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1.
Environ Res ; : 110579, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285152

RESUMO

Studies reporting on associations between short-term exposure to outdoor fine (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP) and blood pressure and lung function have been inconsistent. Few studies have characterized exposure by personal monitoring, which especially for UFP may have resulted in substantial exposure measurement error. We investigated the association between 24-hour average personal UFP, PM2.5, and soot exposure and dose and the health parameters blood pressure and lung function. We further assessed the short-term associations between outdoor concentrations measured at a central monitoring site and near the residences and these health outcomes. We performed three 24-hour personal exposure measurements for UFP, PM2.5, and soot in 132 healthy adults from Basel (Switzerland), Amsterdam and Utrecht (the Netherlands), and Turin (Italy). Monitoring of each subject was conducted in different seasons in a one-year study period. Subject's activity levels and associated ventilation rates were measured using actigraphy to calculate the inhaled dose. After each 24-hour monitoring session, blood pressure and lung function were measured. Contemporaneously with personal measurements, UFP, PM2.5 and soot were measured outdoor at the subject's residential address and at a central site in the research area. Associations between short-term personal and outdoor exposure and dose to UFP, PM2.5, and soot and health outcomes were tested using linear mixed effect models. The 24-hour mean personal, residential and central site outdoor UFP exposures were not associated with blood pressure or lung function. UFP mean exposures in the 2-hour prior to the health test was also not associated with blood pressure and lung function. Personal, central site and residential PM2.5 exposure were positively associated with systolic blood pressure (about 1.4 mmHg increase per Interquartile range). Personal soot exposure and dose were positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (1.2 and 0.9 mmHg increase per Interquartile range). No consistent associations between PM2.5 or soot exposure and lung function were observed. Short-term personal, residential outdoor or central site exposure to UFP was not associated with blood pressure or lung function. Short-term personal PM2.5 and soot exposures were associated with blood pressure, but not lung function.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115490, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254690

RESUMO

In this exploratory study, we measured for the first-time human exposure to about 90 semi-volatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in France and Italy using silicone wristbands. Participants in France (n = 40) and in Italy (n = 31) wore a silicone wristband for five days during 2018 and 2019. Samples were analyzed for 39 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 10 novel brominated flame retardants (nBFRs), 25 organophosphate esters (OPEs), and 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In both groups, the most commonly detected chemicals were BDE-209, BEHTBP, tris[(2R)-1-chloro-2-propyl] phosphate (TCIPP), and phenanthrene among PBDEs, nBFRs, OPEs, and PAHs, respectively. The concentrations of ∑39 PBDEs, ∑10 nBFRs, ∑25 OPEs, ∑18 PAHs, and of most individual chemicals were generally significantly higher in samples from France than in those from Italy, except for BDE-209 and TCIPP. On a broader scale, the chemical concentrations were generally significantly lower in this study than those measured in the United States in previous studies using the same type of wristbands. Efforts to standardize the protocols for the use of silicone wristbands are still needed but this study shows that wristbands are capable of capturing regional differences in human exposure to a large variety of SVOCs and, therefore, can be used as personal exposure monitor for studies with global coverage.

3.
Carcinogenesis ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319241

RESUMO

One of the principal mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in highly frequent solid tumors like colorectal cancer (CRC) is the decreased activity of drug transport into tumor cells due to low expression of important membrane proteins, such as solute carrier (SLC) transporters. Sequence complementarity is a major determinant for target gene recognition by microRNAs (miRNAs). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in target sequences transcribed into messenger RNA may therefore alter miRNA binding to these regions by either creating a new site or destroying an existing one. miRSNPs may explain the modulation of expression levels in association with increased/decreased susceptibility to common diseases as well as in chemoresistance and the consequent interindividual variability in drug response. In the present study, we investigated whether miRSNPs in SLC transporter genes may modulate CRC susceptibility and patient's survival. Using an in silico approach for functional predictions, we analyzed twenty-six miRSNPs in nine SLC genes in a cohort of 1368 CRC cases and 698 controls from the Czech Republic. After correcting for multiple tests, we found several miRSNPs significantly associated with patient's survival. SNPs in SLCO3A1, SLC22A2, and SLC22A3 genes were defined as prognostic factors in the classification and regression tree analysis. In contrast, we did not observe any significant association between miRSNPs and CRC risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating miRSNPs potentially affecting miRNA binding to SLC transporter genes and their impact on CRC susceptibility or patient's prognosis.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227890

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer worldwide and the second cause of cancer deaths. Increasing evidences supports the idea that the poor prognosis of patients is related to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population able to drive cancer recurrence and metastasis. The deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a role in the formation of CSC. We investigated the role of hsa-miR-486-5p (miR-486-5p) in CRC, CSCs, and metastasis, in order to reach a better understanding of the biomolecular and epigenetic mechanisms mir-486-5p-related. The expression of miR-486-5p was investigated in three different matrices from CRC patients and controls and in CSCs obtained from the CRC cell lines HCT-116, HT-29, and T-84. In the human study, miR-486-5p was up-regulated in serum and stool of CRC patients in comparison with healthy controls but down-regulated in tumor tissue when compared with normal mucosa. miR-486-5p was also down-regulated in the sera of metastatic patients. In vitro, miR-486-5p was down-regulated in CSC models and it induced an inhibitory effect on stem factors and oncogenes in the main pathways of CSCs. Our results provide a step forward in understanding the role of mir-486-5p in CRC and CSC, and suggest that further studies are needed to investigate its diagnostic and prognostic power, possibly in combination with other biomarkers.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overexpression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) has been associated with chronic inflammation, which in turn has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) competes with RAGE to bind its ligands, thus potentially preventing RAGE-induced inflammation. METHODS: To investigate whether sRAGE and related genetic variants are associated with colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Plasma sRAGE concentrations were measured by ELISA in 1,361 colorectal cancer matched case-control sets. Twenty-four SNPs encoded in the genes associated with sRAGE concentrations were available for 1,985 colorectal cancer cases and 2,220 controls. Multivariable adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk and circulating sRAGE and SNPs, respectively. RESULTS: Higher sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.00). Sex-specific analyses revealed that the observed inverse risk association was restricted to men (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94), whereas no association was observed in women (ORQ5vs.Q1, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.48; P heterogeneity for sex = 0.006). Participants carrying minor allele of rs653765 (promoter region of ADAM10) had lower colorectal cancer risk (C vs. T, OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, but not in women. An SNP located within ADAM10 gene, pertaining to RAGE shedding, was associated with colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Further studies are needed to confirm our observed sex difference in the association and better explore the potential involvement of genetic variants of sRAGE in colorectal cancer development.

6.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1774298, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934879

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence demonstrates the decisive role of the gut microbiota in determining the effectiveness of anticancer therapeutics such as immunogenic chemotherapy or immune checkpoint blockade in preclinical tumor models, as well as in cancer patients. In synthesis, it appears that a normal intestinal microbiota supports therapeutic anticancer responses, while a dysbiotic microbiota that lacks immunostimulatory bacteria or contains overabundant immunosuppressive species causes treatment failure. These findings have led to the design of clinical trials that evaluate the capacity of modulation of the gut microbiota to synergize with treatment and hence limit tumor progression. Along the lines of this Trial Watch, we discuss the rationale for harnessing the gut microbiome in support of cancer therapy and the progress of recent clinical trials testing this new therapeutic paradigm in cancer patients.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734650

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed for N1-acetylspermidine, isatin, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine, l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756484

RESUMO

The phenotypic effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the development of sporadic solid cancers are still scarce. The aim of this review was to summarise and analyse published data on the associations between SNPs in mismatch repair genes and various cancers. The mismatch repair system plays a unique role in the control of the genetic integrity and it is often inactivated (germline and somatic mutations and hypermethylation) in cancer patients. Here, we focused on germline variants in mismatch repair genes and found the outcomes rather controversial: some SNPs are sometimes ascribed as protective, while other studies reported their pathological effects. Regarding the complexity of cancer as one disease, we attempted to ascertain if particular polymorphisms exert the effect in the same direction in the development and treatment of different malignancies, although it is still not straightforward to conclude whether polymorphisms always play a clear positive role or a negative one. Most recent and robust genome-wide studies suggest that risk of cancer is modulated by variants in mismatch repair genes, for example in colorectal cancer. Our study shows that rs1800734 in MLH1 or rs2303428 in MSH2 may influence the development of different malignancies. The lack of functional studies on many DNA mismatch repair SNPs as well as their interactions are not explored yet. Notably, the concerted action of more variants in one individual may be protective or harmful. Further, complex interactions of DNA mismatch repair variations with both the environment and microenvironment in the cancer pathogenesis will deserve further attention.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2026-2037, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related epigenetic dysregulations are associated with several diseases, including cancer. The number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEM) has been suggested as a biomarker of life-course accumulation of exposure-related DNA damage; however, the predictive role of SEMs in cancer has seldom been investigated. METHODS: A SEM, at a given CpG site, was defined as an extreme outlier of DNA methylation value distribution across individuals. We investigated the association of the total number of SEMs with the risk of eight cancers in 4,497 case-control pairs nested in three prospective cohorts. Furthermore, we investigated whether SEMs were randomly distributed across the genome or enriched in functional genomic regions. RESULTS: In the three-study meta-analysis, the estimated ORs per one-unit increase in log(SEM) from logistic regression models adjusted for age and cancer risk factors were 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.41 for breast cancer, and 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42 for lung cancer. In the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, the OR for mature B-cell neoplasm was 1.46; 95% CI, 1.25-1.71. Enrichment analyses indicated that SEMs frequently occur in silenced genomic regions and in transcription factor binding sites regulated by EZH2 and SUZ12 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0005, respectively): two components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PCR2). Finally, we showed that PCR2-specific SEMs are generally more stable over time compared with SEMs occurring in the whole genome. CONCLUSIONS: The number of SEMs is associated with a higher risk of different cancers in prediagnostic blood samples. IMPACT: We identified a candidate biomarker for cancer early detection, and we described a carcinogenesis mechanism involving PCR2 complex proteins worthy of further investigations.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527011

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is the tenth most frequent cancer worldwide. Due to the need for recurrent cystoscopies and the lack of non-invasive biomarkers, BC is associated with a high management burden. In this respect, small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been investigated in urine as possible biomarkers for BC, but in plasma their potential has not yet been defined. The expression levels of sncRNAs contained in plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) from 47 men with BC and 46 healthy controls were assessed by next-generation sequencing. The sncRNA profiles were compared with urinary profiles from the same subjects. miR-4508 resulted downregulated in plasma EVs of muscle-invasive BC patients, compared to controls (adj-p = 0.04). In World Health Organization (WHO) grade 3 (G3) BC, miR-126-3p was upregulated both in plasma EVs and urine, when compared to controls (for both, adj-p < 0.05). Interestingly, two sncRNAs were associated with the risk class: miR-4508 with a downward trend going from controls to high risk BC, and piR-hsa-5936 with an upward trend (adj-p = 0.04 and adj-p = 0.05, respectively). Additionally, BC cases with low expression of miR-185-5p and miR-106a-5p or high expression of miR-10b-5p showed shorter survival (adj-p = 0.0013, adj-p = 0.039 and adj-p = 0.047, respectively). SncRNAs from plasma EVs could be diagnostic biomarkers for BC, especially in advanced grade.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114392, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276129

RESUMO

An increasing number of findings from epidemiological studies support associations between exposure to air pollution and the onset of several diseases, including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and malignancies. However, intermediate, and potentially mediating, biological mechanisms associated with exposure to air pollutants are largely unknown. Previous studies on the human exposome have shown that the expression of certain circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), regulators of gene expression, are altered upon exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance (as a proxy of black carbon and soot), and ultrafine-particles (UFP, smaller than 0.1 µm), measured in healthy volunteers by 24 h personal monitoring (PEM) sessions and global expression levels of peripheral blood miRNAs. The PEM sessions were conducted in four European countries, namely Switzerland (Basel), United Kingdom (Norwich), Italy (Turin), and The Netherlands (Utrecht). miRNAs expression levels were analysed using microarray technology on blood samples from 143 participants. Seven miRNAs, hsa-miR-24-3p, hsa-miR-4454, hsa-miR-4763-3p, hsa-miR-425-5p, hsa-let-7d-5p, hsa-miR-502-5p, and hsa-miR-505-3p were significantly (FDR corrected) expressed in association with PM2.5 personal exposure, while no significant association was found between miRNA expression and the other pollutants. The results obtained from this investigation suggest that personal exposure to PM2.5 is associated with miRNA expression levels, showing the potential for these circulating miRNAs as novel biomarkers for air pollution health risk assessment.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Material Particulado , Europa (Continente) , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Itália , Países Baixos , Suíça , Reino Unido
13.
Mutagenesis ; 35(3): 273-281, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922572

RESUMO

The chemotherapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer (CRC) is limited due to the inter-individual variability in drug response and the development of tumour resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are crucial in the development of resistance by the efflux of anticancer agents from cancer cells. In this study, we identified 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 ABC transporter genes acting as an expression of quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), i.e. whose variation influence the expression of many downstream genes. These SNPs were genotyped in a case-control study comprising 1098 cases and 1442 healthy controls and analysed in relation to CRC development risk and patient survival. Considering a strict correction for multiple tests, we did not observe any significant association between SNPs and CRC risk. The rs3819720 polymorphism in the ABCB3/TAP2 gene was statistically significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) in the codominant, and dominant models [GA vs. GG, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48; P = 0.002; AA vs. GG, HR = 1.70; P = 0.004 and GA + AA vs. GG, HR = 1.52; P = 0.0006]. Additionally, GA carriers of the same SNP displayed worse OS after receiving 5-FU based chemotherapy. The variant allele of rs3819720 polymorphism statistically significantly affected the expression of 36 downstream genes. Screening for eQTL polymorphisms in relevant genes such as ABC transporters that can regulate the expression of several other genes may help to identify the genetic background involved in the individual response to the treatment of CRC patients.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 146(12): 3294-3303, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513294

RESUMO

Although smoking and oxidative stress are known contributors to lung carcinogenesis, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. To shed light into these mechanisms, we applied a novel approach using Cys34-adductomics in a lung cancer nested case-control study (n = 212). Adductomics profiles were integrated with DNA-methylation data at established smoking-related CpG sites measured in the same individuals. Our analysis identified 42 Cys34-albumin adducts, of which 2 were significantly differentially abundant in cases and controls: adduct of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, p = 4.15 × 10-3 ) and of cysteinyl-glycine (p = 7.89 × 10-3 ). Blood levels of the former were found associated to the methylation levels at 11 smoking-related CpG sites. We detect, for the first time in prospective blood samples, and irrespective of time to diagnosis, decreased levels of NAC adduct in lung cancer cases. Altogether, our results highlight the potential role of these adducts in the oxidative stress response contributing to lung carcinogenesis years before diagnosis.

15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(3): 654-666.e6, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is an unclear association between intake of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the association between fish consumption, dietary and circulating levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs, and ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA with CRC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Dietary intake of fish (total, fatty/oily, lean/white) and n-3 LC-PUFA were estimated by food frequency questionnaires given to 521,324 participants in the EPIC study; among these, 6291 individuals developed CRC (median follow up, 14.9 years). Levels of phospholipid LC-PUFA were measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples from a sub-group of 461 CRC cases and 461 matched individuals without CRC (controls). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs), respectively, with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Total intake of fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; Ptrend = .005), fatty fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; Ptrend = .009), and lean fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; Ptrend = .016) were inversely associated with CRC incidence. Intake of total n-3 LC-PUFA (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; Ptrend = .010) was also associated with reduced risk of CRC, whereas dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA was associated with increased risk of CRC (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.45; Ptrend < .001). Plasma levels of phospholipid n-3 LC-PUFA was not associated with overall CRC risk, but an inverse trend was observed for proximal compared with distal colon cancer (Pheterogeneity = .026). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of dietary patterns of participants in the EPIC study, we found regular consumption of fish, at recommended levels, to be associated with a lower risk of CRC, possibly through exposure to n-3 LC-PUFA. Levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma were not associated with CRC risk, but there may be differences in risk at different regions of the colon.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mutagenesis ; 35(3): 243-260, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784760

RESUMO

The circulating human transcriptome, which includes both coding and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules, represents a rich source of potential biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) that has only recently been explored. In particular, the release of RNA-containing extracellular vesicles (EVs), in a multitude of different in vitro cell systems and in a variety of body fluids, has attracted wide interest. The role of RNA species in EVs is still not fully understood, but their capacity to act as a form of distant communication between cells and their higher abundance in association with cancer demonstrated their relevance. In this review, we report the evidence from both in vitro and human studies on microRNAs (miRNAs) and other ncRNA profiles analysed in EVs in relation to CRC as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers. The studies so far highlighted that, in exosomes, the most studied category of EVs, several miRNAs are able to accurately discriminate CRC cases from controls as well as to describe the progression of the disease and its prognosis. Most of the time, the in vitro findings support the miRNA profiles detected in human exosomes. The expression profiles measured in exosomes and other EVs differ and, interestingly, there is a variability of expression also among different subsets of exosomes according to their proteic profile. On the other hand, evidence is still limited for what concerns exosome miRNAs as early diagnostic and predictive markers of treatment. Several other ncRNAs that are carried by exosomes, mostly long ncRNAs and circular RNAs, seem also to be dysregulated in CRC. Besides various technical challenges, such as the standardisation of EVs isolation methods and the optimisation of methodologies to characterise the whole spectrum of RNA molecules in exosomes, further studies are needed in order to elucidate their relevance as CRC markers.

18.
Cancer Med ; 9(4): 1473-1484, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The TLR3/cGAS-STING-IFN signaling has recently been reported to be disturbed in colorectal cancer due to deregulated expression of the genes involved. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of potential regulatory variants in these genes on the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Czech cohort of 1424 CRC patients and 1114 healthy controls. METHODS: The variants in the TLR3, CGAS, TMEM173, IKBKE, and TBK1 genes were selected using various online bioinformatic tools, such as UCSC browser, HaploReg, Regulome DB, Gtex Portal, SIFT, PolyPhen2, and miRNA prediction tools. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex detected a nominal association between CRC risk and three variants, CGAS rs72960018 (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11-2.53, P-value = .01), CGAS rs9352000 (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.07-3.84, P-value = .03) and TMEM173 rs13153461 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.03-2.27, P-value = .03). Their cumulative effect revealed a threefold increased CRC risk in carriers of 5-6 risk alleles compared to those with 0-2 risk alleles. Epistatic interactions between these genes and the previously genotyped IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNA, IFNB, IFNK, IFNW, IRF3, and IRF7 genes, were computed to test their effect on CRC risk. Overall, we obtained nine pair-wise interactions within and between the CGAS, TMEM173, IKBKE, and TBK1 genes. Two of them remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. Additional 52 interactions were observed when IFN variants were added to the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that epistatic interactions and a high number of risk alleles may play an important role in CRC carcinogenesis, offering novel biological understanding for the CRC management.

19.
Cancer Res ; 79(23): 6024-6031, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641032

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. To study reactive products of gut inflammation and redox signaling on colorectal cancer development, we used untargeted adductomics to detect adduct features in prediagnostic serum from the EPIC Italy cohort. We focused on modifications to Cys34 in human serum albumin, which is responsible for scavenging small reactive electrophiles that might initiate cancers. Employing a combination of statistical methods, we selected seven Cys34 adducts associated with colorectal cancer, as well as body mass index (BMI; a well-known risk factor). Five adducts were more abundant in colorectal cancer cases than controls and clustered with each other, suggesting a common pathway. Because two of these adducts were Cys34 modifications by methanethiol, a microbial-human cometabolite, and crotonaldehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, these findings further implicate infiltration of gut microbes into the intestinal mucosa and the corresponding inflammatory response as causes of colorectal cancer. The other two associated adducts were Cys34 disulfides of homocysteine that were less abundant in colorectal cancer cases than controls and may implicate homocysteine metabolism as another causal pathway. The selected adducts and BMI ranked higher as potentially causal factors than variables previously associated with colorectal cancer (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and total meat consumption). Regressions of case-control differences in adduct levels on days to diagnosis showed no statistical evidence that disease progression, rather than causal factors at recruitment, contributed to the observed differences. These findings support the hypothesis that infiltration of gut microbes into the intestinal mucosa and the resulting inflammation are causal factors for colorectal cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Infiltration of gut microbes into the intestinal mucosa and the resulting inflammation are causal factors for colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Cisteína/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Adulto , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Cisteína/química , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo
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