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1.
J Smok Cessat ; 2021: 5526715, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306222

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the percentage of parents who report quitting spontaneously and examine the factors associated with these quits. Methods: As part of a cluster randomized control trial addressing parental smoking in a pediatric outpatient setting, 12-month follow-up survey data were collected from parents who had self-identified as smokers when exiting from 10 control practices. Parents were considered to have made a spontaneous quit if they reported not smoking a cigarette, even a puff, in the last 7 days and chose the statement "I did not plan the quit in advance; I just did it" when describing how their quit attempt started. Results: Of the 981 smoking parents enrolled at baseline, 710 (72%) completed the 12-month follow-up. Of these, 123 (17%) reported quitting, of whom 50 (41%) reported quitting spontaneously. In multivariable analysis, parents who reported smoking on some days vs. every day (OR 3.06 (95% CI 1.42, 6.62)) and that nobody had smoked in their home/car vs. someone had smoked in these settings in the past 3 months (OR 2.19 (95% CI 1.06, 4.54)) were more likely to quit spontaneously. Conclusions: This study shows that, of parents who quit smoking, a substantial percentage report quitting spontaneously and that intermittent smoking and smoke-free home/car policies are associated with reports of quitting spontaneously. Promoting smoke-free home/car policies, especially when parents are not willing to make a plan to quit smoking, might increase the likelihood that parents decide to quit without advance planning. Pediatric healthcare providers are uniquely positioned to use the child's visit to motivate parents to quit smoking and eliminate their child's exposure to tobacco smoke, regardless of the frequency of smoking or a readiness to plan a quit attempt. Clinical Trial Registration. This trial is registered with NCT01882348.

2.
J Smok Cessat ; 2021: 6639731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306227

RESUMO

Introduction: An increasing number of parents use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes (dual users). Previous studies have shown that dual users may have higher rates of contemplating smoking cessation than parents who only smoke cigarettes. This study was aimed to assess the delivery of tobacco cessation treatment (prescription for nicotine replacement therapy and referral to the quitline) among parents who report being dual users vs. cigarette-only smokers. Methods: A secondary analysis of parent survey data collected between April and October 2017 at 10 pediatric primary care practices participating in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention was conducted. Parents were considered to be dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes if they reported smoking a cigarette, even a puff, in the past seven days and using an e-cigarette within the past 30 days. Parents were asked if they received a prescription for nicotine replacement therapy and referral to the quitline to help them quit from their child's clinician. Multivariable logistic regression examined factors (dual use, insurance status, relationship to the child, race, and education status of the parent) associated with delivery of smoking cessation treatment (receiving prescriptions and/or enrollment in quitline) to smoking parents. Further, we compared the rates of tobacco cessation treatment delivery to dual users in the usual-care control practices vs. intervention practices. Results: Of 1007 smokers or recent quitters surveyed in the five intervention practices, 722 parents reported current use of cigarettes-only and 111 used e-cigarettes. Of these 111 parents, 82 (73.9%) reported smoking cigarettes. Parents were more likely to report receiving any treatment if they were dual users vs. cigarette-only smokers (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.38, 4.29). Child's insurance status, parents' sex, education, and race were not associated with parental receipt of tobacco cessation treatment in the model. No dual users in the usual-care control practices reported receiving treatment. Discussion. Dual users who visited CEASE intervention practices were more likely to receive treatment than cigarette-only smokers when treatments were discussed. An increased uptake of tobacco cessation treatments among dual users reinforces the importance of discussing treatment options with this group, while also recognizing that cigarette-only smokers may require additional intervention to increase the acceptance rate of cessation assistance. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01882348.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e213927, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792730

RESUMO

Importance: Parental smoking adversely affects parents' and children's health. There are effective interventions delivered in pediatric settings to help parents quit smoking. The cost-effectiveness of this type of intervention is not known. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a parental smoking cessation intervention, the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) program, delivered in pediatric primary care, compared with usual care from a health care organization's perspective. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation used data on intervention costs and parental smoking cessation collected prospectively as part of the CEASE randomized clinical trial. Data were collected at pediatric offices in 5 US states from April 2015 to October 2017. Participants included parents of children attending 10 pediatric primary care practices (5 control, 5 intervention). Data analysis was performed from October 2019 to August 2020. Exposures: The trial compared CEASE (practice training and support to address family tobacco use) vs usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The overall cost and incremental cost per quit of the CEASE intervention were calculated using microcosting methods. CEASE effectiveness was estimated using 2 trial outcomes measures assessed in repeated cross-sections: (1) change in smoking prevalence assessed by parental report for intervention vs usual care practices at 2 weeks after program initiation (baseline) and at 2-year follow-up and (2) changes in the proportion of smokers who achieved cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation in the previous 2 years at baseline vs follow-up. Monte Carlo analyses were used to provide 95% CIs. Results: The study included a total of 3054 participants (1523 at baseline and 1531 at follow-up); 2163 (70.8%) were aged 25 to 44 years old, and 2481 (81.2%) were women. Over 2 years, the total cost of implementing and sustaining CEASE across 5 intervention practices was $115 778. The incremental cost per quit for CEASE compared with usual care was $1132 (95% CI, $653-$3603), according to the change in parent-reported smoking prevalence, and $762 (95% CI, $418-$2883), according to cotinine-confirmed cessation. CEASE was cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $2000 per quit in 88.0% of simulations based on the parent-reported smoking prevalence and 94.6% of simulations based on cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation measures. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the CEASE intervention was associated with an incremental cost per quit that compared favorably with those of other clinical smoking cessation interventions. CEASE is inexpensive to initiate and maintain in the clinical pediatric setting, suggesting that it has the potential for a high impact on population health.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/economia , Relações Pais-Filho , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pais , Pediatria/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
4.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(4): 646-653, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The percentage of US smokers who smoke <10 cigarettes per day has increased, yet it is not known how often light parental smokers are offered and accept cessation assistance in pediatric offices. METHODS: A secondary analysis of parent interview data collected April to October 2017 at 10 pediatric practices participating in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention. RESULTS: Forty percent of 725 usual care control (UCC) group smokers smoked lightly (<10 cigarettes per day); of these 58% smoked very lightly (<5 per day). Compared to heavier smokers in UCC practices, light and very light smokers in UCC practices were more likely to have made a recent quit attempt (P < .001), yet less likely to have used cessation medication (P = .001). In intervention practices, compared to heavier smokers, light (P = .04) and very light (P < .01) smokers were less likely to be asked if they smoke and very light smokers were less likely to be advised to quit (P = .02) and to receive a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescription (P < .01). However, light smokers (P < .001), very light smokers (P < .001), and light smokers who use e-cigarettes (P = .01) were more likely to receive assistance (NRT or quitline enrollment) in intervention versus UCC practices. CONCLUSIONS: The CEASE intervention increased assistance to light and very light smokers, yet heavier smokers received more assistance than light smokers. Improving cessation interventions for light and very light smokers is warranted.

6.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 1039-1052, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157864

RESUMO

Addressing parental smoking in the child healthcare setting improves the health of all family members. Innovative approaches, such as mobilizing technology-based platforms, may streamline screening and motivate acceptance of behavioral health services to treat tobacco use and dependence. The obective of this study was to describe innovations added to the CEASE intervention and to track 2 year post-intervention implementation data on families who were screened for tobacco use. Child healthcare practices in five states (IN, NC, OH, TN, and VA) used an electronic tablet screener to identify tobacco use within families and deliver tobacco cessation assistance to smokers. Motivational/educational videos on cessation were displayed via the screener to enhance its utility. Five CEASE intervention practices screened 50,111 family members for tobacco use and identified 6,885 families with children exposed to tobacco smoke. The mean number of screeners per practice per month was 417; the mean number of households with smokers identified per month was 57. Of 2,764 smokers who were at visits and consented, 57% indicated that they wanted a prescription to reduce or quit smoking; 94% of these were given preprinted prescriptions. Of 41% who requested connection to the quitline, 93% were given enrollment forms. Electronic screening was used to routinely identify tobacco users, leading to increased potential for offering cessation assistance to all household members who smoke. Improved delivery of smoking cessation services to families may be achieved by integrating technological innovations into routine pediatric practice. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Trial Number NCT01882348.

7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(3): 346-353, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521040

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: National and international organizations have done an excellent job of advocating and promoting breast feeding for all mothers. This study assessed to what extent an intervention increased delivery of cessation assistance to breast-feeding mothers who smoke. METHODS: Data were collected between April and October 2015 in five US states as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 pediatric practices. Practices were randomized to the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention or usual care control arms. Mothers were asked about their smoking status and breast-feeding history during a screening interview upon exiting the practice and eligible mothers who agreed to participate in an enrollment interview were asked if they received smoking cessation assistance during their child's visit. Mothers with a child 1 year old and younger were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Current breast feeding was associated with a reduced likelihood of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.25 to 0.57) and a greater likelihood of quitting smoking (aOR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.29 to 4.21) after controlling for known confounders. Mothers who concurrently smoked and breast-fed were more likely to be asked about smoking (66.7% vs. 28.6%, p = .01), advised to quit (61.1% vs. 21.4%, p < .01), prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (50.0% vs. 0%, p < .001), and enrolled into the quitline (27.8% vs. 0%, p < .01) at CEASE practices compared to control practices. CONCLUSION: Breast-feeding mothers were less likely to be current smokers and more likely to have recently quit smoking. Among mothers who continue to smoke and breast feed, the CEASE intervention enhances delivery of smoking cessation assistance. IMPLICATIONS: Breast feeding and eliminating infants' exposure to tobacco smoke are important protective factors for serious pediatric health risks including sudden infant death. This study shows that breast feeding was positively associated with desirable tobacco control outcomes, specifically that breast feeding was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking among ever smokers and a greater likelihood of recently quitting smoking. This is also the first study to look specifically at delivery of smoking cessation assistance to breast-feeding mothers seen at pediatric offices and demonstrates the effectiveness of delivering evidence-based smoking cessation assistance to them in this context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT01882348).


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Mães/educação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/terapia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pediatria , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 173(10): 931-939, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403675

RESUMO

Importance: Despite the availability of free and effective treatment, few pediatric practices identify and treat parental tobacco use. Objective: To determine if the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention can be implemented and sustained in pediatric practices and test whether implementing CEASE led to changes in practice-level prevalence of smoking among parents over 2 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 2015 to October 2017. Ten pediatric practices in 5 states were randomized to either implement the CEASE protocol or maintain usual care (as a control group). All parents who screened positive for tobacco use by exit survey after their child's clinical visit 2 weeks (from April to October 2015) and 2 years after intervention implementation (April to October 2017) were eligible to participate. Data analysis occurred from January 2018 to March 2019. Interventions: The CEASE intervention is a practice-change intervention designed to facilitate both routine screening in pediatric settings of families for tobacco use and delivery of tobacco cessation treatment to individuals in screened households who use tobacco. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was delivery of meaningful tobacco treatment, defined as the prescription of nicotine replacement therapy or quit line enrollment. Furthermore, changes in practice-level smoking prevalence and cotinine-confirmed quit rates over the 2 years of intervention implementation were assessed. Results: Of the 8184 parents screened after their child's visit 2 weeks after intervention implementation, 961 (27.1%) were identified as currently smoking in intervention practices; 1103 parents (23.9%) were currently smoking in control practices. Among the 822 and 701 eligible parents who completed the survey in intervention and control practices, respectively 364 in the intervention practices (44.3%) vs 1 in a control practice (0.1%) received meaningful treatment at that visit (risk difference, 44.0% [95% CI, 9.8%-84.8%]). Two years later, of the 9794 parents screened, 1261 (24.4%) in intervention practices and 1149 (25.0%) in control practices were identified as currently smoking. Among the 804 and 727 eligible parents completing the survey in intervention and control practices, respectively, 113 in the intervention practices (14.1%) vs 2 in the control practices (0.3%) received meaningful treatment at that visit (risk difference, 12.8% [95% CI, 3.3%-37.8%]). Change in smoking prevalence over the 2 years of intervention implementation favored the intervention (-2.7% vs 1.1%; difference -3.7% [95% CI, -6.3% to -1.2%]), as did the cotinine-confirmed quit rate (2.4% vs -3.2%; difference, 5.5% [95% CI, 1.4%-9.6%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, integrating screening and treatment for parental tobacco use in pediatric practices showed both immediate and long-term increases in treatment delivery, a decline in practice-level parental smoking prevalence, and an increase in cotinine-confirmed cessation, compared with usual care. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01882348.

9.
Acad Pediatr ; 19(7): 842-848, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are growing in popularity. Dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes is an increasingly common practice, but little is known about patterns of dual use in parents. We sought to describe smoking-related behaviors among dual-users. METHODS: Parent exit surveys were conducted following their child's visit in 5 control pediatric practices in 5 states participating in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure trial. We examined factors associated with dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes versus cigarette-only smokers, assessed by self-report. RESULTS: Of 1382 smokers or recent quitters screened after their child's visit between April and October 2017, 943 (68%) completed the survey. Of these, 727 parents reported current use of cigarettes; of those, 81 (11.1%) also reported e-cigarette use, meeting the definition of dual use. Compared with cigarette-only smokers, dual users were more likely to have a child younger than 1 year old, planned to quit in the next 6 months, and had tried to quit in the past (had a quit attempt in the past 3 months, called the quitline, or used medicine to quit in the past 2 years; P < .05 for each). CONCLUSIONS: Parents who use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes may have greater rates of contemplating smoking cessation than parents who only smoke cigarettes. These parents may be using e-cigarettes for harm reduction or as a step toward cessation. Identification of these parents may provide an opportunity to deliver effective treatment, including nicotine-replacement therapies that do not expose infants and children to e-cigarette aerosol.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Pais/psicologia , Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pediatrics ; 143(4)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine how smoke-free and vape-free home and car policies differ for parents who are dual users of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), who only smoke cigarettes, or who only use e-cigarettes. To identify factors associated with not having smoke-free or vape-free policies and how often smoke-free advice is offered at pediatric offices. METHODS: Secondary analysis of 2017 parental interview data collected after their children's visit in 5 control practices participating in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure trial. RESULTS: Most dual users had smoke-free home policies, yet fewer had a vape-free home policies (63.8% vs 26.3%; P < .01). Dual users were less likely than cigarette users to have smoke-free car (P < .01), vape-free home (P < .001), or vape-free car (P < .001) policies. Inside cars, dual users were more likely than cigarette users to report smoking (P < .001), e-cigarette use (P < .001), and e-cigarette use with children present (P < .001). Parental characteristics associated with not having smoke-free or vape-free home and car policies include smoking ≥10 cigarettes per day, using e-cigarettes, and having a youngest child >10 years old. Smoke-free home and car advice was infrequently delivered. CONCLUSIONS: Parents may perceive e-cigarette aerosol as safe for children. Dual users more often had smoke-free policies than vape-free policies for the home. Dual users were less likely than cigarette-only smokers to report various child-protective measures inside homes and cars. These findings reveal important opportunities for intervention with parents about smoking and vaping in homes and cars.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Política Antifumo , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Automóveis , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Medição de Risco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Estados Unidos
11.
J Clin Outcomes Manag ; 24(12): 551-559, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217965

RESUMO

Objective: To explain the concept of thirdhand smoke and how it can be used to protect the health of children and improve delivery of tobacco control interventions for parents in the child health care setting. Methods: Review of the literature and descriptive report. Results: The thirdhand smoke concept has been used in the CEASE intervention to improve the delivery of tobacco control counseling and services to parents. Materials and techniques have been developed for the child health care setting that use the concept of thirdhand smoke. Scientific findings demonstrate that thirdhand smoke exposure is harmful and establishes the need for clinicians to communicate the cessation imperative: the only way to protect non-smoking household members from thirdhand smoke is for all household smokers to quit smoking completely. As the scientific knowledge of thirdhand smoke increases, advocates will likely rely on it to encourage completely smoke-free places. Conclusion: Recent scientific studies on thirdhand smoke are impelling further research on the topic, spurring the creation of tobacco control policies to protect people from thirdhand smoke and stimulating improvements to the delivery of tobacco control counseling and services to parents in child health care settings.

12.
J Smok Cessat ; 12(1): 6-14, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28163788

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking cessation among adults is associated with increased happiness. This association has not been measured in parents, a subset of adults who face uniquely stressful and challenging circumstances that can affect happiness. AIMS: To determine if parental smoking cessation is associated with increased happiness and to identify characteristics of parental quitters who experience increased happiness. METHODS: 1355 parents completed a 12-month follow-up interview from a U.S. national trial, Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE). Multivariable logistic regression examined if level of happiness was independently associated with quitting smoking and identified characteristics associated with feeling happier after quitting smoking. RESULTS/FINDINGS: Parents' level of happiness was independently associated with quitting smoking (aOR=1.60, 95% CI=1.42-1.79). Factors associated with increased happiness among quitters include engaging in evidence-based cessation assistance (aOR=2.69, 95% CI=1.16-6.26), and adopting strictly enforced smoke-free home (aOR=2.55, 95% CI=1.19-5.48) and car (aOR=3.85, 95% CI=1.94-7.63) policies. Additionally, parents who believed that being a smoker got in the way of being a parent (aOR=5.37, 95% CI=2.61-11.07) and who believed that thirdhand smoke is harmful to children (aOR=3.28, 95% CI=1.16-9.28) were more likely to report feeling happier after quitting. CONCLUSIONS: Parents who quit smoking reported being happier than parents who did not quit. Though prospective studies can clarify what factors cause an increase in happiness, letting pediatricians know that most parents who smoke report being happier when quitting may facilitate communication with parents around cessation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00664261.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 520, 2016 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every U.S. state has a free telephone quitline that tobacco users can access to receive cessation assistance, yet referral rates for parents in the pediatric setting remain low. This study evaluates, within pediatric offices, the impact of proactive enrollment of parents to quitlines compared to provider suggestion to use the quitline and identifies other factors associated with parental quitline use. METHODS: As part of a cluster randomized controlled trial (Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure), research assistants completed post-visit exit interviews with parents in 20 practices in 16 states. Parents' quitline use was assessed at a 12-month follow-up interview. A multivariable analysis was conducted for quitline use at 12 months using a logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations to account for provider clustering. Self-reported cessation rates were also compared among quitline users based on the type of referral they received at their child's doctor's office. RESULTS: Of the 1980 parents enrolled in the study, 1355 (68 %) completed a 12-month telephone interview and of those 139 (10 %) reported talking with a quitline (15 % intervention versus 6 % control; p < .0001). Parents who were Hispanic (aOR 2.12 (1.22, 3.70)), black (aOR 1.57 (1.14, 2.16)), planned to quit smoking in the next 30 days (aOR 2.32 (1.47, 3.64)), and had attended an intervention practice (aOR 2.37 (1.31, 4.29)) were more likely to have talked with a quitline. Parents who only received a suggestion from a healthcare provider to use the quitline (aOR 0.45 (0.23, 0.90)) and those who were not enrolled and did not receive a suggestion (aOR 0.33 (0.17, 0.64)) were less likely to talk with a quitline than those who were enrolled in the quitline during the baseline visit. Self-reported cessation rates among quitline users were similar regardless of being proactively enrolled (19 %), receiving only a suggestion (25 %), or receiving neither a suggestion nor an enrollment (17 %) during a visit (p = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the enhanced clinical effectiveness of not just recommending the quitline to parents but also offering them enrollment in the quitline at the time of their child's visit to the pediatric office. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00664261.


Assuntos
Linhas Diretas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Padrões de Prática Médica , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pediatria , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
14.
J Clin Outcomes Manag ; 23(2): 79-86, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497272

RESUMO

Background: Family tobacco use and exposure are significant threats to the health of children and their families. However, few pediatric clinicians address family tobacco use and exposure in a routine and effective manner. The Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention was developed to tackle this gap between clinical need and clinical practice. Objective: To review the main considerations and questions that clinicians and office staff expressed during telephone training to participate in CEASE. Methods: This study was conducted in pediatric practices in 5 US states. Practices were recruited by the American Academy of Pediatrics (10 intervention, 10 control). Ten training calls were recorded and transcribed. The data was then coded inductively based on themes found in the transcripts. Results: The data revealed that clinicians and staff were concerned about prescribing, dosing, and insurance coverage of nicotine replacement therapy; motivation for and methods to help families become tobacco-free; and the impact of the intervention on practice operations. Conclusion: While the majority of clinicians and office staff were interested and enthusiastic about helping families become tobacco-free, they expressed concerns that could threaten implementation of family tobacco control strategies.

15.
Ann Fam Med ; 13(5): 475-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26371270

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conducting studies in national practice-based research networks presents logistic and methodologic challenges. Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS) has learned valuable lessons in implementing new strategies and adapting to challenges. We describe practical challenges and results of novel applied strategies in implementing and testing the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention as part of a national-level cluster-randomized controlled trial. METHODS: In the trial, 20 PROS practices were randomized to either a CEASE intervention arm or a control arm. Parents of children seen in the office who indicated smoking in the past 7 days were asked to complete a postvisit enrollment interview and telephone interviews 3 and 12 months later. Identified challenges included (1) recruiting 20 practices serving a high percentage of parent smokers; (2) screening all parents bringing children for visits and enrolling eligible parents who smoked; and (3) achieving an acceptable 12-month telephone response rate. RESULTS: A total of 47 interested practices completed the Practice Population Survey, of which 20 practices in 16 states completed parent enrollment. Thirty-two research assistants screened 18,607 parents and enrolled 1,980 of them. The initial telephone interview response rate was 56% at 12 months, with incorrect and disconnected numbers accounting for nearly 60% of nonresponses. The response rate rose to 67% after practices supplied 532 new contact numbers and 754 text messages were sent, with 389 parents completing interviews. CONCLUSION: The strategies we used to overcome methodologic barriers in conducting a national intervention trial allowed data collection to be completed in the office setting and increased the telephone interview response rate.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Pais , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Telefone , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Acad Pediatr ; 15(1): 47-53, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25528125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine racial differences in rates of screening parents for cigarette smoking during pediatric outpatient visits and to determine if a parental tobacco control intervention mitigates racial variation in whether cigarette smoking is addressed. METHODS: As part of the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) randomized controlled trial, exit interviews were conducted with parents at 10 control and 10 intervention pediatric practices nationally. Parents were asked to report if during the visit did anyone ask if they smoke cigarettes. A generalized linear mixed model was used to estimate the effect of black vs white race on asking parents about cigarette smoking. RESULTS: Among 17,692 parents screened at the exit interview, the proportion of black parents who were current smokers (16%) was lower than the proportion of white parents who smoked (20%) (P < .001). In control group practices, black parents were more likely to be asked (adjusted risk ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 1.40) about cigarette smoking by pediatricians than whites. In intervention group practices both black and white parents were more likely to be asked about smoking than those in control practices and there was no significant difference between black and white parents in the likelihood of being asked (adjusted risk ratio 1.01; 95% confidence interval 0.93, 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: Although a smaller proportion of black parents in control practices smoked than white, black parents were more likely to be asked by pediatricians about smoking. The CEASE intervention was associated with higher levels of screening for smoking for both black and white parents.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Pediatria/métodos , Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Uso de Tabaco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pediatrics ; 134(5): 933-41, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25332492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an evidence-based pediatric outpatient intervention for parents who smoke persisted after initial implementation. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 pediatric practices in 16 states that received either Clinical and Community Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention or usual care. The intervention provided practices with training to provide evidence-based assistance to parents who smoke. The primary outcome, assessed by the 12-month follow-up telephone survey with parents, was provision of meaningful tobacco control assistance, defined as discussing various strategies to quit smoking, discussing smoking cessation medication, or recommending the use of the state quitline after initial enrollment visit. We also assessed parental quit rates at 12 months, determined by self-report and biochemical verification. RESULTS: Practices' rates of providing any meaningful tobacco control assistance (55% vs 19%), discussing various strategies to quit smoking (25% vs 10%), discussing cessation medication (41% vs 11%), and recommending the use of the quitline (37% vs 9%) were all significantly higher in the intervention than in the control groups, respectively (P < .0001 for each), during the 12-month postintervention implementation. Receiving any assistance was associated with a cotinine-confirmed quitting adjusted odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.19). After controlling for demographic and behavioral factors, the adjusted odds ratio for cotinine-confirmed quitting in intervention versus control practices was 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.64-1.78). CONCLUSIONS: Intervention practices had higher rates of delivering tobacco control assistance than usual care practices over the 1-year follow-up period. Parents who received any assistance were more likely to quit smoking; however, parents' likelihood of quitting smoking was not statistically different between the intervention and control groups. Maximizing parental quit rates will require more complete systems-level integration and adjunctive cessation strategies.


Assuntos
Motivação , Relações Pais-Filho , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Pediatria/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Public Health ; 104(11): e18-21, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25211755

RESUMO

The majority of tobacco use emerges in individuals before they reach 21 years of age, and many adult distributors of tobacco to youths are young adults aged between 18 and 20 years. Raising the tobacco sales minimum age to 21 years across the United States would decrease tobacco retailer and industry sales by approximately 2% but could contribute to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of youths' tobacco use and dependency by limiting access.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/economia , Masculino , Marketing/economia , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatrics ; 133(4): e850-6, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24590745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the belief that thirdhand smoke is harmful to children is associated with smoking parents' attitudes, home or car smoking policies, and quitting behaviors. METHODS: Data from a national randomized controlled trial, Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure, assessed thirdhand smoke beliefs of 1947 smoking parents in an exit survey after a pediatric office visit in 10 intervention and 10 control practices. Twelve-month follow-up data were collected from 1355 parents. Multivariable logistic regression determined whether belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children is independently associated with parental behaviors and attitudes 12 months later. A χ(2) test assessed whether parents who disagreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful were more likely to make a quit attempt if they later believed that thirdhand smoke is harmful. RESULTS: Belief at the exit survey that thirdhand smoke is harmful was independently associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free home policy (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.37-3.05) and car policy (adjusted odds ratio: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.04-2.74) at the 12-month follow-up. A significantly higher percentage (71% vs 50%) of parents who did not hold the thirdhand smoke harm belief at baseline made at least 1 quit attempt if they agreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful at the 12-month follow-up (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Thirdhand smoke harm belief was associated with a strictly enforced smoke-free home and car and attempts to quit smoking. Sensitizing parents to thirdhand smoke risk could facilitate beneficial tobacco control outcomes.


Assuntos
Cultura , Pais/psicologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acad Pediatr ; 13(6): 517-23, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24238677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine strict smoke-free home policies among smoking parents assessed in pediatric offices. METHODS: We analyzed baseline parental survey data from 10 control practices in a national trial of pediatric office-based tobacco control interventions (Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure, CEASE). We used logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to examine factors associated with strict smoke-free home policies. RESULTS: Subjects were 952 parents who were current smokers. Just over half (54.3%) reported strict smoke-free home policies. Few reported being asked (19.9%) or advised (17.1%) regarding policies by pediatricians. Factors associated with higher odds of policies were child 5 years or younger (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53, 3.86), nonblack race/ethnicity (aORs 2.17-2.60, 95% CIs 1.25-5.00), non-Medicaid (HMO/private (aOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.31, 2.58); self-pay/other aOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.12, 2.78); well-child versus sick child visit (aOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.11, 2.34), fewer than 10 cigarettes per day (aOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31, 2.47), no other home smokers (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.26, 2.25), only father smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.06, 2.83), and strict smoke-free car policy (aOR 3.51, 95% CI 2.19, 5.64). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of smoking parents did not have strict smoke-free home policies. Parents were less likely to report policies if they were heavier smokers, black, living with other smokers, or attending a sick child visit; if they did not have a young child or smoke-free car policy; if they had a child on Medicaid; and if anyone other than only the father smoked. Few pediatricians addressed or recommended strict smoke-free home policies in an office visit. The pediatric office encounter represents a currently missed opportunity to intervene regarding smoke-free homes, particularly for high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Pais , Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Visita a Consultório Médico , Pais/psicologia , Pediatria , Papel do Médico , Adulto Jovem
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