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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1118, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111846

RESUMO

The heterogenization of Wacker catalysts using chloride-free systems can potentially be a good alternative for the commercial homogeneous Wacker oxidation of ethylene, which utilizes excessive aqueous chloride solvents. However, the mechanism of the heterogeneous system has not been clarified, preventing the rational design of better catalysts. Here, we report a transient X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) investigation of the heterogeneous Wacker oxidation over Pd-Cu/zeolite Y coupled with kinetic studies and chemometric analysis. Insight is obtained by operando quickXAS allowing the quantitative determination of rates and thereby revealing a rapid redox reaction involving copper. Our work demonstrates that copper is not only the site of oxygen activation, but is also involved in the formation of undesired carbon dioxide. Without detecting the presence of Cu(0) and Pd(I), our results suggest that two one-electron transfers to two Cu(II) ions to reoxidize Pd(0) is at work in this heterogeneous Wacker catalyst.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(13): 6826-6837, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186570

RESUMO

Copper(ii) containing materials are widely studied for a very diverse array of applications from biology, through catalysis, to many other materials chemistry based applications. We show that, for grafted copper compounds at the surface of silica, and for the study of the selective conversion of methane to methanol using copper ion-exchanged zeolites, the application of focused X-ray beams for spectroscopic investigations is subject to significant challenges. We demonstrate how unwanted effects due to the X-rays manifest, which can prevent the study of certain types of reactive systems, and/or lead to the derivation of results that are not at all representative of the behavior of the materials in question. With reference to identical studies conducted at a beamline that does not focus its X-rays, we then delineate how the total photon throughput and the brilliance of the applied X-rays affect the apparent behavior of copper in zeolites during the stepwise, high temperature and aerobic activation approach to the selective conversion of methane to methanol. We show that the use of increasingly brilliant X-ray sources for X-ray spectroscopy can bring with it significant caveats to obtaining valid and quantitative structure-reactivity relationships (QSARS) and kinetics for this class of material. Lastly, through a systematic study of these effects, we suggest ways to ensure that valuable allocations of X-ray beam time result in measurements that reflect the real nature of the chemistry under study and not that due to other, extraneous, factors.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909776

RESUMO

Exchanging low amounts of palladium with excess copper in a heterogeneous zeolite Y catalyst leads to high Wacker activity and mitigates activity loss by reducing the extent of palladium sintering. Employing periodic regenerative treatments in oxygen to remove carbon deposits and reoxidize palladium results in the partial (but reversible) recovery of the high initial activity.

4.
J Chem Phys ; 151(15): 154703, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640349

RESUMO

Pd- and Pt-based catalysts are highly studied materials due to their widespread use in emissions control catalysis. However, claims continue to vary regarding the active phase and oxidation state of the metals. Different conclusions have likely been reached due to the heterogeneous nature of such materials containing various metal nanoparticle sizes and compositions, which may each possess unique redox features. In this work, using uniform nanocrystal catalysts, we study the effect of particle size and alloying on redox properties of Pd-based catalysts and show their contribution to methane combustion activity using operando quick extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. Results demonstrate that for all studied Pd sizes (3 nm-16 nm), Pd oxidation directly precedes CH4 combustion to CO2, suggesting Pd oxidation as a prerequisite step to methane combustion, and an oxidation pretreatment shows equal or better catalysis than a reduction pretreatment. Results are then extended to uniform alloyed PtxPd1-x nanoparticles, where oxidative pretreatments are shown to enhance low-temperature combustion. In these uniform alloys, we observe a composition-dependent effect with Pt-rich alloys showing the maximum difference between oxidative and reductive pretreatments. In Pt-rich alloys, we initially observe that the presence of Pt maintains Pd in a lower-activity reduced state. However, with time on stream, PdO eventually segregates under oxidizing combustion conditions, leading to a slowly increasing activity. Overall, across particle sizes and alloy compositions, we relate increased catalytic activity to Pd oxidation, thus shedding light on previous contrasting results related to the methane combustion activity of these catalysts.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(54): 7832-7835, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215550

RESUMO

The structure of a highly active pyridine-alkoxide iridium water oxidation catalyst (WOC) is examined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A detailed comparison with IrO2 points to a rigid molecular unit of low nuclearity, with the best analysis suggesting a novel tetrameric iridium-oxo cubane as the resting state.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(13): 5231-5240, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860837

RESUMO

Perovskite oxides have been at the forefront among catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media offering a higher degree of freedom in cation arrangement. Several highly OER active Co-based perovskites have been known to show extraordinary activities and stabilities when the B-site is partially occupied by Fe. At the current stage, the role of Fe in enhancing the OER activity and stability is still unclear. In order to elucidate the roles of Co and Fe in the OER mechanism of cubic perovskites, two prospective perovskite oxides, La0.2Sr0.8Co1- xFe xO3-δ and Ba0.5Sr0.5Co1- xFe xO3-δ with x = 0 and 0.2, were prepared by flame spray synthesis as nanoparticles. This study highlights the importance of Fe in order to achieve high OER activity and stability by drawing relations between their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. Ex situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to study the local electronic and geometric structure under oxygen evolving conditions. In parallel, density function theory computational studies were conducted to provide theoretical insights into our findings. Our findings show that the incorporation of Fe into Co-based perovskite oxides alters intrinsic properties rendering efficient OER activity and prolonged stability.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(38): 12430-12434, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067303

RESUMO

Alloyed metal nanocatalysts are of environmental and economic importance in a plethora of chemical technologies. During the catalyst lifetime, supported alloy nanoparticles undergo dynamic changes which are well-recognized but still poorly understood. High-temperature O2 -H2 redox cycling was applied to mimic the lifetime changes in model Pt13 In9 nanocatalysts, while monitoring the induced changes by in situ quick X-ray absorption spectroscopy with one-second resolution. The different reaction steps involved in repeated Pt13 In9 segregation-alloying are identified and kinetically characterized at the single-cycle level. Over longer time scales, sintering phenomena are substantiated and the intraparticle structure is revealed throughout the catalyst lifetime. The in situ time-resolved observation of the dynamic habits of alloyed nanoparticles and their kinetic description can impact catalysis and other fields involving (bi)metallic nanoalloys.

8.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 25(Pt 4): 972-980, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979158

RESUMO

Following the Q2XAFS Workshop and Satellite to IUCr Congress 2017 on `Data Acquisition, Treatment, Storage - quality assurance in XAFS spectroscopy', a summary is given of the discussion on different aspects of a XAFS experiment that affect data quality. Some pertinent problems ranging from sources and minimization of noise to harmonic contamination and uncompensated monochromator glitches were addressed. Also, an overview is given of the major limitations and pitfalls of a selection of related methods, such as photon-out spectroscopies and energy-dispersive XAFS, and of increasingly common applications, namely studies at high pressure, and time-resolved investigations of catalysts in operando. Advice on how to avoid or deal with these problems and a few good practice recommendations are reported, including how to correctly report results.

9.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 25(Pt 4): 989-997, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979160

RESUMO

A setup for fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with sub-second time resolution has been developed. This technique allows chemical speciation of low-concentrated materials embedded in highly absorbing matrices, which cannot be studied using transmission XAS. Using this setup, the reactivity of 1.5 wt% Pt/CeO2 catalyst was studied with 100 ms resolution during periodic cycling in CO- and oxygen-containing atmospheres in a plug-flow reactor. Measurements were performed at the Pt L3- and Ce L3-edges. The reactivity of platinum and cerium demonstrated a strong correlation. The oxidation of the catalyst starts on the ceria support helping the oxidation of platinum nanoparticles. The new time-resolved XAS setup can be applied to various systems, capable of reproducible cycling between different states triggered by gas atmosphere, light, temperature, etc. It opens up new perspectives for mechanistic studies on automotive catalysts, selective oxidation catalysts and photocatalysts.

10.
ChemSusChem ; 11(18): 3087-3091, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009517

RESUMO

Cobalt polypyridyls are highly efficient water-stable molecular catalysts for hydrogen evolution. The catalytic mechanism explaining their activity is under debate and the main question is the nature of the involvement of pyridyls in the proton transfer: the pentapyridyl ligand, acting as a pentadentate ligand, can provide stability to the catalyst or one of the pyridines can be involved in the proton transfer. Time-resolved Co K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the microsecond time range indicates that, for the [CoII (aPPy)] catalyst (aPPy=di([2,2'-bipyridin]-6-yl)(pyridin-2-yl)methanol), the pendant pyridine dissociates from the cobalt in the intermediate CoI state. This opens the possibility for pyridinium to act as an intramolecular proton donor. In the resting state, the catalyst returns to the original six-coordinate high-spin CoII state with a pentapyridyl and one water molecule coordinating to the metal center. Such a bifunctional role of the polypyridyl ligands can be exploited during further optimization of the catalyst.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2545, 2018 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959324

RESUMO

Increasing the use of natural gas engines is an important step to reduce the carbon footprint of mobility and power generation sectors. To avoid emissions of unburnt methane and the associated severe greenhouse effect of lean-burn engines, the stability of methane oxidation catalysts against steam-induced sintering at low temperatures (<500 °C) needs to be improved. Here we demonstrate how the combination of catalyst development and improved process control yields a highly efficient solution for complete methane oxidation. We design a material based on palladium and hierarchical zeolite with fully sodium-exchanged acid sites, which improves the support stability and prevents steam-induced palladium sintering under reaction conditions by confining the metal within the zeolite. Repeated short reducing pulses enable the use of a highly active transient state of the catalyst, which in combination with its high stability provides excellent performance without deactivation for over 90 h in the presence of steam.

12.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 17(7): 896-902, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855026

RESUMO

The triplet excited state of a new Ir-based photosensitizer with two chromenopyridinone and one bipyridine-based ligands has been studied by pump-probe X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy coupled with DFT calculations. The excited state has a lifetime of 0.5 µs in acetonitrile and is characterized by very small changes of the local atomic structure with an average metal-ligand bond length change of less than 0.01 Å. DFT-based calculations allow the interpretation of the XANES in the energy range of ∼50 eV around the absorption edge. The observed transient XANES signal arises from an additional metal-centered Ir 5d vacancy in the excited state which appears as a result of electron transfer from the metal to the ligand. The overall energy shift of the excited state spectrum originates from the shift of 2p and unoccupied states induced by screening effects. The approach for the analysis of time-resolved spectra of 5d metal complexes is quite general and can also be used if excited and ground state structures are significantly different.

13.
Nat Mater ; 16(9): 925-931, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714982

RESUMO

The growing need to store increasing amounts of renewable energy has recently triggered substantial R&D efforts towards efficient and stable water electrolysis technologies. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring at the electrolyser anode is central to the development of a clean, reliable and emission-free hydrogen economy. The development of robust and highly active anode materials for OER is therefore a great challenge and has been the main focus of research. Among potential candidates, perovskites have emerged as promising OER electrocatalysts. In this study, by combining a scalable cutting-edge synthesis method with time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements, we were able to capture the dynamic local electronic and geometric structure during realistic operando conditions for highly active OER perovskite nanocatalysts. Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ as nano-powder displays unique features that allow a dynamic self-reconstruction of the material's surface during OER, that is, the growth of a self-assembled metal oxy(hydroxide) active layer. Therefore, besides showing outstanding performance at both the laboratory and industrial scale, we provide a fundamental understanding of the operando OER mechanism for highly active perovskite catalysts. This understanding significantly differs from design principles based on ex situ characterization techniques.

14.
ChemSusChem ; 10(11): 2505-2517, 2017 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338286

RESUMO

Perovskite-type oxides have shown the ability to reversibly segregate precious metals from their structure. This reversible segregation behavior was explored for a commonly used catalyst metal, Ni, to prevent Ni sintering, which is observed on most catalyst support materials. Temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and catalytic activity tests were used to follow the extent of reversible Ni segregation. LaFe1-x Nix O3±Î´ (0≤x≤0.2) was synthesized using a citrate-based solution process. After reduction at 600 °C, metallic Ni particles were displayed on the perovskite surfaces, which were active towards the hydrogenation of CO2 . The overall Ni reducibility was proportional to the Ni content and increased from 35 % for x=0.05 to 50 % for x=0.2. Furthermore, Ni could be reincorporated reversibly into the perovskite lattice during reoxidation at 650 °C. This could be exploited for catalyst regeneration under conditions under which impregnated materials such as Ni/LaFeO3±Î´ and Ni/Al2 O3 suffer from sintering.


Assuntos
Catálise , Ferro/química , Lantânio/química , Níquel/química , Compostos de Cálcio , Hidrogenação , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química , Titânio
15.
Struct Dyn ; 4(4): 044002, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28083541

RESUMO

We report on an element-selective study of the fate of charge carriers in photoexcited inorganic CsPbBr3 and CsPb(ClBr)3 perovskite nanocrystals in toluene solutions using time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with 80 ps time resolution. Probing the Br K-edge, the Pb L3-edge, and the Cs L2-edge, we find that holes in the valence band are localized at Br atoms, forming small polarons, while electrons appear as delocalized in the conduction band. No signature of either electronic or structural changes is observed at the Cs L2-edge. The results at the Br and Pb edges suggest the existence of a weakly localized exciton, while the absence of signatures at the Cs edge indicates that the Cs+ cation plays no role in the charge transport, at least beyond 80 ps. This first, time-resolved element-specific study of perovskites helps understand the rather modest charge carrier mobilities in these materials.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(1): 102-108, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936758

RESUMO

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been employed for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of both model and real catalytic surfaces. Recent progress in the detection of photoelectrons has enabled the acquisition of spectra at pressures up to a few tens of millibars. Although reducing the pressure gap represents a remarkable advantage for catalysis, active sites may be short-lived or hidden in the majority of spectator species. Time-resolved experiments, conducted under transient conditions, are a suitable strategy for discriminating between active sites and spectators. In the present work, we characterized the surface of a Pt/CeO2 powder catalyst at 1.0 mbar of a reacting mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen and, by means of time resolution, identified short-lived active species. We replaced oxygen with nitrogen in the reaction mixture while fast-detecting the core level peaks of cerium. The results indicate that active Ce3+ sites form transiently at the surface when the oxygen is switched off. Analysis of the depth profile shows that Ce3+ ions are located at the ceria surface. The same experiment, performed on platinum-free ceria, reveals negligible reduction, indicating that platinum boosts the formation of Ce3+ active sites at the interface.

17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 37597, 2016 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27883033

RESUMO

Highly active phases in carbon monoxide oxidation are known, however they are transient in nature. Here, we determined for the first time the structure of such a highly active phase on platinum nanoparticles in an actual reactor. Unlike generally assumed, the surface of this phase is virtually free of adsorbates and co-exists with carbon-monoxide covered and surface oxidized platinum. Understanding the relation between gas composition and catalyst structure at all times and locations within a reactor enabled the rational design of a reactor concept, which maximizes the amount of the highly active phase and minimizes the amount of platinum needed.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(42): 29268-29277, 2016 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27731446

RESUMO

In situ time-resolved spectroscopic examination of catalysts based on well dispersed nanoparticles on metal oxides under transient conditions significantly facilitates the elucidation of reaction mechanisms. In this contribution, we demonstrate the level of structural information that can be obtained using high-energy resolution off-resonant spectroscopy (HEROS) to study 1.3 wt% Pt/Al2O3 and 1.3 wt% Pt/20 wt% CeO2/Al2O3 catalysts subjected to redox pulsing. First, HEROS is compared with XANES in a temperature programmed reduction experiment to demonstrate the increased sensitivity and time resolution of HEROS. Second, modulation excitation spectroscopy is exploited by redox pulsing to enhance the sensitivity of HEROS to structural changes by the application of phase sensitive detection (PSD) to the time-resolved HEROS data set. The HEROS measurements were complemented by resonant X-ray emission (RXES) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy measurements performed under identical conditions and in a single reactor cell in order to probe different aspects of the catalyst materials under the selected experimental conditions.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(42): 13930-13940, 2016 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27696837

RESUMO

The kinetics involved in a recently revealed ambient-temperature mechanism for the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide by oxygen over a 5 wt % Pt/Al2O3 catalyst are evaluated within a periodic, plug flow, redox operation paradigm using combined mass spectrometry (MS), diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and time-resolved Pt L3-edge XAFS. The species that are the most active at room temperature are shown to be a high-wavenumber (ca. 1690 cm-1) carbonate that we associate directly with a room-temperature redox process occurring in a fraction of the Pt atoms present in the catalyst. Our results, however, do not exclude the participation of carbonate species native to the Al2O3 support, though these species tend to store CO at ambient temperature and become significant participants in CO oxidation catalysis only at slightly higher temperatures (323-333 K). Pt carbonate formation (1690 cm-1) under CO and the reaction to yield CO2 is shown to be extremely rapid and subject to an average apparent activation energy (Eapp), across the techniques applied, of 8.7 kJ mol-1, within the temperature range investigated (276-343 K). Reoxidation of Pt (XANES) and subsequent CO2 production mediated by Pt carbonates under O2 (MS/IR) displays a first-order dependence upon O2 partial pressure and a negative dependence upon the coverage of CO adsorbed on the Pt nanoparticles also present in this catalyst. This oxidative regeneration/CO2 production step is subject to an apparent activation energy (Eapp) of 56.5 (±5) kJ mol-1, is kinetically limited by the desorption of molecular CO from Pt nanoparticles, and also is shown to be dependent upon the partial pressure of O2 present in the oxidizing half of the cycle that we associate with the direct interaction of O2 with molecular CO adsorbed on the nanoparticles that promotes their desorption. Finally, a minority reactive state producing CO2 in the oxidizing cycle that displays no dependence upon the CO coverage of the nanoparticles can be induced through simple thermal treatment of the catalyst. These results are discussed in terms of the number and types of species present within the reactive system and in terms of the wider possibilities for the development of effective low-temperature CO oxidation using Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 33292, 2016 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27620067

RESUMO

X-ray techniques have evolved over decades to become highly refined tools for a broad range of investigations. Importantly, these approaches rely on X-ray measurements that depend linearly on the number of incident X-ray photons. The advent of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is opening the ability to reach extremely high photon numbers within ultrashort X-ray pulse durations and is leading to a paradigm shift in our ability to explore nonlinear X-ray signals. However, the enormous increase in X-ray peak power is a double-edged sword with new and exciting methods being developed but at the same time well-established techniques proving unreliable. Consequently, accurate knowledge about the threshold for nonlinear X-ray signals is essential. Herein we report an X-ray spectroscopic study that reveals important details on the thresholds for nonlinear X-ray interactions. By varying both the incident X-ray intensity and photon energy, we establish the regimes at which the simplest nonlinear process, two-photon X-ray absorption (TPA), can be observed. From these measurements we can extract the probability of this process as a function of photon energy and confirm both the nature and sub-femtosecond lifetime of the virtual intermediate electronic state.

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