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1.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3061-3067, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444833

RESUMO

Tryptophan metabolism is important to induce immune tolerance in tumors. To date, 3 types of tryptophan-metabolizing enzymes have been identified: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and 2 (IDO1 and IDO2) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2. Numerous studies have focused on IDO1 as its expression is enhanced in various cancers. Recently, IDO2 has been identified as a tryptophan-metabolizing enzyme that is involved in several immune functions and expressed in cancers such as pancreatic cancer. However, the biological role of IDO2 in the induction of immune tolerance in tumors has not yet been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Ido2 depletion on tumor growth in a mouse model of Lewis lung carcinoma by using Ido2-knockout mice. Ido2-knockout mice had reduced tumor volumes compared to WT mice. Furthermore, Ido2 depletion altered the tumor microenvironment, such as tryptophan accumulation and kynurenine reduction, leading to enhancement of immune cell invasion. Finally, enzyme-linked immunospot assay revealed that Ido2 depletion enhanced γ-interferon secretion in the tumor. In conclusion, Ido2 is an important immune regulator in the tumor microenvironment. Our data indicate that IDO2 is a potential target for cancer treatment and drug development.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221205, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430310

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly abused drug, elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) levels by inducing DA efflux through the DA transporter (DAT). Emerging evidence in rodent models suggests that locomotor responses to a novel inescapable open field may predict behavioral responses to abused drugs; METH produces more potent stimulant effects in high responders to novelty than in low responders. We herein found that mice deficient in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (Ptprz-KO) exhibited an enhanced behavioral response to novelty; however, METH-induced hyperlocomotion was significantly lower in Ptprz-KO than in wild-type mice when METH was administered at a non-toxic dose of 1 mg per kg body weight (bdw). Single-cell RT-PCR revealed that the majority of midbrain DA neurons expressed PTPRZ. No histological alterations were observed in the mesolimbic or nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways in Ptprz-KO brains; however, a significant decrease was noted in brain DA turnover, suggesting functional alterations. In vivo microdialysis experiments revealed that METH-evoked DA release in the nucleus accumbens was significantly lower in Ptprz-KO mice than in wild-type mice. Consistent with this result, Ptprz-KO mice showed significantly fewer cell surface DAT as well as weaker DA uptake activity in striatal synaptosomes prepared 1 hr after the administration of METH than wild-type mice, while no significant differences were observed in the two groups treated with saline. These results indicate that the high response phenotype of Ptprz-KO mice to novelty may not be simply attributed to hyper-dopaminergic activity, and that deficits in PTPRZ reduce the effects of METH by reducing DAT activity.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374892

RESUMO

Barley intake reportedly reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, but effects on the systemic phenotypes during healthy aging have not yet been examined. Therefore, we examined the effects of barley on the lifespan; behavioral phenotypes, such as locomotor activity, and cognitive functions, and intestinal microbiome in the senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse. We prepared two mild high-fat diets by adding lard, in which the starch components of AIN-93G were replaced by rice or barley "Motchiriboshi." SAMP8 (four weeks old, male) mice were fed AIN-93G until eight weeks old, and then rice (rice group) or barley diet (rice: barley = 1:4, barley group) until death. Changes in aging-related phenotypes, object and spatial recognition, locomotor and balancing activities, and the intestinal microbiome were recorded. Moreover, plasma cholesterol levels were analyzed at 16 weeks old. Barley intake prolonged the lifespan by approximately four weeks, delayed locomotor atrophy, and reduced balancing ability and spatial recognition. Barley intake significantly increased the medium and small particle sizes of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is associated with a reduced risk of total stroke. The Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio in the barley group was significantly higher than that in the rice group during aging. Thus, lifelong barley intake may have positive effects on healthy aging.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10243, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308447

RESUMO

The enzyme kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) catalyses the conversion of kynurenine (KYN) to kynurenic acid (KYNA). Although the isozymes KAT1-4 have been identified, KYNA is mainly produced by KAT2 in brain tissues. KNYA is an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate and α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and accumulation of KYNA in the brain has been associated with the pathology of schizophrenia. Therefore, KAT2 could be exploited as a therapeutic target for the management of schizophrenia. Although currently available KAT2 inhibitors irreversibly bind to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), inhibition via this mechanism may cause adverse side effects because of the presence of other PLP-dependent enzymes. Therefore, we identified novel selective KAT2 inhibitors by screening approximately 13,000 molecules. Among these, glycyrrhizic acid (GL) and its analogues, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and carbenoxolone (CBX), were identified as KAT2 inhibitors. These compounds were highly selective for KAT2 and competed with its substrate KYN, but had no effects on the other 3 KAT isozymes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in complex structures that were predicted in docking calculations, GL, GA and CBX were located on the same surface as the aromatic ring of KYN. These results indicate that GL and its analogues are highly selective and competitive inhibitors of KAT2.

5.
Behav Brain Res ; 372: 112053, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288060

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence shows that stressful events evoke molecular alterations in the brain, considered a pathology in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the abnormalities of neurotransmissions as well as intracellular signaling pathways affected by chronic stress in brain have not been fully explored. We investigated the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on the emotional behaviors, dopaminergic and serotoninergic function, and intracellular signaling in the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to CUMS for 4 weeks. CUMS was shown to induce hyperactivity in a novel environment, decrease interaction time in the social interaction test, prolong feeding latency in the novelty suppressed feeding test and enhance immobility in the forced swimming test. The levels of dopamine, its metabolites and turnover, and protein level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were increased by CUMS in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The level of serotonin and protein levels of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and TH were decreased by CUMS in the hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Accompanying the increase in dopaminergic function, phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), protein kinase B (Akt) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were increased by CUMS in the NAc. Administration of fluoxetine (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor: 20 mg/kg i.p.) and aripiprazole (dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist: 0.1 mg/kg i.p.) during CUMS, prevented behavioral changes and increase of dopamine level in the NAc. These data suggest that CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors are coupled with dopaminergic hyperfunction in the NAc and serotonergic hypofunction in the HPC and PFC.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 255: 168-176, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many women experience depressive symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum periods. These depressive symptoms are often accompanied by other inflammatory morbidities present during pregnancy. Tryptophan (TRP) metabolism has attracted considerable attention due to its influence on the onset of depression via induction of inflammation. We examined the changes in plasma levels of TRP metabolites in pregnant women with depressive symptoms during pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. METHODS: In line with a previous analysis using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), participants were divided into a non-depressive (ND) group, a postpartum depressive (PD) group, a temporary gestational depressive (TG) group, and a continuous depressive (CD) group. Blood samples were collected before and 1 month after delivery. The concentrations of plasma TRP metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: There are differences in plasma levels of TRP metabolites during pregnancy and postpartum periods between the ND group and the PD group, but not the TG or CD group. In the PD group, plasma levels of kynurenine (KYN) and kynurenic acid (KA), and KYN/TRP and KA/KYN ratio during the pregnancy period were higher and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA) during the postpartum period was lower than those in the ND group. LIMITATIONS: Histories regarding mood disorders before pregnancy were not assessed. CONCLUSIONS: The higher plasma levels of KYN and KA, and KYN/TRP and KA/KYN ratio during pregnancy period and lower plasma level of 3HAA during the postpartum period could be useful predictive and diagnostic markers of postpartum depressive symptoms.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3671, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842523

RESUMO

Polyphenols have been examined for their beneficial effects on health, particularly in rodents, but their lifelong effects are unclear. Lemons (Citrus limon), containing lemon polyphenols (LPP), are widely consumed but the effects of LPP on aging are unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of LPP on aging such as aging-related scores, locomotor activity, cognitive functions, and intestinal microbiome using senescence-accelerated mouse prone 1 (SAMP1) and senescence-accelerated resistant mouse 1 (SAMR1). All mice had ad libitum access to water (P1_water group, SAMR1) or 0.1% LPP (P1_LPP group). In the P1_LPP group, LPP intake prolonged the lifespan by approximately 3 weeks and delayed increases in aging-related scores (e.g., periophthalmic lesions) and locomotor atrophy. The P1_water group showed large changes in the intestinal microbiome structure, while the R1 and P1_LPP groups did not. The phylum Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes, which is associated with obesity, in the P1_water group was significantly lower and higher than that in the P1_LPP and R1 groups, respectively. Although the relative abundance of Lactobacillus significantly increased in both P1 groups with aging, the P1_LPP group showed a significantly lower increase than the P1_water group. Thus, lifelong intake of LPP may have anti-aging effects on both phenotypes and the intestinal environment.

8.
Neurochem Int ; 125: 1-6, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731185

RESUMO

Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that induces psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive deficits in rodents similar to those observed in schizophrenia patients. PCP administration in healthy human subjects induces schizophrenia-like symptoms such as positive and negative symptoms, and a range of cognitive deficits. It has been reported that PCP, ketamine, and related drugs such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-type (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists, induce behavioral effects by blocking neurotransmission at NMDA receptors. Further, NMDA receptor antagonists reproduce specific aspects of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Neurochemical models based on the actions of PCP are well established, with increased focus on glutamatergic dysfunction as a basis for both symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. On the other hand, the endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), which is a product of tryptophan-kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolism, is involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis. KYNA concentrations are elevated in the prefrontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. KYNA elevation affects neurotransmitter release in a similar manner to that of psychotomimetic agents such as PCP, underscoring a molecular basis of its involvement in schizophrenia pathophysiology. This review will highlight the relationship between PCP and KP metabolites based on evidence that both exogenous and endogenous NMDA receptor antagonists are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and discuss our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying dysfunctional glutamatergic signaling as potential therapeutic targets for schizophrenia.

9.
Neurochem Int ; 125: 117-126, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779928

RESUMO

Nicotine, one of the more than 4700 ingredients in tobacco smoke, is a neurotoxin and once used as pesticides in agriculture. Although its use in agriculture is prohibited in many countries, nicotine intoxication is still a problem among the workers in tobacco farms, and young children as well as adults due to the accidental or suicidal ingestions of nicotine products. Understanding the mechanism of nicotine intoxication is important not only for the prevention and treatment but also for the appropriate regulatory approaches. Here, we review pharmacokinetics of nicotine and the molecular mechanisms for acute and chronic intoxication from nicotine that might be relevant to the central and the peripheral nervous system. We include green tobacco sickness, acute intoxication from popular nicotine products, circadian rhythm changes, chronic intoxication from nicotine through prenatal nicotine exposure, newborn behaviors, and sudden infant death syndrome.

10.
Neurochem Int ; 124: 162-170, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654115

RESUMO

The abuse of methamphetamine (MA), an amphetamine (AMPH)-type stimulant, has been demonstrated to be associated with various neuropsychotoxicity, including memory impairment, psychiatric morbidity, and dopaminergic toxicity. Compelling evidence from preclinical studies has indicated that protein kinase C (PKC), a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases, plays an important role in MA-induced neuropsychotoxicity. PKC-mediated N-terminal phosphorylation of dopamine transporter has been identified as one of the prerequisites for MA-induced synaptic dopamine release. Consistently, it has been shown that PKC is involved in MA (or AMPH)-induced memory impairment and mania-like behaviors as well as MA drug dependence. Direct or indirect regulation of factors related to neuronal plasticity seemed to be critical for these actions of PKC. In addition, PKC-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress or impaired antioxidant defense system has been suggested to play a role in psychiatric and cognitive disturbance induced by MA (or AMPH). In MA-induced dopaminergic toxicity, particularly PKCδ has been shown to trigger oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-apoptotic changes, and neuroinflammation. Importantly, PKCδ may be a key mediator in the positive feedback loop composed of these detrimental events to potentiate MA-induced dopaminergic toxicity. This review outlines the role of PKC and its individual isozymes in MA-induced neuropsychotoxicity. Better understanding on the molecular mechanism of PKCs might provide a great insight for the development of potential therapeutic or preventive candidates for MA (or AMPH)-associated neuropsychotoxicity.

11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 131: 408-431, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592974

RESUMO

Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress contributes to cocaine neurotoxicity. The present study was performed to elucidate the role of the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) in cocaine-induced kindling (convulsive) behaviors in mice. Cocaine-induced convulsive behaviors significantly increased GPx-1, p-IkB, and p-JAK2/STAT3 expression, and oxidative burdens in the hippocampus of mice. There was no significant difference in cocaine-induced p-IkB expression between non-transgenic (non-TG) and GPx-1 overexpressing transgenic (GPx-1 TG) mice, but significant differences were observed in cocaine-induced p-JAK2/STAT3 expression and oxidative stress between non-TG and GPx-1 TG mice. Cocaine-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytic level was significantly higher in the hippocampus of GPx-1 TG mice. Triple-labeling immunocytochemistry indicated that GPx-1-, p-STAT3-, and GFAP-immunoreactivities were co-localized in the same cells. AG490, a JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor, but not pyrrolidone dithiocarbamate, an NFκB inhibitor, significantly counteracted GPx-1-mediated protective potentials (i.e., anticonvulsant-, antioxidant-, antiapoptotic-effects). Genetic overexpression of GPx-1 significantly attenuated proliferation of Iba-1-labeled microglia induced by cocaine in mice. However, AG490 or astrocytic inhibition (by GFAP antisense oligonucleotide and α-aminoadipate) significantly increased Iba-1-labeled microglial activity and M1 phenotype microglial mRNA levels, reflecting that proinflammatory potentials were mediated by AG490 or astrocytic inhibition. This microglial activation was less pronounced in GPx-1 TG than in non-TG mice. Furthermore, either AG490 or astrocytic inhibition significantly counteracted GPx-1-mediated protective potentials. Therefore, our results suggest that astrocytic modulation between GPx-1 and JAK2/STAT3 might be one of the underlying mechanisms for protecting against convulsive neurotoxicity induced by cocaine.

12.
Food Funct ; 10(1): 325-332, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574980

RESUMO

Theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide), an amino acid in tea, is a putative neuroprotective and antioxidant compound capable of improving lifespan and cognitive function. Because we previously reported cognitive dysfunction in klotho mutant mice via down-regulation of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription3 (STAT3), M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M1 mAChR), and ERK signaling, we, therefore, investigated whether self-administration of theanine affects memory dysfunction in response to klotho gene depletion in mice, and whether theanine modulates the JAK2/STAT3, M1 mAChR, and ERK signaling network. Theanine significantly attenuated memory impairments in klotho mutant mice. Moreover, theanine self-administration significantly attenuated inhibitions of JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation, M1 mAChR expression, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus of klotho mutant mice. Consistently, AG490, a JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor, dicyclomine, an M1 mAChR antagonist, or U0126, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, significantly counteracted theanine-induced attenuation of memory impairment induced by klotho gene depletion in mice. Our study suggests that theanine attenuates memory impairments in a genetic aging model via up-regulation of JAK2/STAT3, M1 mAChR, and ERK signaling.


Assuntos
Glucuronidase/deficiência , Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Animais , Feminino , Glucuronidase/genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
13.
Neuropharmacology ; 148: 107-116, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590060

RESUMO

The impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles is resistant to some antidepressants and an antipsychotic, although the underlying mechanisms and/or therapeutic target are not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the glutamatergic neuronal system in the impairment of social behaviors in this model, as this system is known to be involved in many central pathologies. Acute administration of ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and subsequent stimulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, attenuated the expression of impairment of social behaviors. Lack of the NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit or acute administration of ifenprodil, an NMDA receptor GluN2B subunit antagonist, did not cause an effect. There were no significant changes in NMDA function, as determined by the ratios of phosphorylated NMDA receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. 2,3-Dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione, a selective AMPA receptor antagonist, prevented the effect of ketamine on the expression of impairment of social behaviors. On the contrary, the ratio of phosphorylated AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit in the hippocampus was significantly increased in the non-tested, defeated group. Ketamine increased the level of total protein, but not the ratio of phosphorylated GluA1 in the hippocampus of the non-tested, defeated group. In conclusion, exposure to social defeat stress as juveniles may induce the expression of impairment of social behaviors in adolescents via functional changes in GluA1. Activators of AMPA receptor signaling, such as ketamine, may constitute a novel treatment strategy for stress-related psychiatric disorders in adolescents with adverse juvenile experiences.

14.
Neurochem Int ; 122: 144-148, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500461

RESUMO

Compelling evidence suggests that far-infrared ray (FIR) possesses beneficial effects on emotional disorders. However, the underlying mechanism conveyed by FIR remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that exposure to FIR induces antioxidant potentials via up-regulation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 gene. The antioxidant potentials might be important for the modulation on the neuropsychotoxic conditions. Exposure to FIR protects from methamphetamine (MA)-induced memory impairments via phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 signaling by positive modulation of protein kinase C δ (PKCδ), M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR), and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor. In addition, exposure to FIR positively modulates MA-induced behavioral sensitization via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction by down-regulation of dopamine D1 receptor. In this mini-review, we have discussed with the protective potentials mediated by FIR against MA-induced psychotoxic burdens.

15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 123: 125-141, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366073

RESUMO

Serotonin syndrome is an adverse reaction due to increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan: 5-HT) concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). The full 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) agonist (±)-8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) has been recognized to elicit traditional serotonergic behaviors. Treatment with 8-OH-DPAT selectively increased PKCδ expression out of PKC isoforms and 5-HT turnover rate in the hypothalamus of wild-type mice. Treatment with 8-OH-DPAT resulted in oxidative burdens, co-immunoprecipitation of 5-HT1AR and PKCδ, and phosphorylation and membrane translocation of p47phox. Importantly, p47phox also interacted with 5-HT1AR or PKCδ in the presence of 8-OH-DPAT. Consistently, the interaction and oxidative burdens were attenuated by 5-HT1AR antagonism (i.e., WAY100635), PKCδ inhibition (i.e., rottlerin and genetic depletion of PKCδ), or NADPH oxidase/p47phox inhibition (i.e., apocynin and genetic depletion of p47phox). However, WAY100635, apocynin, or rottlerin did not exhibit any additive effects against the protective effect by inhibition of PKCδ or p47phox. Furthermore, apocynin, rottlerin, or WAY100635 also significantly protected from pro-inflammatory/pro-apoptotic changes induced by 8-OH-DPAT. Therefore, we suggest that 8-OH-DPAT-induced serotonergic behaviors requires oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic changes, that PKCδ or p47phox mediates the serotonergic behaviors induced by 8-OH-DPAT, and that the inhibition of PKCδ-dependent p47phox activation is critical for protecting against serotonergic behaviors.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15917, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374077

RESUMO

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (Ido2) is a recently identified catalytic enzyme in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway that is expressed primarily in monocytes and dendritic cells. To elucidate the biological role of Ido2 in immune function, we introduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin shock to Ido2 knockout (Ido2 KO) mice, which led to higher mortality than that in the wild type (WT) mice. LPS-treated Ido2 KO mice had increased production of inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-6; IL-6) in serum and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (stat3) phosphorylation in the spleen. Moreover, the peritoneal macrophages of LPS-treated Ido2 KO mice produced more cytokines than did the WT mice. By contrast, the overexpression of Ido2 in the murine macrophage cell line (RAW) suppressed cytokine production and decreased stat3 expression. Finally, RAW cells overexpressing Ido2 did not alter nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) or stat1 expression, but IL-6 and stat3 expression decreased relative to the control cell line. These results reveal that Ido2 modulates IL-6/stat3 signalling and is induced by LPS, providing novel options for the treatment of immune disorders.

17.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 295, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C) triggers a strong innate immune response that mimics immune activation by viral infections. Induction of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (Ifitm3) in astrocytes has a crucial role in polyI:C-induced neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Through a quantitative proteomic screen, we previously identified candidate astroglial factors, such as matrix metalloproteinase-3 (Mmp3) and follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), in polyl:C-induced neurodevelopmental impairment. Here, we characterized the Ifitm3-dependent inflammatory processes focusing on astrocyte-derived Fstl1 following polyI:C treatment to assess the neuropathologic role of Fstl1. METHODS: Astrocytes were treated with PBS (control) or polyI:C (10 µg/mL). The conditioned medium was collected 24 h after the polyI:C treatment and used as astrocyte condition medium (ACM). The expression of Fstl1 mRNA and extracellular Fstl1 protein levels were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. For functional studies, neurons were treated with ACM and the effects of ACM on dendritic elongation were assayed. To examine the role of Fstl1, recombinant Fstl1 protein and siRNA for Fstl1 were used. To investigate the expression of Fstl1 in vivo, neonatal mice were treated with vehicle or polyI:C on postnatal day 2 to 6. RESULTS: ACM prepared with polyI:C (polyI:C ACM) contained significantly higher Fstl1 protein than control ACM, but no increase in Fstl1 was observed in polyI:C ACM derived from Ifitm3-deficient astrocytes. We found that the production of Fstl1 involves the inflammatory responsive molecule Ifitm3 in astrocytes and influences neuronal differentiation. In agreement, the levels of Fstl1 increased in the hippocampus of polyI:C-treated neonatal mice. COS7 cells co-transfected with both Fstl1 and Ifitm3 had higher extracellular levels of Fstl1 than the cells transfected with Fstl1 alone. Treatment of primary cultured hippocampal neurons with recombinant Fstl1 impaired dendritic elongation, and the deleterious effect of polyI:C ACM on dendritic elongation was attenuated by knockdown of Fstl1 in astrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The extracellular level of Fstl1 is regulated by Ifitm3 in astrocytes, which could be involved in polyI:C-induced neurodevelopmental impairment.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14413, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258218

RESUMO

Medium spiny neurons (MSN) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are a fundamental component of various aspects of motivated behavior. Although mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling plays a crucial role in several types of learning, the cell type-specific role of MAPK pathway in stimulus-reward learning and motivation remains unclear. We herein investigated the role of MAPK in accumbal MSNs in reward-associated learning and memory. During the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning, the number of phosphorylated MAPK1/3-positive cells was increased significantly and exclusively in the NAc core by 7-days of extensive training. MAPK signaling in the respective D1R- and D2R-MSNs was manipulated by transfecting an adeno-associated virus (AAV) plasmid into the NAc of Drd1a-Cre and Drd2-Cre transgenic mice. Potentiation of MAPK signaling shifted the learning curve of Pavlovian conditioning to the left only in Drd1a-Cre mice, whereas such manipulation in D2R-MSNs had negligible effects. In contrast, MAPK manipulation in D2R-MSNs of the NAc core significantly increased motivation for food rewards as found in Drd1a-Cre mice. These results suggest that MAPK signaling in the D1R-MSNs of NAc core plays an important role in stimulus-reward learning, while MAPK signaling in both D1R- and D2R-MSNs is involved in motivation for natural rewards.

19.
J Psychopharmacol ; 32(11): 1233-1251, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIMS:: We investigated whether antipsychotic clozapine modulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and mitochondrial burdens induced by phencyclidine in mice. METHODS:: We examined the effect of clozapine on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation, mitochondrial burdens (i.e. oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction), and activities of enzymatic antioxidant in the prefrontal cortex, and subsequent abnormal behaviors induced by repeated treatment with phencyclidine. p47 phox Knockout mice and LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, were employed to elucidate the pharmacological mechanism of clozapine. RESULTS:: Phencyclidine treatment resulted in an early increase nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, membrane translocation of p47 phox, interaction between p-Akt and p47 phox, and mitochondrial burdens in wild-type mice. Although these increases returned to near control level four days post-phencyclidine, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were decreased at that time. Clozapine, LY294002, or p47 phox knockout significantly ameliorated social withdrawal and recognition memory deficits produced by phencyclidine. Importantly, LY294002 did not significantly alter the effects of clozapine against abnormal behaviors and the interaction between p-Akt and p47 phox induced by phencyclidine. Furthermore, neither LY294002 nor clozapine exhibited any additive effects to the protection afforded by p47 phox knockout against phencyclidine insult. CONCLUSION:: Our results suggest that p47 phox gene mediates phencyclidine-induced mitochondrial burdens and abnormal behaviors, and that the interactive modulation between p47 phox and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt is important for the understanding on the pharmacological mechanism of clozapine.

20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 121: 254-261, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195712

RESUMO

The pro-apoptotic role of Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), a member of the novel PKC subfamily, has been well-documented in various pathological conditions. In the central nervous system, the possible role of PKCδ has been studied, mainly in the condition of dopaminergic loss. It has been suggested that the phosphorylation of PKCδ at tyrosine 311 residue (Tyr311) by redox-sensitive Src family kinases (SFKs) is critical for the caspase-3-mediated proteolytic cleavage, which produces the constitutively active cleaved form of PKCδ. Mitochondrial translocation of cleaved PKCδ has been suggested to facilitate mitochondria-derived apoptosis and oxidative burdens. Moreover, it has been suggested that PKCδ contribute to neuroinflammation through the transformation of microglia into the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and the assembly of membrane NADPH oxidase in dopaminergic impairments. Interestingly, mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors or neuroinflammogens have shown to induce PKCδ activation in dopaminergic systems. Thus, PKCδ activation may be one of the pivotal causes of neuropathologic events, and could amplify these processes further in a positive feedback manner. Furthermore, PKCδ may play an intermediary role in connecting each neuropathologic event. This review affords insight into the role of PKCδ in various dopaminergic neurotoxic models, which could provide a potential target for mitigating dopaminergic neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/enzimologia , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Apoptose , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
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