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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431907

RESUMO

Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cães , Cabras , Paquistão
7.
J Surg Educ ; 76(5): 1425-1432, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urological training has dramatically changed in recent years. Training durations are shorter and a drive toward consultant led care has reduced trainees experience. Within the UK, approximately 50 registrars annually embark on a 5-year Urology training programme, with variable levels of basic urological experience. OBJECTIVE: To describe a simulation programme aimed at delivering the knowledge and skills necessary to safely and effectively start working as a registrar in Urology by intensive training with a 1:1 faculty to delegate ratio. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Our course content mirrors the UK training syllabus for junior Urology registrars. We delivered 8 modules over a 4-day programme with a fifth day of assessments. Delegates level of urological knowledge, operative competency and confidence pre-, immediately post-training and at 3-months postcourse were assessed. Objective delegate and faculty feedback was also collected. Technical skills modules include; inguinoscrotal surgery, ureteroscopy, transurethral resection, urodynamics, and Botox administration as well as basic reconstructive and laparoscopic operative skills. "Nontechnical" skills included simulated ward round, out-patient, and emergency scenarios. RESULTS: Feedback from delegates and faculty members has been overwhelmingly positive. We have used this feedback to tailor the content of the course for following years. An increased knowledge level (based on mean examination scores [precourse 55.5%, postcourse 70.1%]) and operative competency was observed in all skills assessed (transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral resection of bladder tumor, Ureteroscopy, laparoscopic skills, and instrument assembly). Operative confidence was increased immediately and at 3-months postcourse. CONCLUSIONS: Our "boot camp" course provides a realistic introduction and foundation to begin Urological practice. Being delivered at the beginning of the training scheme, prior to intensive patient exposure, registrars are in an optimum position to develop their newly acquired knowledge and skills to enhance training and intends to improve patient safety and satisfaction.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação , Urologia/educação , Reino Unido
8.
J Hosp Infect ; 103(1): 55-63, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. A major reason for this is that urinary catheters are not yet capable of preventing CAUTIs. AIM: To develop an anti-infective urinary catheter. METHODS: An efficient silver-polytetrafluoroethylene (Ag-PTFE) nanocomposite coating was deposited on whole silicone catheters, and two in-vitro bladder models were designed to test antibacterial (against Escherichia coli) and anti-encrustation (against Proteus mirabilis) performances. Each model was challenged with two different concentrations of bacterial suspension. FINDINGS: Compared with uncoated catheters, coated catheters significantly inhibited bacterial migration and biofilm formation on the external catheter surfaces. The time to develop bacteriuria was an average of 1.8 days vs 4 days and 6 days vs 41 days when the urethral meatus was infected with 106 and 102 cells/mL, respectively. For anti-encrustation tests, the coated catheter significantly resisted encrustation, although it did not strongly inhibit the increases in bacterial density and urinary pH. The time to blockage, which was found to be independent of the initial bacterial concentration in the bladder, was extended from 36.2±1.1 h (uncoated) to 89.5±3.54 h (coated) following bacterial contamination with 103 cells/mL in the bladder. Moreover, the coated catheter exhibited excellent biocompatibility with L929 fibroblast cells. CONCLUSION: Ag-PTFE coated Foley catheters should undergo further clinical trials to determine their ability to prevent CAUTIs during catheterization.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocompostos , Politetrafluoretileno/farmacologia , Proteus mirabilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/farmacologia , Cateteres Urinários , Bacteriúria/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Infecções por Proteus/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
9.
J Surg Educ ; 76(2): 591-599, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of decade-long dedicated laparoscopic urology surgical skills course on the successful implementation of surgical services by the participants. METHODS: A prospective database was maintained for all the participants in urological laparoscopic courses run by a single dedicated unit between January 2016 and December 2016. Data on various variables were collected using a follow-up validated questionnaire exploring speciality of clinical practice, challenges and need for additional training to establish clinical services, improvement in quality and frequency of laparoscopic courses. A subset of participants reported data of their outcomes in a national database available publically. RESULTS: One hundred sixty one delegates were drawn from 18 countries attended laparoscopic skills courses during the study period of 10 years. Data were available for 154 (95.65%) participants. There were only 20 (20/154; 12.9%) responses to online website questionnaires despite 3 reminders. Further, follow-up through websites/telephonic contact/organizational contacts improved the response rate to 93% (143/154). Of the participants, 95% (135/143) felt that these courses should be continued, and they agreed to recommend them to their trainees in the future. More than 50% (81/143; 56.6%) of the participants performed laparoscopic/robotic surgery at various centers. Sixty two (62/143; 43.3%) did not pursue laparoscopic surgery as a career choice. Fifty six (56/81; 69%) participants were established laparoscopic surgeons were from the UK, and of them, 30 (30/56; 53.57%: 30/81; 37.04%) were established surgeons that contributed to publishing their results through professional organizations with the outcomes of all of these within normal ranges of their peers. CONCLUSIONS: A dedicated laparoscopic urological surgery course run over a decade had a significant impact on the skills of participants, and most participants were able to establish clinical practice catering to a large proportion of the UK population as well as a few centers internationally.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Laparoscopia/educação , Treinamento por Simulação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Urologia/educação , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 35: 92-101, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the unmet supportive care needs of patients affected by muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We set out to determine the different domains of unmet supportive care needs for patients affected by MIBC. LITERATURE SEARCH: A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA Statement Guidelines. A sensitive search was performed in electronic databases (DARE, Cochrane, MEDLINE, BNI, PsychINFO, EMBASE and CIHAHL) from the earliest date available to January 2017. DATA EVALUATION: 1405 references were retrieved, 8 articles met the eligibility criteria and were appraised and ranked by strength using the levels of evidence. SYNTHESIS: Individual unmet needs were classified into the following domains: patient-clinician communication, daily living needs, health system/information needs, practical needs, family-related needs, social needs, psychological needs, physical needs and intimacy needs. Patients reported high unmet needs at diagnosis and into survivorship. CONCLUSIONS: This review contributes to a greater understanding of the unmet supportive care needs of patients affected by MIBC. Findings reflect a paucity of research, but existing studies indicated needs commonly related to intimacy, informational, physical and psychological needs. Despite the emerging evidence-base, the current within study limitations precludes our understanding about how the needs of patients evolve over time.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/fisiopatologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Metástase Neoplásica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/secundário , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia
11.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 43(8): 1589-1597, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine outcomes of small renal masses (≤4 cm) on active surveillance and explore factors which can influence their growth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred twenty six patients between January 2007 and December 2014 were analysed using cross-linked methodology of healthcare data and independent review. Cancer specific and non-specific survival were the primary outcomes. Growth kinetics, factors influencing growth and need for interventions were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: 101 (64.4%) solid and 4 (5.9%) cystic SRMs showed growth. 43 (19.02%) of SRMs required treatment interventions. Seven patients (7/158; 4.4%) died due to renal cancer at a median follow-up of 21.7 (SD 10.6, min 6-42) months, all in solid category. Independent review of serial radiological imaging of these seven cases showed two patients had subtle metastatic disease at the initial presentation, and 5 of the 7 did not adhere to recommended imaging regime. 33 (33/158; 20.8%) died due to other causes including non-renal cancers (14/158; 8.8%). Multivariate analyses showed that lower eGFR at baseline, co-morbidities and tumour location were independently associated with growth in size. CONCLUSIONS: A higher cancer-specific mortality was seen in the present study compared to the reported literature. Independent critical review of imaging of cases with poor outcome underscored the importance of adherence to a robust protocol including follow up. Comorbid conditions had a significant impact on growth and overall survival of patients with SRMs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Cinética , Vigilância da População , Escócia , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Public Health ; 142: 102-110, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of hospitalization and death following prostate biopsy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Our study population comprised 10,285 patients with a record of first ever prostate biopsy between 2009 and 2013 on computerized acute hospital discharge or outpatient records covering Scotland. Using the general population as a comparison group, expected numbers of admissions/deaths were derived by applying age-, sex-, deprivation category-, and calendar year-specific rates of hospital admissions/deaths to the study population. Indirectly standardized hospital admission ratios (SHRs) and mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by dividing the observed numbers of admissions/deaths by expected numbers. RESULTS: Compared with background rates, patients were more likely to be admitted to hospital within 30 days (SHR 2.7; 95% confidence interval 2.4, 2.9) and 120 days (SHR 4.0; 3.8, 4.1) of biopsy. Patients with prior co-morbidity had higher SHRs. The risk of death within 30 days of biopsy was not increased significantly (SMR 1.6; 0.9, 2.7), but within 120 days, the risk of death was significantly higher than expected (SMR 1.9; 1.5, 2.4). The risk of death increased with age and tended to be higher among patients with prior co-morbidity. Overall risks of hospitalization and of death up to 120 days were increased both in men diagnosed and those not diagnosed with prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Higher rates of adverse events in older patients and patients with prior co-morbidity emphasizes the need for careful patient selection for prostate biopsy and justifies ongoing efforts to minimize the risk of complications.


Assuntos
Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Morte , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia
13.
World J Urol ; 33(1): 41-9, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24619009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of socio-economic deprivation on the oncological outcomes of surgically treated upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. METHODS: From January 1998 to December 2012, 161 patients underwent nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract cancer at our tertiary medical centre. We included 124 patients where complete data were available for further analysis. This study also analysed the impact of the reported risk factors such as grade, stage, multifocality in addition to socio-economic deprivation on the long-term oncological outcomes after nephroureterectomy. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four (77 %) patients with complete data for socio-economic status were analysed in this study. The median age of the cohort was 73 years (interquartile range 45-86). There were 20, 18, 17, 40 and 29 patients in different socio-economic categories ranging from 1 to 5, respectively. The median duration of follow-up was 68 months (9-174). A statistically higher grade (p value 0.005) and higher stage (p value 0.0005) disease was seen in patients from less deprived categories on both univariate and multivariate analyses. The cancer-specific mortality and follow-up recurrences, however, did not significantly differ between the different socio-economic categories on multivariate analysis (p value 0.13; 0.6) and on univariate and multivariate analyses. A higher number of patients with multifocal disease and concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS) had disease recurrences which were statistically significant (p values 0.026 and 0.014, respectively) on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A lower recurrence-free survival was observed in patients with multifocal disease and those with concomitant CIS following nephroureterectomy for clinically localized disease. Long-term follow-up did not show any significant differences in cancer-specific survival between different deprivation categories.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Nefrectomia , Classe Social , Neoplasias Ureterais/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Ureterais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ureterais/patologia
14.
Br J Cancer ; 111(7): 1381-90, 2014 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25137021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wider clinical applications of 9p status in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are limited owing to the lack of validation and consensus for interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (I-FISH) scoring technique. The aim of this study was to analytically validate the applicability of I-FISH in assessing 9p deletion in ccRCC and to clinically assess its long-term prognostic impact following surgical excision of ccRCC. METHODS: Tissue microarrays were constructed from 108 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumour paraffin blocks. Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation analysis was undertaken based on preset criteria by two independent observers to assess interobserver variability. 9p status in ccRCC tumours was determined and correlated to clinicopathological variables, recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival. RESULTS: There were 80 ccRCCs with valid 9p scoring and a median follow-up of 95 months. Kappa statistic for interobserver variability was 0.71 (good agreement). 9p deletion was detected in 44% of ccRCCs. 9p loss was associated with higher stage, larger tumours, necrosis, microvascular and renal vein invasion, and higher SSIGN (stage, size, grade and necrosis) score. Patients with 9p-deleted ccRCC were at a higher risk of recurrence (P=0.008) and RCC-specific mortality (P=0.001). On multivariate analysis, 9p deletion was an independent predictor of recurrence (hazard ratio 4.323; P=0.021) and RCC-specific mortality (hazard ratio 4.603; P=0.007). The predictive accuracy of SSIGN score improved from 87.7% to 93.1% by integrating 9p status to the model (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Loss of 9p is associated with aggressive ccRCC and worse prognosis in patients following surgery. Our findings independently confirm the findings of previous reports relying on I-FISH to detect 9p (CDKN2A) deletion.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
15.
Br J Cancer ; 110(6): 1622-33, 2014 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24548857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteomics-based approaches for biomarker discovery are promising strategies used in cancer research. We present state-of-art label-free quantitative proteomics method to assess proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) compared with noncancer renal tissues. METHODS: Fresh frozen tissue samples from eight primary RCC lesions and autologous adjacent normal renal tissues were obtained from surgically resected tumour-bearing kidneys. Proteins were extracted by complete solubilisation of tissues using filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method. Trypsin digested proteins were analysed using quantitative label-free proteomics approach followed by data interpretation and pathways analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1761 proteins were identified and quantified with high confidence (MASCOT ion score threshold of 35 and P-value <0.05). Of these, 596 proteins were identified as differentially expressed between cancer and noncancer tissues. Two upregulated proteins in tumour samples (adipose differentiation-related protein and Coronin 1A) were further validated by immunohistochemistry. Pathway analysis using IPA, KOBAS 2.0, DAVID functional annotation and FLink tools showed enrichment of many cancer-related biological processes and pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and amino acid synthetic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified a number of differentially expressed proteins and pathways using label-free proteomics approach in RCC compared with normal tissue samples. Two proteins validated in this study are the focus of on-going research in a large cohort of patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Renais/química , Neoplasias Renais/química , Proteômica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/urina , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/análise , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/urina , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 39(10): 1157-63, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23886896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A relatively unknown associations exists between the detection, progression and rate of interventions in small renal masses in the context of socioeconomic status. The study explored the impact of socioeconomic status on the detection, progression and intervention rate in SRMs. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients with SRMs was identified using various hospital databases in well-defined geographical area between January 2007 and December 2011. A list of patients with unique 10-digits Community Health Index (CHI) number and their follow-up was recorded on a pre-designed electronic database sheet. Correlation between the socioeconomic status and detection, progression and pattern of interventions of small renal masses was the primary outcome. The postcode of each patient was identified and linked to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) scoring system, and a deprivation category number assigned to each patient, allowing potential links to become apparent between small renal masses and deprivation. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventeen patients were diagnosed with small renal masses in 150,820 abdominal imaging carried out in a population of 117,600. The detection of SRMs in relation to SIMD status showed no statistically significant differences across different categories. Similarly, interventions, type of surgery and progression remained unaffected by socioeconomic status. The group on active surveillance showed slow or no-growth at a mean follow-up of more than 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of small renal masses is very small compared with the amount of imaging investigations of abdomen in 5 years in this cohort. Detection, progression and rate of intervention did not differ in different socioeconomic strata of the cohort. The majority of small renal masses on active surveillance did not change or grew in size very slowly when observed over time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
World J Surg ; 37(5): 957-64, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23404485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that training on virtual reality simulators leads to improved performance in the animate and human operating room. However, they are expensive, have a limited availability, and involve complex systems. Portable simulators are significantly cheaper, more user-friendly, and are flexible systems that are more suited to a surgical trainee's busy schedule. The use of portable surgical simulators to train skills and reduce errors has never been evaluated in prospective, randomized clinical settings. The objective of this study was to determine if training on the portable Integrated Laparoscopic Simulator leads to improved performance of core laparoscopic skills. METHODS: Core laparoscopic skills were identified by five experienced laparoscopic surgeons and modeled into two exercises and three basic tasks. Twenty surgically naive medical students had baseline laparoscopic skills assessed on a fixed simulator. Participants were randomized to either 14 h training on a portable laparoscopic simulator over a 3 week period, or control with no training. At 3 weeks two expert laparoscopic surgeons blinded to the allocation of participants assessed their pre- and post-intervention performances recorded on a CD-ROM. The outcome measures included time to complete and global rating scores of clipping and dissection tasks. RESULTS: No differences were observed in baseline skills level between the two groups. The intervention group had better quality of scissors dissection (p = 0.0038) and improved clipping skills (p = 0.0051), and they took less time to accomplish the tasks (p = 0.0099) in comparison to control. CONCLUSIONS: Training on the portable Integrated Laparoscopic Simulator significantly improved core laparoscopic skills in medical students with no prior experience.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Simulação por Computador , Laparoscopia/educação , Modelos Educacionais , Adulto , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido , Interface Usuário-Computador
18.
Br J Cancer ; 107(8): 1384-91, 2012 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22968648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested the accuracy of immunocytochemistry (ICC) for minichromosome maintenance protein-2 (MCM-2) in diagnosing bladder cancer, using cells retrieved from urine. METHODS: Adequate samples were obtained from 497 patients, the majority presenting with gross haematuria (GH) or undergoing cystoscopic surveillance (CS) following previous bladder cancer. We performed an initial study of 313 patients, followed by a validation study of 184 patients. In all cases, presence/absence of bladder cancer was established by cystoscopy/biopsy. RESULTS: In the initial study, receiver operator characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.820 (P<0.0005) for the GH group and 0.821 (P<0.01) for the CS group. Optimal sensitivity/specificity were provided by threshold values of 50+ MCM-2-positive cells in GH samples and 200+ cells in CS samples, based on a minimum total cell number of 5000. Applying these thresholds to the validation data set gave 81.3% sensitivity, 76.0% specificity and 92.7% negative predictive value (NPV) in GH and 63.2% sensitivity, 89.9% specificity and 89.9% NPV in CS. Minichromosome maintenance protein-2 ICC provided clinically relevant improvements over urine cytology, with greater sensitivity in GH and greater specificity in CS (P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Minichromosome maintenance protein-2 ICC is a reproducible and accurate test that is suitable for both GH and CS patient groups.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/urina , Proteínas Nucleares/urina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Hematúria , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Componente 2 do Complexo de Manutenção de Minicromossomo , Curva ROC , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Indian J Urol ; 26(3): 331-7, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21116349

RESUMO

The review summarises the technological advances in the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound for small renal masses presumed to be cancer including the systematic review of its clinical application. Current progress in the area of magnetic resonance image guided ultrasound ablation is also appraised. Specifically, organ tracking and real time monitoring of temperature changes during the treatment are discussed. Finally, areas of future research interest are outlined.

20.
Indian J Urol ; 26(2): 183-7, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20877593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To categorize and correlate percentage changes in platelets counts - an objective approach with recurrence rate following radical nephrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients who had radical nephrectomy for localized renal tumor in the period from January 1997 to December 2005 have been included in this study. The data was collected retrospectively. The primary outcome of this study was over all and cancer- specific survival and its correlation with percentage change in platelet count from pre-surgical level. Change in platelets counts was categorized as less than or more than 0-10%, 10-20% and more than 20% from base line (pre-surgery). This was correlated with the follow-up recurrence and disease free survival. Survival distribution were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method, univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models to address the impact of different prognostic factors on survival. RESULTS: Of the 237 patients treated with radical nephrectomy, pT1, pT2, pT3, and pT4 accounted for 116 (49%), 44 (18.5%), 68(28.7%), and nine (3.8%) cases respectively. The mean tumor size was 6.3 cm (Range: 4-17 cm; SD: 3). The pre-operative platelet count ranged from 82 to 1573 (Mean: 327.5; SD: 171.7). The overall follow-up time ranged from 1-102 months (Mean: 39 months; SD: 27months). There was significant correlation between the recurrence rate and increase in platelets count of more than 20% following radical nephrectomy (P value- 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Categorization of platelets changes following radical nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma, in particular, a change in more than 20% can accurately predict recurrence and cancer specific survival following radical nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma.

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