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1.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(10): 100410, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755130

RESUMO

Peanut allergy can result in life-threatening reactions and is a major public health concern. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) induces desensitization to food allergens through administration of increasing amounts of allergen. To dissect peanut-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG responses in subjects undergoing OIT, we have developed AllerScan, a method that leverages phage-display and next-generation sequencing to identify the epitope targets of peanut-specific antibodies. We observe a striking diversification and boosting of the peanut-specific IgG repertoire after OIT and a reduction in pre-existing IgE levels against individual epitopes. High-resolution epitope mapping reveals shared recognition of public epitopes in Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 7. In individual subjects, OIT-induced IgG specificities overlap extensively with IgE and exhibit strikingly similar antibody footprints, suggesting related clonal lineages or convergent evolution of peanut-specific IgE and IgG B cells. Individual differences in epitope recognition identified via AllerScan could inform safer and more effective personalized immunotherapy.

2.
Int Immunol ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788827

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic causes an overwhelming number of hospitalization and deaths with a significant socioeconomic impact. The vast majority of studies indicate that asthma and allergic diseases do not represent a risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility nor cause a more severe course of disease. This raises the opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the interaction between an allergic background and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, food and drug allergies exhibit an overexpression of type 2 immune and inflammatory pathways with the contribution of epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), dendritic cells, T cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils and the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-31. The potential impact of type 2 inflammation-related allergic diseases on susceptibility to COVID-19 and severity of its course have been reported. In this review, the prevalence of asthma and other common allergic diseases in COVID-19 patients is addressed. Moreover, the impact of allergic and non-allergic asthma with different severity and control status, currently available asthma treatments such as inhaled and oral corticosteroids, short- and long-acting ß2 agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists and biologicals on the outcome of COVID-19 patients is reviewed. In addition, possible protective mechanisms of asthma and type 2 inflammation on COVID-19 infection, such as the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, antiviral activity of eosinophils, cross-reactive T cell epitopes are discussed. Potential interactions of other allergic diseases with COVID-19 are postulated, including recommendations for their management.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 739037, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594341

RESUMO

Background: Transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) containing high titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies serves as therapy for COVID-19 patients. Transfusions early during disease course was found to be beneficial. Lessons from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic could inform early responses to future pandemics and may continue to be relevant in lower resource settings. We sought to identify factors correlating to high antibody titers in convalescent plasma donors and understand the magnitude and pharmacokinetic time course of both transfused antibody titers and the endogenous antibody titers in transfused recipients. Methods: Plasma samples were collected up to 174 days after convalescence from 93 CCP donors with mild disease, and from 16 COVID-19 patients before and after transfusion. Using ELISA, anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD, S1, and N-protein antibodies, as well as capacity of antibodies to block ACE2 from binding to RBD was measured in an in vitro assay. As an estimate for viral load, viral RNA and N-protein plasma levels were assessed in COVID-19 patients. Results: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels and RBD-ACE2 blocking capacity were highest within the first 60 days after symptom resolution and markedly decreased after 120 days. Highest antibody titers were found in CCP donors that experienced fever. Effect of transfused CCP was detectable in COVID-19 patients who received high-titer CCP and had not seroconverted at the time of transfusion. Decrease in viral RNA was seen in two of these patients. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high titer CCP should be collected within 60 days after recovery from donors with past fever. The much lower titers conferred by transfused antibodies compared to endogenous production in the patient underscore the importance of providing CCP prior to endogenous seroconversion.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Convalescença , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Soroconversão , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , RNA Viral/sangue
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619335

RESUMO

Air pollution is a rapidly growing major health concern around the world. Atmospheric particulate matter that has a diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) refers to an air pollutant composed of particles and chemical compounds that originate from various sources. While epidemiological studies have established the association between PM2.5 exposure and cardiovascular diseases, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms by which PM2.5 promotes cardiovascular complications are yet to be fully elucidated. In this review, we summarize the various sources of PM2.5, its components, and the concentrations of ambient PM2.5 in various settings. We discuss the experimental findings to date that evaluate the potential adverse effects of PM2.5 on cardiovascular homeostasis and function, and the possible therapeutic options that may alleviate PM2.5-driven cardiovascular damage.

6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514750

RESUMO

Managing patients with rheumatic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic has posed a unique challenge. Immunosuppressed patients are at an increased risk for developing severe COVID-19 and may not derive full protection from the vaccine (1-5). Thus, it is paramount we develop strategies whereby rheumatic disease patients can be protected from the pandemic virus and its variants.

8.
medRxiv ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518843

RESUMO

Determinants of Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 are not known. Here we show that 75% of patients with viral RNA in blood (RNAemia) at presentation were symptomatic in the post-acute phase. RNAemia at presentation successfully predicted PASC, independent of patient demographics, initial disease severity, and length of symptoms.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5417, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521836

RESUMO

COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations, including autoimmune features and autoantibody production. Here we develop three protein arrays to measure IgG autoantibodies associated with connective tissue diseases, anti-cytokine antibodies, and anti-viral antibody responses in serum from 147 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Autoantibodies are identified in approximately 50% of patients but in less than 15% of healthy controls. When present, autoantibodies largely target autoantigens associated with rare disorders such as myositis, systemic sclerosis and overlap syndromes. A subset of autoantibodies targeting traditional autoantigens or cytokines develop de novo following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autoantibodies track with longitudinal development of IgG antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and a subset of non-structural proteins, but not proteins from influenza, seasonal coronaviruses or other pathogenic viruses. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 causes development of new-onset IgG autoantibodies in a significant proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and are positively correlated with immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus marked by eosinophilic infiltration. Cumulative evidence indicates that the risk of EoE involves the complex interplay of both genetic and environmental factors. Because only a few genetic loci have been identified in EoE, the genetic underpinning of EoE remains largely elusive. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify genetic loci associated with EoE. METHODS: Four EoE cohorts were genotyped using the Illumina single nucleotide polymorphism array platform, totaling 1,930 cases and 13,634 controls of European ancestry. Genotype imputation was performed with the Michigan Imputation Server using the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine reference panel including whole-genome sequencing data from more than 100,000 individuals. Meta-analysis was conducted to identify potential novel genetic loci associated with EoE. RESULTS: Our study identified 11 new genome-wide significant loci, of which 6 are common variant loci, including 5q31.1 (rs2106984, P = 4.16 × 10-8; odds ratio [OR], 1.26, RAD50), 15q22.2 (rs2279293, P = 1.23 × 10-10; OR, 0.69, RORA), and 15q23 (rs56062135, P = 2.91 × 10-11; OR, 1.29, SMAD3), which have been previously associated with allergic conditions. Interestingly, a low-frequency synonymous mutation within the MATN2 gene was identified as the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism at the 8q22.1 locus. We also identified 5 sex-specific loci in the EoE cases, including an inflammatory bowel disease-associated locus at 9p24.1 (rs62541556, P = 4.4 × 10-8; OR, 1.11, JAK2). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate shared genetic underpinnings between EoE and other immune-mediated diseases and provide novel candidate genes for therapeutic target identification and prioritization.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125524, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533570

RESUMO

Importance: As of May 2021, more than 32 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the United States, resulting in more than 615 000 deaths. Anaphylactic reactions associated with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Objective: To characterize the immunologic mechanisms underlying allergic reactions to these vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 22 patients with suspected allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines between December 18, 2020, and January 27, 2021, at a large regional health care network. Participants were individuals who received at least 1 of the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision anaphylaxis codes: T78.2XXA, T80.52XA, T78.2XXD, or E949.9, with documentation of COVID-19 vaccination. Suspected allergy cases were identified and invited for follow-up allergy testing. Exposures: FDA-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Allergic reactions were graded using standard definitions, including Brighton criteria. Skin prick testing was conducted to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate 80 (P80). Histamine (1 mg/mL) and filtered saline (negative control) were used for internal validation. Basophil activation testing after stimulation for 30 minutes at 37 °C was also conducted. Concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgE antibodies to PEG were obtained to determine possible mechanisms. Results: Of 22 patients (20 [91%] women; mean [SD] age, 40.9 [10.3] years; 15 [68%] with clinical allergy history), 17 (77%) met Brighton anaphylaxis criteria. All reactions fully resolved. Of patients who underwent skin prick tests, 0 of 11 tested positive to PEG, 0 of 11 tested positive to P80, and 1 of 10 (10%) tested positive to the same brand of mRNA vaccine used to vaccinate that individual. Among these same participants, 10 of 11 (91%) had positive basophil activation test results to PEG and 11 of 11 (100%) had positive basophil activation test results to their administered mRNA vaccine. No PEG IgE was detected; instead, PEG IgG was found in tested individuals who had an allergy to the vaccine. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on this case series, women and those with a history of allergic reactions appear at have an elevated risk of mRNA vaccine allergy. Immunological testing suggests non-IgE-mediated immune responses to PEG may be responsible in most individuals.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration/organização & administração , United States Food and Drug Administration/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 638316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414149

RESUMO

Vaccine bears hope to bring COVID-19 pandemic under control. With limited supply, vaccines must be utilized efficiently to provide protection to those who need it most. Currently, no practical framework has been proposed to ensure fair vaccine allocation at individual level, which is a recognized problem. We propose here an evidence-based decision-making framework for COVID-19 vaccine appropriation that prioritizes vaccine doses to individuals based on their immunological status, or immuno-triaging. To ensure successful implementation of the proposed framework, point-of-care (POC) immunodiagnostic testing is needed to quickly ramp up the testing capability. Considerations for deploying POC immunodiagnostic testing at such a large scale are discussed. We hope that the proposed immunological decision-making framework for evidence-based COVID-19 vaccine appropriation provides an objective approach to ensure fair and efficient utilization of the scarce vaccine resource at the individual level that also maximizes the collective societal benefit.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1655-1665, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves protective functions in metabolic, cardiovascular, renal, and pulmonary diseases and is linked to COVID-19 pathology. The correlates of temporal changes in soluble ACE2 (sACE2) remain understudied. OBJECTIVES: We explored the associations of sACE2 with metabolic health and proteome dynamics during a weight loss diet intervention. METHODS: We analyzed 457 healthy individuals (mean ± SD age: 39.8 ± 6.6 y) with BMI 28-40 kg/m2 in the DIETFITS (Diet Intervention Examining the Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) study. Biochemical markers of metabolic health and 236 proteins were measured by Olink CVDII, CVDIII, and Inflammation I arrays at baseline and at 6 mo during the dietary intervention. We determined clinical and routine biochemical correlates of the diet-induced change in sACE2 (ΔsACE2) using stepwise linear regression. We combined feature selection models and multivariable-adjusted linear regression to identify protein dynamics associated with ΔsACE2. RESULTS: sACE2 decreased on average at 6 mo during the diet intervention. Stronger decline in sACE2 during the diet intervention was independently associated with female sex, lower HOMA-IR and LDL cholesterol at baseline, and a stronger decline in HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fat mass. Participants with decreasing HOMA-IR (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.03) and triglycerides (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.72, 4.26) had significantly higher odds for a decrease in sACE2 during the diet intervention than those without (P ≤ 0.0073). Feature selection models linked ΔsACE2 to changes in α-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor, E-selectin, hydroxyacid oxidase 1, kidney injury molecule 1, tyrosine-protein kinase Mer, placental growth factor, thrombomodulin, and TNF receptor superfamily member 10B. ΔsACE2 remained associated with these protein changes in multivariable-adjusted linear regression. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in sACE2 during a weight loss diet intervention was associated with improvements in metabolic health, fat mass, and markers of angiotensin peptide metabolism, hepatic and vascular injury, renal function, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our findings may improve the risk stratification, prevention, and management of cardiometabolic complications.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01826591.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , COVID-19/metabolismo , Dieta Redutora , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estresse Oxidativo , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Programas de Redução de Peso
15.
Sci Immunol ; 6(61)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210785

RESUMO

A central feature of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is that some individuals become severely ill or die, whereas others have only a mild disease course or are asymptomatic. Here we report development of an improved multimeric αß T cell staining reagent platform, with each maxi-ferritin "spheromer" displaying 12 peptide-MHC complexes. Spheromers stain specific T cells more efficiently than peptide-MHC tetramers and capture a broader portion of the sequence repertoire for a given peptide-MHC. Analyzing the response in unexposed individuals, we find that T cells recognizing peptides conserved amongst coronaviruses are more abundant and tend to have a "memory" phenotype, compared to those unique to SARS-CoV-2. Significantly, CD8+ T cells with these conserved specificities are much more abundant in COVID-19 patients with mild disease versus those with a more severe illness, suggesting a protective role.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Nature ; 596(7872): 410-416, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252919

RESUMO

The emergency use authorization of two mRNA vaccines in less than a year from the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 represents a landmark in vaccinology1,2. Yet, how mRNA vaccines stimulate the immune system to elicit protective immune responses is unknown. Here we used a systems vaccinology approach to comprehensively profile the innate and adaptive immune responses of 56 healthy volunteers who were vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2). Vaccination resulted in the robust production of neutralizing antibodies against the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (derived from 2019-nCOV/USA_WA1/2020) and, to a lesser extent, the B.1.351 strain, as well as significant increases in antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells after the second dose. Booster vaccination stimulated a notably enhanced innate immune response as compared to primary vaccination, evidenced by (1) a greater frequency of CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocytes; (2) a higher concentration of plasma IFNγ; and (3) a transcriptional signature of innate antiviral immunity. Consistent with these observations, our single-cell transcriptomics analysis demonstrated an approximately 100-fold increase in the frequency of a myeloid cell cluster enriched in interferon-response transcription factors and reduced in AP-1 transcription factors, after secondary immunization. Finally, we identified distinct innate pathways associated with CD8 T cell and neutralizing antibody responses, and show that a monocyte-related signature correlates with the neutralizing antibody response against the B.1.351 variant. Collectively, these data provide insights into the immune responses induced by mRNA vaccination and demonstrate its capacity to prime the innate immune system to mount a more potent response after booster immunization.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Célula Única , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Allergy ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255344

RESUMO

Food allergy (FA) is now one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood often lasting throughout life and leading to significant worldwide healthcare burden. The precise mechanisms responsible for the development of this inflammatory condition are largely unknown; however, a multifactorial aetiology involving both environmental and genetic contributions is well accepted. A precise understanding of the pathogenesis of FA is an essential first step to developing comprehensive prevention strategies that could mitigate this epidemic. As it is frequently preceded by atopic dermatitis and can be prevented by early antigen introduction, the development of FA is likely facilitated by the improper initial presentation of antigen to the developing immune system. Primary oral exposure of antigens allowing for presentation via a well-developed mucosal immune system, rather than through a disrupted skin epidermal barrier, is essential to prevent FA. In this review, we present the data supporting the necessity of (1) an intact epidermal barrier to prevent epicutaneous antigen presentation, (2) the presence of specific commensal bacteria to maintain an intact mucosal immune system and (3) maternal/infant diet diversity, including vitamins and minerals, and appropriately timed allergenic food introduction to prevent FA.

18.
Allergy ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to improve targeted therapeutic approaches for children with atopic dermatitis (AD), novel insights into the molecular mechanisms and environmental exposures that differentially contribute to disease phenotypes are required. We wished to identify AD immunological endotypes in South African children from rural and urban environments. METHODS: We measured immunological, socio-economic and environmental factors in healthy children (n = 74) and children with AD (n = 78), in rural and urban settings from the same ethno-linguistic AmaXhosa background in South Africa. RESULTS: Circulating eosinophils, monocytes, TARC, MCP-4, IL-16 and allergen-specific IgE levels were elevated, while IL-17A and IL-23 levels were reduced, in children with AD regardless of their location. Independent of AD, children living in a rural environment had the highest levels of TNFα, TNFß, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-21, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß, MDC, sICAM1, sVCAM1, VEGFA, VEGFD and Tie2, suggesting a generalized microinflammation or a pattern of trained immunity without any specific TH polarization. In contrast, IL-15, IL-22, Flt1, PIGF and ßFGF were highest in urban children. Rural healthy children had the lowest levels of food allergen-specific IgG4. Early life nutritional factors, medications, animal exposures, indoor environment, sunlight exposure, household size, household income and parental education levels were associated with differences in circulating cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the immunological impact of environmental exposures and socio-economic status in the manifestation of immune endotypes in children with AD living in urban and rural areas, which are important in selecting appropriately matched immunological therapies for treatment of AD.

19.
Allergy ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether asthma and its allergic phenotype are risk factors for hospitalization or severe disease from SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: All patients over 28 days old testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 between March 1 and September 30, 2020, were retrospectively identified and characterized through electronic analysis at Stanford. A sub-cohort was followed prospectively to evaluate long-term COVID-19 symptoms. RESULTS: 168,190 patients underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, and 6,976 (4.15%) tested positive. In a multivariate analysis, asthma was not an independent risk factor for hospitalization (OR 1.12 [95% CI 0.86, 1.45], p = .40). Among SARS-CoV-2-positive asthmatics, allergic asthma lowered the risk of hospitalization and had a protective effect compared with non-allergic asthma (OR 0.52 [0.28, 0.91], p = .026); there was no association between baseline medication use as characterized by GINA and hospitalization risk. Patients with severe COVID-19 disease had lower eosinophil levels during hospitalization compared with patients with mild or asymptomatic disease, independent of asthma status (p = .0014). In a patient sub-cohort followed longitudinally, asthmatics and non-asthmatics had similar time to resolution of COVID-19 symptoms, particularly lower respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma is not a risk factor for more severe COVID-19 disease. Allergic asthmatics were half as likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19 compared with non-allergic asthmatics. Lower levels of eosinophil counts (allergic biomarkers) were associated with a more severe COVID-19 disease trajectory. Recovery was similar among asthmatics and non-asthmatics with over 50% of patients reporting ongoing lower respiratory symptoms 3 months post-infection.

20.
Allergy ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhinoviruses are the predominant cause of respiratory viral infections and are strongly associated with asthma exacerbations. While humoral immunity plays an important role during virus infections, cellular aspects of this response are less well understood. Here, we investigated the antiviral response of circulating B cells upon experimental rhinovirus infection in healthy individuals and asthma patients. METHODS: We purified B cells from experimentally infected healthy individuals and patients with asthma and subjected them to total RNA-sequencing. Rhinovirus-derived RNA was measured in isolated B cells using a highly sensitive PCR. B cells were stimulated with rhinovirus in vitro to further study gene expression, expression of antiviral proteins and B-cell differentiation in response rhinovirus stimulation. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to rhinovirus was assessed using a proximity extension assay. RESULTS: B cells isolated from experimentally infected subjects exhibited an antiviral gene profile linked to IFN-alpha, carried viral RNA in vivo and were transiently infected by rhinovirus in vitro. B cells rapidly differentiated into plasmablasts upon rhinovirus stimulation. While B cells lacked expression of interferons in response to rhinovirus exposure, co-stimulation with rhinovirus and IFN-alpha upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression suggesting a potential new function of B cells during virus infections. Asthma patients showed extensive upregulation and dysregulation of antiviral gene expression. CONCLUSION: These findings add to the understanding of systemic effects of rhinovirus infections on B-cell responses in the periphery, show potential dysregulation in patients with asthma and might also have implications during infection with other respiratory viruses.

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