was an independent predictor of higher risk of severe and persistent functional impairment at 3 months (odds ratio, 3.98 [95% CI, 2.34-6.78]; P<0.001; and odds ratio, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.23-2.66]; P<0.001, respectively). The results remained consistent after propensity-score matched analysis with 157 patient pairs (C-statistic=0.770). CONCLUSIONS: SDB assessed by CPC analysis at the early stage of ischemic stroke could predict severe and prolonged functional impairment at 3 months. CPC analysis using Holter monitoring can help predicting functional impairment in acute ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
9.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560313

RESUMO

The regression equation of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) was a preferred method for estimating maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Recently, a more precise equation from the fitness registry and the importance of exercise national database (FRIEND) for healthy people was developed. This study compared VO2max estimated by the ACSM and FRIEND equations to VO2max directly measured in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Overall, 293 CAD patients who participated in cardiac rehabilitation between June 2015 and December 2018 were analyzed. Directly measured VO2max values were compared to the ACSM and FRIEND equations. The directly measured VO2max was significantly different from the estimated VO2max by ACSM equation (24.16 vs. 28.7 mL/kg/min, p < 0.001), which was overestimated by 20% in men and 16% in women. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the directly measured VO2max and the estimated VO2max by the FRIEND equation. (24.16 vs. 24.15 mL/kg/min, p = 0.986). In CAD patients, the estimated VO2max from the ACSM equation was significantly higher than the directly measured VO2max. In addition, estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by the FRIEND equation showed similar results with directly measured CRF. As a result, the FRIEND equation can predict CRF more accurately than the ACSM.

10.
Heart Vessels ; 35(9): 1181-1192, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270356

RESUMO

Although potent P2Y12 inhibitor-based dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has replaced clopidogrel-based therapy as the standard treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), there is a concern about the risk of bleeding in East Asian patients. We compared the efficacy and safety of cilostazol-based triple antiplatelet therapy (TAT) with potent P2Y12 inhibitor-based DAPT in Korean patients. A total of 4152 AMI patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: the TAT group (aspirin + clopidogrel + cilostazol, n = 3161) and the potent DAPT group (aspirin + potent P2Y12 inhibitors [ticagrelor or prasugrel], n = 991). Major clinical outcomes at 30 days and 2 years were compared between the two groups using propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. After PSM (869 pairs), there were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of total death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization, stent thrombosis, and stroke at 30 days and 2 years. However, the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major or minor bleeding rates were significantly lower in the TAT group compared with the potent DAPT group at 2 years (6.4% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.006). In Korean AMI patients undergoing PCI, TAT with cilostazol was associated with lower bleeding than the potent P2Y12 inhibitor-based DAPT without increased ischemic risk. These results could provide a rationale for the use of TAT in East Asian AMI patients.

11.
Korean Circ J ; 50(7): 586-595, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Factors associated with low heart failure (HF) awareness have not been well-evaluated. This study was conducted to find out which demographic features would be associated with low HF awareness in the general population of Korea. METHODS: A telephone interview was conducted with 1,032 adults (58 years and 50.6% were male) across the country. Based on answer to 15 questions about HF, we scored from 0 to 15 points (mean, 7.53±2.75; median, 8; interquartile range, 6-9). A score of <8 was defined as low HF awareness, and a score of ≥8 was defined as high HF awareness. RESULTS: A total of 478 subjects (46.3%) had low HF awareness. HF awareness scores were 5.18±1.85 and 9.55±1.50 in subjects of low and high HF awareness groups, respectively. Subjects with low HF awareness were older, more female-dominant, more diabetic, lower educational and house hold income levels, and more frequently living in rural areas, compared to those with high HF awareness (p<0.05 for each). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, older age (≥67 years: odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.19; p=0.004), female sex (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.73; p=0.034) and low educational level (high school graduate or less vs. college graduate: OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.75-3.22; p<0.001) were significantly associated with low HF awareness even after controlling for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, female sex, and lower level of education were independently associated with low HF awareness in the general Korean population. More attention and education are needed for these vulnerable groups to improve HF awareness.

12.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 40(2): E10-E13, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118655

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A recent study has shown that quadriceps strength can be used to predict the level of exercise capacity in patients with coronary heart disease. We investigated whether the relationship between muscular strength and exercise capacity is also observed with handgrip strength (HGS). METHODS: We studied 443 participants (61.8 ± 11.2 yr; 78% male) who underwent coronary intervention and participated in cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2018. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between various clinical measures (HGS, age, sex, etc) with the distance walked on a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and maximal oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2max). RESULTS: Handgrip strength was related to distance walked on the 6MWT (r = 0.435, P < .001). It was the only predictor of all exercise capacity categories, and one of the strongest predictors of each exercise capacity category. An HGS of 26% of body weight predicted an achievement of a 200-m walk on the 6MWT (positive predictive value = 0.95). However, HGS <36% of body weight predicted that 500 m could not be done in 6 min (negative predictive value = 0.97). This trend was also observed in the subgroups in which (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2max was measured. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that HGS is associated with exercise capacity in coronary heart disease and can be used to predict the level of exercise capacity. These findings may contribute to setting the recommended level of daily activity as well as the level of cardiac rehabilitation in coronary heart disease.

13.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 47(6): 947-954, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017152

RESUMO

Several studies suggest the higher vulnerability of individuals with lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to diabetes mellitus. However, the discordance between high and low baseline LDL-C levels shown by statin-induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the relationship between baseline LDL-C levels and the risk of statin-induced insulin resistance during statin therapy. In total, 2660 (451 with dyslipidemia and 2209 without dyslipidemia) consecutive patients were enrolled. Their baseline clinical data were adjusted using a propensity score matching analysis, using the logistic regression model. Insulin resistance index was based on the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and was monitored for a median of 2 years. Among the individuals who received statin therapy, those with and without dyslipidemia showed significantly decreased LDL-C levels (all P < .0001) and significantly increased fasting plasma insulin levels (Δ = +24.1%, P = .0230; Δ = +30.1%, P < .0001); however, their glycated haemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose levels did not change (all P > .05). Although HOMA-IR was positively associated with statin therapy in individuals with and without dyslipidemia, statistically significant difference during follow-ups was observed only in individuals without dyslipidemia (Δ = +15.6%, P = .1609; Δ = 24.0%; P = .0001). Insulin resistance was higher in statin users without baseline dyslipidemia than in those with dyslipidemia. Thus, statin therapy could increase the risk of statin-induced insulin resistance in individuals with normal baseline cholesterol levels.

14.
PPAR Res ; 2020: 3785137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099540

RESUMO

Cells can shift their metabolism between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to enact their cell fate program in response to external signals. Widely distributed α 1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are physiologically stimulated during exercise, were reported to associate with the activating energetic AMPK pathway, and are expected to have biological effects beyond their hemodynamic effects. To investigate the effects and mechanism of AR stimulation on the physiology of the whole body, various in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted using the AR agonist midodrine, 2-amino-N-[2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-ethyl]-acetamide. The expression of various biomarkers involved in ATP production was estimated through Western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, oxygen consumption rate, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence staining, and Oil red O staining in several cell lines (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, liver, macrophage, vascular endothelial, and adipose cells). In spontaneously hypertensive rats, blood pressure, blood analysis, organ-specific biomarkers, and general biomolecules related to ATP production were measured with Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and echocardiography. Pharmacological activation of α 1-adrenergic receptors in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells promoted mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production by increasing the expression of catabolic molecules, including PPARδ, AMPK, and PGC-1α, through cytosolic calcium signaling and increased GLUT4 expression, as seen in exercise. It also activated those energetic molecules and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, adipocytes, macrophages, and hepatic cells and affected their relevant cell-specific biological functions. All of those effects occurred around 3 h (and peaked 6 h) after midodrine treatment. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, α 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation affected mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production by activating PPARδ, AMPK, and PGC-1α and the relevant biologic functions of multiple organs, suggesting organ crosstalk. The treatment lowered blood pressure, fat and body weight, cholesterol levels, and inflammatory activity; increased ATP content and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscles; and increased cardiac contractile function without exercise training. These results suggest that the activation of α 1-adrenergic receptor stimulates energetic reprogramming via PPARδ that increases mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and has healthy and organ-specific biological effects in multiple organs, including skeletal muscle, beyond its vasomotion effect. In addition, the action mechanism of α 1-adrenergic receptor may be mainly exerted via PPARδ.

15.
Korean J Intern Med ; 35(3): 582-592, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chest pain in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD) is affected by several social factors. The gender-based differences in chest pain among Koreans have yet to be investigated. METHODS: The study consecutively enrolled 1,549 patients (male/female, 514/1,035; 61 ± 11 years old) with suspected angina. The predictive factors for OCAD based on gender were evaluated. RESULTS: Men experienced more squeezing type pain on the left side of chest, while women demonstrated more dull quality pain in the retrosternal and epigastric area. After adjustment for risk factors, pain in the retrosternal area (odds ratio [OR], 1.491; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.178 to 1.887) and aggravation by exercise (OR, 2.235; 95% CI, 1.745 to 2.861) were positively associated with OCAD. In men, shorter duration (OR, 1.581; 95% CI, 1.086 to 2.303) and dyspnea (OR, 1.610; 95% CI, 1.040 to 2.490) increased the probability for OCAD, while left-sided chest pain suggested a low probability for OCAD (OR, 0.590; 95% CI, 0.388 to 0.897). In women, aggravation by emotional stress (OR, 0.348; 95% CI, 0.162 to 0.746) and dizziness (OR, 0.457; 95% CI, 0.246 to 0.849) decreased the probability for OCAD. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to focus on gender differences in chest pain among Koreans with angina. Symptoms with high probability for OCAD were different between sexes. Our findings suggest that patient's medical history in pretest assessment for OCAD should be individualized considering gender.

16.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 21(1): 110-115, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072790

RESUMO

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is an effective treatment strategy for peripheral artery disease (PAD). Data are limiting regarding sex differences in patients with PAD who underwent PTA. We assessed the sex-related differences on 5-year clinical outcomes in patients with PAD who underwent PTA. We prospectively evaluated 765 patients with PAD (596 males and 169 females) who underwent PTA. We performed propensity score matching (PSM) analysis to adjust for any potential confounders. The primary endpoints were 5-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACE) and major adverse lower-limb events (MALE) assessed by Kaplan-Meier curved analysis and log rank test. After PSM analysis, baseline clinical characteristics were similar in male and female patients. There was a trend toward a higher rate of major hematoma in female patients (6.1% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.066) and a lower rate of below the ankle amputation (24.7% vs. 16.5%, p = 0.097). During the 5-year clinical follow-up, male and female patients had similar rates of MACE (14.9% vs. 15.8%, log rank p = 0.838) and MALE (34.8% vs. 28.2%, log rank p = 0.264) as well as the individual endpoints. In subgroup analysis adjusted by PSM, female patients had a higher risk of bleeding complications in age ≥ 65 years, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and in the non-critical limb ischemia patients. Of patients with preserved renal function, female patients had a higher risk of MALE as compared to males. In conclusion, female patients with PAD who underwent PTA showed similar 5-year MACE and MALE compared with male patients.


Assuntos
Angioplastia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Angioplastia/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Seul , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A previous meta-analysis suggested that the relationship between hyperuricemia and hypertension may be stronger in younger individuals and women. We aimed to investigate the age and sex dependent association of uric acid (UA) and incident hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from the Health Examinees Study, a community-based prospective cohort study conducted in Korea from 2004 to 2013. It included 29,088 non-hypertensive subjects aged 40-79 (age, 52.5 ± 7.8 years; men, 31.4%) who had serum UA measurement and participated in the follow-up survey. The risk factors of hypertension were assessed using Cox regression. Over a mean 3.8 years of follow-up, 1388 men (15.2%) and 1942 women (9.7%) were newly diagnosed with hypertension. Upon age- and sex-based stratification, the risk of hypertension was highest in hyperuricemic subjects aged 40-49 years (HR: women, 2.16; men, 1.30). Across the entire cohort, the risk of incident hypertension was higher in groups with higher serum UA levels, and highest in women aged 40-49 years (HR, 1.44; P < 0.001). On multivariable linear regression analysis, the higher the baseline serum UA level, the greater the increase in blood pressure during follow-up, and this effect was strongest in women aged 40-49 years (ß = 0.87 and P < 0.01 for systolic blood pressure). CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between uric acid and incident hypertension tended to be dependent on age and sex. Younger women are at highest risk of UA-related incident hypertension.

18.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2019: 3824823, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885691

RESUMO

In statin therapy, the prognostic role of achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in cardiovascular outcomes has not been fully elucidated. A total of 4,803 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-naïve patients who prescribed moderate intensity of statin therapy were followed up. Total and each component of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) according to LDL-C and hsCRP quartiles were compared. The incidence of 5-year total MACEs in the highest quartile group according to the followed-up hsCRP was higher than that in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.16, p < 0.001). However, there was no difference between the highest and lowest quartiles of the achieved LDL-C (HR = 0.95, p = 0.743). After adjustment of potential confounders, the incidence of total death, de novo PCI, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure in the highest quartile of followed-up hsCRP, was higher than that in the lowest quartile (all p < 0.05). However, other components except for de novo PCI in the highest quartile by achieved LDL-C was not different to that in the lowest quartile. These results suggest that followed-up hsCRP can be more useful for predicting future cardiovascular outcome than achieved LDL-C in PCI-naïve patients with statin therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Regulação para Baixo , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18510, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861037

RESUMO

Statins therapy decrease both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with considerable individual variability. Whether the amount of LDL-C lowering is a surrogate maker of statin responsiveness to ASCVD prevention has not been fully investigated. Among 2352 eligible patients with statin prescriptions in a cardiovascular center between January 2005 and February 2014, one-third of patients (33%) on statin therapy failed to achieve effective reductions in LDL-C (LDL-C level reduction of less than 15%). By using, propensity-score matched population (480 pairs, n = 960), the 5-year cumulative incidences of total major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were evaluated. The 5-year total MACE did not differ between normal cholesterol responders and non-responders (15.4% vs 16.1%, respectively; P = .860). In the subgroup analysis, male sex, older age, percutaneous coronary intervention, and heart failure were positive predictors, and dyslipidemia at the beginning of statin therapy was the only negative predictor of MACE in the 5-year follow-up (all P value < .05). However, cholesterol responsiveness after statin therapy did not influence the incidence of MACE (P = .860). The amount of LDL-C lowering did not predict beneficial effect on clinical outcomes of ASCVD after statin therapy. This result supports that given statin therapy, total ASCVD risk reduction should be tailored, which may not dependent to adherence to degree of LDL-C lowering or LDL-C goal based treatment.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842294

RESUMO

We investigated reference values for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) for healthy Koreans and Koreans with coronary heart disease (CHD) and used them to identify inter-ethnic differences in CRF, differences over time in CRF, and differences in CRF between the healthy population and patients with CHD. The study population for healthy Koreans was derived from the database of KISS FitS (Korea Institute of Sports Science Fitness Standards) between 2014 and 2015. The study population for Koreans with CHD was derived from the database of the Korea University Guro Hospital Cardiac Rehabilitation Registry between June 2015 and December 2018. In healthy Koreans, there was a significant difference between sex and age groups for VO2 max. The VO2 max of healthy Koreans differed from that of Westerners in age-related reference values. Our results were not significantly different from those of the Korean population in the past, except for a small decline in the young population. There seemed to be a clear inter-ethnic difference in CRF. We could also identify signs of small change in CRF in younger age groups. Therefore, CRF should be assessed according to ethnic or national standards, and it will be necessary to establish a reference for each nation or ethnicity with periodic updates.

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