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1.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(6): 426-436, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring improves detection of covert atrial fibrillation in stroke survivors but the effect on secondary prevention is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of systematic ECG monitoring of patients in hospital on the rate of oral anticoagulant use after 12 months. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, randomised, open-label, parallel-group multicentre study with masked endpoint adjudication, we recruited patients aged at least 18 years with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack without known atrial fibrillation in 38 certified stroke units in Germany. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to usual diagnostic procedures for atrial fibrillation detection (control group) or additional Holter-ECG recording for up to 7 days in hospital (intervention group). Patients were stratified by centre using a random permuted block design. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients on oral anticoagulants at 12 months after the index event in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary outcomes included the number of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation in hospital and the composite of recurrent stroke, major bleeding, myocardial infarction, or death after 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02204267, and is completed and closed for participants. FINDINGS: Between Dec 9, 2014, and Sept 11, 2017, 3465 patients were randomly assigned, 1735 (50·1%) to the intervention group and 1730 (49·9%) to the control group. Oral anticoagulation status was available in 2920 (84·3%) patients at 12 months (1484 [50·8%] in the intervention group and 1436 [49·2%] in the control group). For the primary outcome, at 12 months, 203 (13·7%) of 1484 patients in the intervention group versus 169 (11·8%) of 1436 in the control group were on oral anticoagulants (odds ratio [OR] 1·2 [95% CI 0·9-1·5]; p=0·13). Atrial fibrillation was newly detected in patients in hospital in 97 (5·8%) of 1714 in the intervention group versus 68 (4·0%) of 1717 in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·4 [95% CI 1·0-2·0]; p=0·024). The composite of cardiovascular outcomes and death did not differ between patients randomly assigned to the intervention group versus the control group at 24 months (232 [13·5%] of 1714 vs 249 [14·5%] of 1717; HR 0·9 [0·8-1·1]; p=0·43). Skin reactions due to study ECG electrodes were reported in 56 (3·3%) patients in the intervention group. All-cause death occured in 73 (4·3%) patients in the intervention group and in 103 (6·0%) patients in the control group (OR 0·7 [0·5-0·9]). INTERPRETATION: Systematic core centrally reviewed ECG monitoring is feasible and increases the detection rate of atrial fibrillation in unselected patients hospitalised with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, if added to usual diagnostic care in certified German stroke units. However, we found no effect of systematic ECG monitoring on the rate of oral anticoagulant use after 12 months and further efforts are needed to improve secondary stroke prevention. FUNDING: Bayer Vital. TRANSLATION: For the German translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
2.
JAMA ; 325(5): 454-466, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528537

RESUMO

Importance: Effects of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke are time-dependent. Ambulances that can administer thrombolysis (mobile stroke units [MSUs]) before arriving at the hospital have been shown to reduce time to treatment. Objective: To determine whether dispatch of MSUs is associated with better clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, nonrandomized, controlled intervention study was conducted in Berlin, Germany, from February 1, 2017, to October 30, 2019. If an emergency call prompted suspicion of stroke, both a conventional ambulance and an MSU, when available, were dispatched. Functional outcomes of patients with final diagnosis of acute cerebral ischemia who were eligible for thrombolysis or thrombectomy were compared based on the initial dispatch (both MSU and conventional ambulance or conventional ambulance only). Exposure: Simultaneous dispatch of an MSU (computed tomographic scanning with or without angiography, point-of-care laboratory testing, and thrombolysis capabilities on board) and a conventional ambulance (n = 749) vs conventional ambulance alone (n = 794). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the distribution of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores (a disability score ranging from 0, no neurological deficits, to 6, death) at 3 months. The coprimary outcome was a 3-tier disability scale at 3 months (none to moderate disability; severe disability; death) with tier assignment based on mRS scores if available or place of residence if mRS scores were not available. Common odds ratios (ORs) were used to quantify the association between exposure and outcome; values less than 1.00 indicated a favorable shift in the mRS distribution and lower odds of higher levels of disability. Results: Of the 1543 patients (mean age, 74 years; 723 women [47%]) included in the adjusted primary analysis, 1337 (87%) had available mRS scores (primary outcome) and 1506 patients (98%) had available the 3-tier disability scale assessment (coprimary outcome). Patients with an MSU dispatched had lower median mRS scores at month 3 (1; interquartile range [IQR], 0-3) than did patients without an MSU dispatched (2; IQR, 0-3; common OR for worse mRS, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.86; P < .001). Similarly, patients with an MSU dispatched had lower 3-month coprimary disability scores: 586 patients (80.3%) had none to moderate disability; 92 (12.6%) had severe disability; and 52 (7.1%) had died vs patients without an MSU dispatched: 605 (78.0%) had none to moderate disability; 103 (13.3%) had severe disability; and 68 (8.8%) had died (common OR for worse functional outcome, 0.73, 95% CI, 0.54-0.99; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective, nonrandomized, controlled intervention study of patients with acute ischemic stroke in Berlin, Germany, the dispatch of mobile stroke units, compared with conventional ambulances alone, was significantly associated with lower global disability at 3 months. Clinical trials in other regions are warranted.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias , Berlim , Avaliação da Deficiência , Despacho de Emergência Médica , Medicina de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Herz ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest pain units (CPU) and stroke units (SU) have both become established as essential components of clinical emergency care. For both instances dedicated certification processes are installed. Up to summer 2020, 290 CPUs and 335 SUs have been successfully certified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to compare the structures and the current certification situation of CPUs and SUs. Also, the younger CPU certification process is compared to the long established SU certification standard. MATERIAL UND METHODS: The comparison includes the historical background, the certification process, quality benchmarking, possible additive structures, the current status of certification in Germany, the transfer of the concept to the European level as well as reimbursement issues. RESULTS: Both certification concepts show clear analogies. Evidence for SUs is supported by a positive Cochrane analysis and for CPUs there are many studies from the German CPU registry. The main differences include a uniform CPU system versus a multistep SU system of certification. Furthermore, SU have obligatory elements of quality documentation but only facultative quality indicator assessment for CPUs. From an economic viewpoint operation and procedural key (OPS) numbers guarantee a better reflection of the use of resources in the complex treatment of stroke, which could not yet be established for CPUs. CONCLUSION: The well-established CPU concept could additionally benefit from a superordinate quality control. Adequate quality benchmarking appears to be fundamental for gap analyses and for the establishment of a separate remuneration structure. In this respect the German Society for Cardiology as the certifying institution is required to establish an appropriate mechanism within the framework of regular updates of criteria.

4.
BMJ ; 366: l5101, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of aerobic exercise on activities of daily living in the subacute phase after stroke. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised controlled, endpoint blinded trial. SETTING: Seven inpatient rehabilitation sites in Germany (2013-17). PARTICIPANTS: 200 adults with subacute stroke (days 5-45 after stroke) with a median National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS, range 0-42 points, higher values indicating more severe strokes) score of 8 (interquartile range 5-12) were randomly assigned (1:1) to aerobic physical fitness training (n=105) or relaxation sessions (n=95, control group) in addition to standard care. INTERVENTION: Participants received either aerobic, bodyweight supported, treadmill based physical fitness training or relaxation sessions, each for 25 minutes, five times weekly for four weeks, in addition to standard rehabilitation therapy. Investigators and endpoint assessors were masked to treatment assignment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were change in maximal walking speed (m/s) in the 10 m walking test and change in Barthel index scores (range 0-100 points, higher scores indicating less disability) three months after stroke compared with baseline. Safety outcomes were recurrent cardiovascular events, including stroke, hospital readmissions, and death within three months after stroke. Efficacy was tested with analysis of covariance for each primary outcome in the full analysis set. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing values. RESULTS: Compared with relaxation, aerobic physical fitness training did not result in a significantly higher mean change in maximal walking speed (adjusted treatment effect 0.1 m/s (95% confidence interval 0.0 to 0.2 m/s), P=0.23) or mean change in Barthel index score (0 (-5 to 5), P=0.99) at three months after stroke. A higher rate of serious adverse events was observed in the aerobic group compared with relaxation group (incidence rate ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 3.36). CONCLUSIONS: Among moderately to severely affected adults with subacute stroke, aerobic bodyweight supported, treadmill based physical fitness training was not superior to relaxation sessions for maximal walking speed and Barthel index score but did suggest higher rates of adverse events. These results do not appear to support the use of aerobic bodyweight supported fitness training in people with subacute stroke to improve activities of daily living or maximal walking speed and should be considered in future guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01953549.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Avaliação da Deficiência , Teste de Esforço , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Terapia de Relaxamento , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada/fisiologia
5.
Nervenarzt ; 90(4): 335-342, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374745

RESUMO

This article describes the revised criteria for certified stroke units (SU) in Germany that will apply from 1 October 2018. Due to the high level of quality only minor adjustments and specifications were necessary in many places and the majority of criteria remained unchanged. For the first time a uniform personnel quota of ≥1.75 full-time staff per monitor bed is defined, which is a better reflection of the treatment reality. The evidence-based process of acute vascular imaging using computed tomography angiography (CTA) and alternatively magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is now defined as a minimum rate of≥20 % of all brain infarcts. In this way the timely identification of suitable candidates for endovascular thrombectomy (ET) should be accomplished. Ultrasound diagnostics of arteries supplying the brain remain an integral part of additional diagnostics after cerebral ischemia because this generates supplementary information. The extended detection of atrial fibrillation is newly included as a diagnostic minimum standard and necessitates measures that go beyond a single long-term electrocardiograph (ECG). In order to facilitate the certification of telemedically supplied SU (Tele-SU), the minimum standard of stroke patients was reduced to ≥200 per year. A Tele-SU in the immediate catchment area of a certified SU (<20 km) must provide proof of a regional treatment need in order for certification to be approved. Quality criteria in the audit reports have now a greater importance. They require a concrete plan of action, which must be tracked within the framework of the interim report and must be presented for the recertification. Furthermore, the SU are called upon not to limit the endeavors for quality only to the minimum requirements.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Certificação , Unidades Hospitalares , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Alemanha , Unidades Hospitalares/normas , Humanos , Trombectomia
6.
Eur Stroke J ; 3(3): 220-226, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008352

RESUMO

To improve quality and to overcome the wide discrepancies in stroke care both within- and between European countries, the European Stroke Organisation Executive Committee initiated in 2007 activities to establish certification processes for stroke units and stroke centres. The rapidly expanding evidence base in stroke care provided the mandate for the European Stroke Organisation Stroke Unit-Committee to develop certification procedures for stroke units and stroke centres with the goals of setting standards for stroke treatment in Europe, improving quality and minimising variation. The purpose of this article is to present the certification criteria and the auditing process for stroke units and stroke centres that aim to standardise and harmonise care for stroke patients, and hence become members of the European Stroke Organisation Stroke Unit and Stroke Centre network. Standardised application forms and guidelines for national and international auditors have been developed and updated by members of the European Stroke Organisation Stroke Unit-Committee. Key features are availability of trained personnel, diagnostic equipment, acute treatment and collaboration with other stroke-caregivers. After submission, the application is reviewed by one national and two international auditors. Based on their reports, the Stroke Unit-Committee will make a final decision. Validating on-site visits for a subset of stroke units and stroke centres are planned. We herein describe a novel, European Stroke Organisation-based online certification process of stroke units and stroke centres. This is a major step forward towards high-quality stroke care across Europe. The additional value by connecting high-quality European Stroke Organisation Stroke Unit and Stroke Centre is facilitation of future collaboration and research activities, enabling building and maintenance of a high-quality stroke care network in Europe.

7.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 37(12): 3671-3682, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733675

RESUMO

Stroke-associated pneumonia is a frequent complication after stroke associated with poor outcome. Dysphagia is a known risk factor for stroke-associated pneumonia but accumulating evidence suggests that stroke induces an immunodepressive state increasing susceptibility for stroke-associated pneumonia. We aimed to confirm that stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome is associated with stroke-associated pneumonia independently from dysphagia by investigating the predictive properties of monocytic HLA-DR expression as a marker of immunodepression as well as biomarkers for inflammation (interleukin-6) and infection (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). This was a prospective, multicenter study with 11 study sites in Germany and Spain, including 486 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Daily screening for stroke-associated pneumonia, dysphagia and biomarkers was performed. Frequency of stroke-associated pneumonia was 5.2%. Dysphagia and decreased monocytic HLA-DR were independent predictors for stroke-associated pneumonia in multivariable regression analysis. Proportion of pneumonia ranged between 0.9% in the higher monocytic HLA-DR quartile (≥21,876 mAb/cell) and 8.5% in the lower quartile (≤12,369 mAb/cell). In the presence of dysphagia, proportion of pneumonia increased to 5.9% and 18.8%, respectively. Patients without dysphagia and normal monocytic HLA-DR expression had no stroke-associated pneumonia risk. We demonstrate that dysphagia and stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome are independent risk factors for stroke-associated pneumonia. Screening for immunodepression and dysphagia might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for stroke-associated pneumonia.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Pneumonia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Deglutição/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/análise , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/imunologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia
8.
Am Heart J ; 172: 19-25, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26856211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is estimated to account for approximately every fifth ischemic stroke. In routine clinical practice, detection of undiagnosed, clinically silent AF represents a major diagnostic challenge, and in up to 30% of patients with ischemic stroke, AF remains undetected. The MonDAFIS study has been designed to quantify the diagnostic yield and clinical relevance of systematic electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring for patients with acute ischemic stroke during the subsequent in hospital stay. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective randomized multicenter study in 3,470 patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and without known AF on hospital admission. Over a period of approximately 2years, patients will be enrolled in about 30 German-certified stroke units and randomized 1:1 to receive either usual stroke unit diagnostic procedures for detection of AF (control group) or usual stroke unit diagnostic procedures plus standardized and centrally analyzed Holter ECG recording for up to 7days in hospital (intervention group). Results of the ECG core laboratory analysis will be provided to the patients and treating physicians. All patients will be followed up for treatment and cardiovascular outcomes at 6, 12, and 24months after enrollment. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome of the randomized MonDAFIS study is the proportion of patients who receive anticoagulation therapy 12months after the index stroke. Secondary outcomes include the number of stroke patients with newly detected AF in hospital and the rate of recurrent stroke, major bleedings, myocardial infarction, or death 6, 12, and 24months after the index event. MonDAFIS will also explore patient-reported adherence to anticoagulants, the clinical relevance of short atrial tachycardia, or excessive supraventricular ectopic activity as well as cost-effectiveness of prolonged, centrally analyzed ECG recordings. CONCLUSION: MonDAFIS will be the largest study to date to evaluate whether a prolonged and systematic ECG monitoring during the initial in hospital stay has an impact on secondary stroke prevention. In addition, prognosis as well as adherence to medication up to 2 years after the index stroke will be analyzed. The primary results of the MonDAFIS study may have the potential to change the current guidelines recommendations regarding ECG workup after ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Doença Aguda , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Neurol ; 260(2): 386-96, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22854887

RESUMO

Previous patient studies suggest that thalamic stroke may yield persistent deficits in several cognitive domains. At present, the subjective dimension and everyday relevance of these impairments is unclear, since many patients with thalamic stroke only show minor changes on physical examination. Here, we have studied subjective consequences of focal thalamic lesions. A sample of 68 patients with a history of ischemic thalamic stroke was examined by using established clinical self-report questionnaires assessing memory, attention, executive functions, emotional status and health-related quality of life. In order to control for general factors related to cerebrovascular disease, self-reports were compared to an age-matched group of 34 patients with a history of transient ischemic attack. Thalamic lesions were co-registered to an atlas of the human thalamus. Lesion overlap and subtraction analyses were used for lesion-to-symptom mapping. When both patient groups were compared, no significant differences were found for either questionnaire. However, when subgroups were compared, patients with infarctions involving the posterior thalamus showed significant emotional disturbances and elevated anxiety levels compared to patients with more anterior lesions. Our findings thus point to the existence of a persistent affective impairment associated with chronic lesions of the posterior thalamus. This syndrome may result from damage to connections between medial pulvinar and extra-thalamic regions involved in affective processing. Our findings suggest that the posterior thalamus may contribute significantly to the regulation of mood.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Tálamo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
10.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 108(36): 585-91, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21966316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of standardized pre-hospital treatment is a weak link in the care of acute stroke patients. METHODS: Selective review of the literature on acute stroke, with consideration of current guidelines in Germany and other countries (DGN, ESO, AHA/ASA). RESULTS: The mandatory, immediate transfer of acute stroke patients to a specialized stroke unit is supported by high-level evidence. Simple, sensitive screening tests for the diagnosis of stroke are available that can be performed in the field by trained non-physician emergency medical personnel. With regard to pre-hospital treatment, adequate scientific evidence supports cardiopulmonary stabilization, as well as oxygen supplementation if there are signs of hypoxemia. The patient's neurological findings, time of onset of symptoms, current medications, and past medical and surgical history must all be precisely and thoroughly documented. The receiving hospital must be informed of the patient's impending arrival as early as possible, particularly in cases where recanalizing procedures are still a therapeutic option. Treatment with aspirin or heparin must not be started in situ, i.e. without prior cerebral imaging. CONCLUSION: In the pre-hospital phase of stroke care delivery, the goal of a high capture rate can best be achieved through the use of appropriate diagnostic tests with maximal sensitivity. Patients with suspected acute stroke should be given the highest priority for transfer to a specialized stroke unit. Optimal pre-hospital care requires the smoothly functioning cooperation of all professionals involved, from the triaging and nursing personnel to the paramedics, dispatchers, emergency physicians in the field, and admitting physicians in the hospital.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Comparação Transcultural , Alemanha , Unidades Hospitalares/normas , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Transferência de Pacientes/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
11.
BMC Neurol ; 11: 47, 2011 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21524295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend maintaining the heart rate (HR) of acute stroke patients within physiological limits; data on the frequency and predictors of significant deviations from these limits are scarce. METHODS: Demographical data, stroke risk factors, NIH stroke scale score, lesion size and location, and ECG parameters were prospectively assessed in 256 patients with ischemic stroke. Patients were continuously monitored for at least 24 hours on a certified stroke unit. Tachycardia (HR ≥ 120 bpm) and bradycardia (HR <45 bpm) and cardiac rhythm (sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation) were documented. We investigated the influence of risk factors on HR disturbances and their respective influence on dependence (modified Rankin Scale ≥ 3 after three months) and mortality. RESULTS: HR ≥ 120 bpm occurred in 39 patients (15%). Stroke severity (larger lesion size/higher NIHSS-score on admission), atrial fibrillation and HR on admission predicted its occurrence. HR <45 bpm occurred in 12 patients (5%) and was predicted by lower HR on admission. Neither HR ≥ 120 nor HR <45 bpm independently predicted poor outcome at three moths. Stroke location had no effect on the occurrence of HR violations. Clinical severity and age remained the only consistent predictors of poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Significant tachycardia and bradycardia are frequent phenomena in acute stroke; however they do not independently predict clinical course or outcome. Continuous monitoring allows detecting rhythm disturbances in stroke patients and allows deciding whether urgent medical treatment is necessary.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem
12.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(3): 283-9, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19609080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is a suitable method for dysphagia assessment after acute stroke. Recently, we developed the fiberoptic endoscopic dysphagia severity scale (FEDSS) for acute stroke patients, grading dysphagia into 6 severity codes (1 to 6; 1 being best). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the FEDSS as a predictor of outcomes at 3 months and intermediate complications during acute treatment. METHODS: A total of 153 consecutive first-ever acute stroke patients were enrolled. Dysphagia was classified according to the FEDSS, assessed within 24 h after admission. Intermediate outcomes were pneumonia and endotracheal intubation. Functional outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify whether the FEDSS was an independent predictor of outcome and intercurrent complications. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIH-SS) on admission. RESULTS: The FEDSS was found to predict the mRS at 3 months as well as but independent from the NIH-SS. For each additional point on the FEDSS, the likelihood of dependency at 3 months (mRS > or = 3) raised by approximately 50%. Each increase of 1 point on the FEDSS conferred a more than 2-fold increased chance of developing pneumonia. The odds for the necessity of endotracheal intubation raised by a factor of nearly 2.5 with each additional point on the FEDSS. CONCLUSIONS: The FEDSS strongly and independently predicts outcome and intercurrent complications after acute stroke. Thus, a baseline FEES examination provides valuable prognostic information for the treatment of acute stroke patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Laringoscopia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Deglutição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Ópticas , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Stroke ; 40(2): 462-8, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19008471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Admission blood pressure (BP) and significant decreases in BP after acute stroke have been correlated with outcome. Few data are available on the impact of extreme values at any time point within the first 24 hours. METHODS: BP was measured hourly for 24 hours in 325 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Predefined endpoints were systolic BP >or=200, diastolic BP >or=110, or systolic BP <100 mm Hg during the first 24 hours, and significant systolic BP decreases by >26 mm Hg within 4 hours after admission. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified independent predictors of each end point and determined the impact on dependency at 3 months defined as modified Rankin scale score >or=3. RESULTS: Upper threshold violations occurred in 70% of cases during the admission process, and more frequently in patients arriving early after stroke; 30% of cases exhibited such values at a later time point. History of hypertension (P<0.01) and higher NIHSS on admission (P<0.05) were independent predictors. Systolic BP <100 mm Hg occurred at random and was associated with younger age (P<0.05). Night time admission was the strongest independent predictor of systolic BP decreases >26 mm Hg (P<0.0001). Diabetes, NIHSS on admission, and age were associated with adverse outcome at 3 months, whereas threshold violations and decreases were not. There was a trend for administration of antihypertensives being associated with poor outcome (P<0.1). CONCLUSIONS: External stimuli, premorbid risk factors, diurnal BP variations, and disease-immanent mechanisms all influence the course of BP after acute stroke. Monitoring should precede any medical BP treatment.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ritmo Circadiano , Coleta de Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Determinação de Ponto Final , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Neurol Res ; 31(1): 11-6, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18768115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The in vivo correlates of microembolic signals (MES) are still unknown. Platelet-associates (PA) with monocytes or granulocytes or platelet aggregates only may represent these correlates. METHODS: Thirty patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis >50% and 16 patients with acute (<4 days) atherothrombotic stroke were investigated. PA, P-selectin and thrombospondin expressions on platelets were assessed by flow cytometry. Soluble P-selectin (sPS) levels were assessed. MES detections were performed by transcranial Doppler sonography for 1 hour. PA, P-selectin and thrombospondin expressions on platelets and sPS levels were compared between MES-positive (MES+) and MES-negative (MES-) patients. RESULTS: Eight patients (27%) with asymptomatic carotid stenosis had 1-26 MES/h. Degree of stenosis was 78 +/- 10% in MES- and 88 +/- 8% in the MES+ (p=0.01). There were no differences in percentages of PA. P-selectin and thrombospondin surface expression was lower in MES+, but this was not significant. sPS levels were higher in MES+ (122 +/- 27 ng/ml versus 80 +/- 25 ng/ml in MES-, p=0.01). Seven (44%) patients with stroke had 1-39 MES/h. There were no differences in percentages of PA. MES+ had higher sPS levels (178 +/- 43 versus 121 +/- 44 ng/ml, p=0.02) and less P-selectin surface expression than MES- (9.0 +/- 3.4 versus 4.5 +/- 1.6%, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: High levels of sPS in MES+ and lower expression of platelet activation markers on platelets' surface suggest shedding of activation markers from the platelets' surface and thus enhanced activation of platelets of MES+ compared with MES-. PA are probably not the clinical correlates of MES, but platelets seem to be the main cellular element of solid cerebral microemboli.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucócitos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ativação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/patologia , Estenose das Carótidas/metabolismo , Estenose das Carótidas/patologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Leucócitos/patologia , Masculino , Microbolhas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selectina-P/biossíntese , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Trombospondinas/biossíntese , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
15.
Neurol Res ; 30(7): 687-9, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18826800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurovascular ultrasound (nUS) is widely used as a screening and monitoring tool in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD). The aim of the study was to describe the sonographical course of the affected arteries in patients with a MRI-proven sCAD by repetitive nUS. METHODS: Thirty-seven consecutive patients aged<60 years with 1.5 T MRI-proven sCAD were prospectively investigated by nUS, and within 48 hours after admission before MRI. The patients were re-investigated after 6 months and again after a period>12 months. RESULTS: Forty-nine sCAD were detected in 37 patients; 24 lesions (49%) were located in the internal carotid arteries (ICA), and 25 (51%) in the vertebral arteries (VA). An arterial occlusion was found in 13 arteries (27%). The recanalization rate of occluded arteries was 62%. Regression of stenosis/occlusion within the first 6 months was found in 34 (69%) of the affected arteries, while between 6 and >12 months, the improvement rate was lower (19%). A complete recanalization without residual stenosis after 6 months was found in 39%. In only one artery, initial high grade ICA stenosis progressed to complete persistent occlusion (2%). DISCUSSION: The course of arterial stenosis or occlusion caused by sCAD is highly dynamic during the first 6 month after the event. The vast majority of arteries show regression of stenosis or recanalization of initial occlusion. Only a minority of patients experience a persistent deterioration of the vessel status.


Assuntos
Dissecação da Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla/métodos , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artéria Carótida Interna/patologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Dissecação da Artéria Carótida Interna/patologia , Dissecação da Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Trombose Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Trombose Intracraniana/etiologia , Trombose Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla/estatística & dados numéricos , Artéria Vertebral/patologia , Artéria Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/patologia , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/fisiopatologia
16.
J Neurol ; 255(7): 953-61, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18458865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compile available studies using microembolic signal (MES) detection by transcranial Doppler sonography in varying sources of arterial brain embolism. We investigated prevalences of MES and whether MES detection is of proven use for risk stratification. METHOD: Studies reporting prevalences of MES and the risk of cerebral ischemic events were pooled for patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis, intracranial artery stenosis, cervical artery dissection, and aortic embolism. RESULTS: MES were reported in 43% of 586 patients with symptomatic and in 10% of 1066 patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Presence of one MES indicated an increased risk of future events [odds ratio (OR): 7.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-15.4, p<0.0001 for symptomatic, and OR: 13.4, 95% CI: 6.5-27.4, p<0.0001 for asymptomatic disease). MES were reported in 25% of 220 patients with symptomatic vs. 0% of 86 patients with asymptomatic intracranial stenosis (p<0.0001), Of 82 patients with cervical artery dissection presenting with TIA or stroke, 50% had MES compared with 13% of 16 patients with local symptoms (p=0.006), In patients with aortic embolism, patients with plaques >or= 4 mm more frequently had MES compared with patients with smaller plaques (p=0.04), Data were insufficient to reliably predict future events in patients with intracranial stenosis, cervical artery dissection, and aortic embolism. CONCLUSION: MES are a frequent finding in varying sources of arterial brain embolism, MES detection is useful for risk stratification in patients with carotid stenosis.


Assuntos
Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Arteriais Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Arteriais Cerebrais/epidemiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Doenças Arteriais Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , MEDLINE/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana/métodos
17.
Neurol Res ; 30(6): 645-8, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18423112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In non-stroke patients, the severity of sleep apnea (SA) is known to be frequently related to the sleeping position, a condition called positional SA. In the present study, we investigated whether in acute stroke the occurrence of apneas was related to the positioning of patients, and whether a similar finding could be observed after rehabilitation. With the purpose of identifying patients potentially being in need of a SA treatment beyond rehabilitation, we furthermore looked for epidemiologic and clinical parameters being related to persistent SA 6 months after stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-five acute stroke patients underwent cardiorespiratory polygraphy within 72 hours after onset of neurological symptoms and after 6 months. Apart from the total AHI (AHITOT), the AHI with the patient in supine position and the AHI with the patient in other positions were determined. In all patients, demographic data, NIH-stroke scale score and cumulative vascular risk factors were assessed. RESULTS: In the initial sleep study, 78% of patients had an AHI>or=10/h, of whom 65% fulfilled the criteria of positional SA. On follow-up, the incidence of SA declined to 49% with positional SA being present in 33%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified AHITOT on admission [OR=1.07 (1.002-1.13)] and cumulative vascular risk factors [OR=3.48 (1.34-9.05)] as independent predictors of persistent SA 6 months after stroke. CONCLUSION: According to our results, positional SA is a predominant feature in acute stroke and its incidence decreases significantly during the following months. These findings may have implications for SA treatment in patients with acute stroke.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
18.
Invest Radiol ; 42(8): 564-8, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17620939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate maximum enhancement and visual map quality in cerebral perfusion computed tomography (PCT) with variation of iodine concentration of contrast media (CM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two groups of 45 patients each, underwent PCT with either 370 mg iodine/mL (30 mL; 6 mL/s) or 300 mg iodine/mL (40 mL; 8 mL/s) CM, respectively, and similar total iodine dose. Parenchymal and vascular enhancement as well as contrast-to-noise ratio of superior sagittal sinus was measured on PCT source images. PCT maps were rated visually with dichotomized scale for diagnostic quality. RESULTS: Enhancement and contrast-to-noise ratio of the superior sagittal sinus was significantly higher for the 370 mg iodine/mL protocol (P < 0.0002 and P < 0.007), whereas parenchymal enhancement was not significantly different. Diagnostic quality of PCT maps did not differ between both protocols (P < 0.557). CONCLUSIONS: PCT using 370 mg iodine/mL CM can be reliably performed with reduced injection rate and less total volume enabling smaller diameter of intravenous canula compared with 300 mg iodine/mL CM.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Iodo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Encéfalo/patologia , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Viscosidade
19.
Eur Radiol ; 17(10): 2491-8, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17549483

RESUMO

This study evaluated perfusion computed tomography (PCT) for the prediction of vessel recanalization and clinical outcome in patients undergoing intravenous thrombolysis. Thirty-nine patients with acute ischemic stroke of the middle cerebral artery territory underwent intravenous thrombolysis within 3 h of symptom onset. They all had non-enhanced CT (NECT), PCT, and CT angiography (CTA) before treatment. The Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography (ASPECT) score was applied to NECT and PCT maps to assess the extent of ischemia. CTA was assessed for the site of vessel occlusion. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was used for initial clinical assessment. Three-month clinical outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale. Vessel recanalization was determined by follow-up ultrasound. Of the PCT maps, a cerebral blood volume (CBV) ASPECT score of >6 versus < or =6 was the best predictor for clinical outcome (odds ratio, 31.43; 95% confidence interval, 3.41-289.58; P < 0.002), and was superior to NIHSS, NECT and CTA. No significant differences in ASPECT scores were found for the prediction of vessel recanalization. ASPECT score applied to PCT maps in acute stroke patients predicts the clinical outcome of intravenous thrombolysis and is superior to both early NECT and clinical parameters.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
20.
Neurol Res ; 29(3): 296-303, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17509230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mapping of brain perfusion using bolus tracking methods is increasingly used to assess the amount and severity of cerebral ischemia in acute stroke. Using relative perfusion maps, however, it is difficult to identify the tissue at risk-maximum (TARM) of infarction with sufficient reliability and reproducibility. METHODS: We analysed 76 perfusion computed tomography (PCT) derived maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and time-to-peak (TTP) in 40 acute stroke patients using multidetector row technology and standard software (Somatom VolumeZoom, Siemens, Germany). 'Window narrowing' of the color maps was performed until color homogenisation of the contralateral unaffected hemisphere was reached. Tissue still depictable on the affected hemisphere after sufficient window narrowing was defined as the TARM. We analysed presence and size of the TARM on PCT maps, its relative perfusion values by comparison with contralateral, mirrored tissue, and its correlation with occurrence and final size of cerebral infarction on follow-up imaging. RESULTS: An ischemic area was visible in 64, 58.9 and 72.6% on the conventional CBF, CBV and TTP maps, respectively. After window narrowing, a TARM was present in 56.8, 54.1 and 63.0% of slices comprising 11.9, 11.6 and 21.1% of the ipsilateral hemisphere (CBF, CBV and TTP), respectively. The relative perfusion values were 38.7 (CBF) and 43.0% (CBV) for the entire ischemic area and 11.3 (CBF) and 13.3% (CBV) for the TARM. Definite cerebral infarction was visible on 68.1% of the target slices comprising 23.7 +/- 22.9% of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The size of the TARM correlated slightly better with the final infarction size (r=0.74-0.82) than the entire ischemic area (r=0.61-0.79). With respect to the occurrence of cerebral infarction, the presence of a TARM on CBF maps showed the best positive (97.9%) and negative (72.7%) predictability. DISCUSSION: On PCT maps, window narrowing provides a standardized display of the TARM in peracute stroke. The severely reduced values of relative CBF and CBV suggest the TARM to indicate tissue most prone to infarction.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Perfusão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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