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1.
J Prosthodont ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843102

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between students' achieved grades in a preclinical fixed prosthodontics course and their performance in the same discipline's clinical courses MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in 2019 on seventy-six students who passed all preclinical and clinical fixed prosthodontics courses. Their final examination grades in preclinical and clinical prosthodontics courses were compiled and made anonymous. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23) was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics and correlation coefficient were used to assess the relation between preclinical and clinical grades RESULTS: A statistically significant positive correlation existed between the students' preclinical and combined clinical final examination grades (r = 0.45, p<0.001). In relation to sex, females showed a significantly higher correlation (r = 0.56, p = 0.001) compared to males (r = 0.25, p = 0.1). In addition, students' clinical grade prediction from their preclinical performance was 20.5% CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize the importance of preclinical courses and suggest that maximizing preclinical years' efforts can reflect positively on students' competence in their future clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Acta Parasitol ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diagnostic accuracy of malaria is critical for early treatment, control, and elimination of malaria, especially in war-affected malaria-endemic areas. Microscopic detection of Plasmodium species has been the gold standard in remote malaria-endemic regions. However, the diagnostic accuracy is still questioned, especially in discriminating mixed and submicroscopic parasitic levels. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of microscopic examination against nested PCR analysis in war-torn malaria-endemic Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected from symptomatic patients for microscopic examination and nested PCR analysis from January 2016-December 2016 from five Agencies (Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai and Kurram Agency) and four Frontier Regions (Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, and Dera Ismail Khan Frontier Region) of FATA. Malaria-positive isolates were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes) for speciation. RESULTS: Among enrolled participants, 762 were found positive for malaria parasite on microscopic examination of the blood film. Plasmodium vivax was found in 623, Plasmodium falciparum in 132 and 7 were diagnosed with mixed infection (P. vivax and P. falciparum coinfection). Nested PCR detected Plasmodium infection in 679 samples (523 P. vivax, 121 P. falciparum, and 35 mixed infections). Compared with microscopy, the sensitivity of nested PCR was 98.94%, and specificity was 98.27%, while the sensitivity and specificity of slide microscopy 89.34% and 87.99% respectively. CONCLUSION: The conventional microscopy method has low sensitivity to detect the mixed infection as compared to nested PCR. High sensitivity and specificity observed in nested PCR make this molecular tool a useful technique for monitoring, controlling, and eliminating malaria-endemic regions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797716

RESUMO

Novel tri-phase CuO-MgO-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared using the co-precipitation technique and investigated its physical properties using characterization techniques including XRD, FTIR, Raman, IV, UV-vis, PL, and SEM. The application of grown CuO-MgO-ZnO nanocomposite for the degradation of various dyes under sunlight and antibacterial activity against different bacteria were studied. The XRD confirmed the existence of diffraction peaks related to CuO (monoclinic), MgO (cubic), and ZnO (hexagonal) with CuO phase 40%, MgO 24%, and ZnO 36%. The optical energy gap of nanocomposite was 2.9 eV, which made it an efficient catalyst under sunlight. Raman and FTIR spectra have further confirmed the formation of the nanocomposite. SEM images revealed agglomerated rod-shaped morphology. EDX results showed the atomic percentage of a constituent element in this order Cu>Zn>Mg. PL results demonstrate the presence of intrinsic defects. The photocatalytic activity against methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), rhodamine-B (RhB), cresol red (CR), and P-nitroaniline (P-Nitro) dyes has shown the excellent degradation efficiencies 88.5%, 93.5%, 75.9%, 98.8%, and 98.6% at 5 ppm dye concentration and 82.6%, 83.6%, 64.3%, 93.1%, and 94.3% at 10 ppm dye concentration in 100 min, respectively, under sunlight illumination. The higher degradation is due to the generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The recyclability test showed the reusability of catalyst up to the 5th cycle. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus Vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria with the zone of inhibition 30, 31, 30, 30, and 30 mm, respectively, was achieved.

4.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(2): 128-131, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare concomitant therapy (CT) and triple therapy (TRT) for success in helicobacter (H.) pylori eradication and identify factors associated with treatment failure. STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental comparative study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Medicine and Gastroenterology, Services Institute of Medical Sciences from December 2018 till July 2019. METHODOLOGY: Patients with H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to receive two weeks of either CT or TRT. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by repeat biopsy four weeks post-treatment. Treatment outcome was compared using Chi-square test, while binary logistic regression identified predictors of treatment failure. RESULTS: Two hundred and eleven patients with H. pylori infection, having mean age 40.15 (±13.04) and male/female ratio 0.9/1 (100/111) after randomisation, were treated with CT in 105 patients (49.8%) and TRT in 106 patients (50.2%). H. pylori was eradicated in 84.3% (150/178) patients with completed follow-up. H. pylori eradication was achieved in 91.9% of CT group as compared to 77.2% in TRT group (p = 0.007, OR 3.38: 95% CI 1.3-8.3). Age ≥40 years (p = 0.02), symptoms duration >6 months (p = 0.001), and prior proton pump inhibitor use for >4 weeks (p = 0.01), were identified as independent predictors of treatment failure. CONCLUSION: CT achieves better H. pylori eradication than TRT. Older age, longer duration of illness, and previous proton pump inhibitor use were independent predictors of H. pylori treatment failure. Key Words: Concomitant therapy, Eradication, H. pylori, Triple therapy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772715

RESUMO

Minerals are essential for ruminants affecting significantly the production of grazing livestock. Iron level in forages, soil, and blood plasma of the small ruminants (goat and sheep) was investigated in three districts of Punjab. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentration of iron in collected samples. The results revealed that the mean Fe concentrations in soil of districts Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakhar were significantly varied and ranged from 21.85 to 23.78, 28.45 to 31.2, and 18.079 to 24.33 mg/kg, respectively. The Fe level in soil of Mianwali significantly varied and was higher than Sargodha and Bhakkar. The mean Fe concentration in forages which were used for feeding purpose were significantly varied and found between 10.95-14.49, 23.63-25.65, and 6.616-9.45 mg/kg for Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakhar, respectively. The mean Fe concentrations in blood plasma of goat which consumed the contaminated forages were 8.5026-11.763 mg/L in district Sargodha, 19.77-20.19 mg/L in Mianwali, and 5.508-5.858mg/L in Bhakkar. In blood plasma of sheep, the residual levels of Fe in districts Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakhar were ranged from 9.987 to 12.455, 15.8 to 19.785, and 3.425 to 6.383 mg/L, respectively. This study provides the data of metals effected by different sites and also their mobility from low to higher trophic level which enables us to study the iron toxicity in different trophic levels, and we recommend different safe limits and treatment in case of low and high metal profile.

6.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780625

RESUMO

The subthreshold swing is the critical parameter determining the operation of a transistor in low-power applications such as switches. It determines the fraction of dissipation due to the gate capacitance used for turning the device on and off, and in a conventional transistor it is limited by Boltzmann's tyranny to kBT ln(10)/q. Here, we demonstrate that the subthreshold swing of a topological transistor in which conduction is enabled by a topological phase transition via electric field switching, can be sizably reduced in a noninteracting system by modulating the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. By developing a theoretical framework for quantum spin Hall materials with honeycomb lattices, we show that the Rashba interaction can reduce the subthreshold swing by more than 25% compared to Boltzmann's limit in currently available materials but without any fundamental lower bound, a discovery that can guide future material design and steer the engineering of topological quantum devices.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691073

RESUMO

Background: Management of bile duct stones is variable. Selection of the appropriate treatment modality based on identifiable risk factors can increase the chances of a successful outcome. The aim of this study is to identify factors affecting outcomes of a laparoscopic bile duct exploration. Methods: Retrospective data analysis of consecutive laparoscopic bile duct explorations over a period of 13 years at a district general hospital. Results: The total number of patients in the study was 85. Elective explorations were 56 while 29 were emergency procedures. The mean operative time was 154 minutes. The conversion rate was 14% with failure to extract stones being the most common reason. Forty-two percent of conversions were in nonelective procedures and 17% in previous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) failures. Eleven percent patients had a transcystic clearance of bile duct and the largest stone removed transcystic was 5 mm. The largest stone removed by a laparoscopic choledochotomy was 15 mm and stones >20 mm were removed on conversion. Seven patients (8%) had a postoperative bile leak, 4 of these required a postoperative ERCP stent and radiological drainage while 3 required a reoperation. Three patients had retained stones treated by postoperative ERCP. Conclusion: Emergency procedures, increasing number and size of stones, previous failed ERCP are factors that contribute to the outcomes of a laparoscopic bile duct exploration. The chances of a successful exploration can be improved by appropriate patient and procedure selection and preparation based on identification of these factors.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738732

RESUMO

The instant endeavor was undertaken for determination of lead (Pb) in water, soil, forage, and cow's blood domesticated in contaminated area of heavy automobiles' exhaust in Sahiwal town of District Sargodha, Pakistan. Water samples showed that the concentration of Pb ranged from 1.14 to 0.44 mg kg-1 at all sites. It was maximum at site 5 and minimum at site 2. Soil samples showed the concentration of Pb at all sites ranged from 1.58 to 0.279 mg kg-1. It was maximum in soil where Avena sativa was grown at site 5 and was found minimum in soil where Zea mays was grown at site 2. While among samples of forage, the concentration of Pb ranges from 0.048 to 2.002 mg kg-1. The highest Pb amount was found in Brassica campestris at site 1 and the minimum was recorded in Trifolium alexandrinum at site 2. Finally, the blood samples of cow depicted that concentration of Pb ranged from 4.468 to 0.217 mg kg-1. It was the maximum at site 1 and the minimum at site 3. It is recommended that such study should be conducted in other districts for public awareness.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7145, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785771

RESUMO

Endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) catalysing the hydrolysis of ß-1.4-glycosidic linkage of cellulose molecules is an enzyme of tremendous industrial importance. The present study describes a response surface methodology based predicted model to deduce a set of fermentation conditions for optimum growth and activity of recombinant endoglucanase in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Numerous significant parameters including fermentation media composition, temperature (Celsius), pH and agitation rate (rpm) were analysed systemically by employing central composite design. This effort reports highly efficient recombinant endoglucanase overproduction (6.9 gl-1 of biomass) with 30% expression by E. coli in modified M9NG media incubated at 37 °C and pH 7 agitated at 200 rpm. Addition of 3 mM glucose and 24 mM glycerol in the M9NG media has shown positive effect on the enzyme yield and activity. The CMCase activity experimentally estimated was found to be 1185 U/mg with the optimized parameters. The outcomes of both the responses by the predicted quadratic model were found in consensus with the obtained values. Our results well depicted the favourable conditions to further scale-up the volumetric yield of other relevant recombinant enzymes and proteins.

11.
Curr Org Synth ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719958

RESUMO

A topological descriptor is a mathematical illustration of a molecular construction that relates particular physicochemical properties of primary molecular structure as well its mathematical depiction. Topological co-indices are usually applied for quantitative structure actions relationships (QSAR) and quantitative structures property relationships (QSPR). Topological co-indices are topological descriptor which considered the noncontiguous vertex set. At this point, we study the accompanying some renowned topological co-indices: the 1st and 2nd Zagreb co-indices, the 1st and 2nd multiplicative Zagreb co-indices and the F-coindex. By applying structure basics examinations and deductions, we discuss the earlier stated co-indices of few synthetic atomic structures that frequently comes in clinical, synthetic, and material designing.

13.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-12, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618593

RESUMO

Obesity is a global health concern associated with the dysbiosis of intestinal microbial composition. In this study, we investigated the potentials of urolithin A (Uro-A) and urolithin B (Uro-B), two gut microbiota-derived metabolites of ellagitannins, in reducing body weight gain through the modulation of the gut microbiota. We established a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity model in rats that were later administered with either 2.5 mg/kg of Uro-A or Uro-B. Serum biochemical parameters were quantified, and changes in the composition of the gut microbial community were analysed using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Our results showed that the urolithins significantly decreased the body weight in HFD-fed rats and restored serum lipid profile. The taxonomic analysis showed that both Uro-A and Uro-modulated gut microbes related to body weight, dysfunctional lipid metabolism and inflammation. Overall, our results suggest that Uro-A and Uro-B possess anti-obesity properties, which may be related to the modulation of the gut microbial composition.

14.
Trials ; 22(1): 127, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to measure the efficacy of ionic-iodine polymer complex [1] for clinical and radiological improvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial will be closed label, randomized and placebo-controlled with a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio and superiority framework. PARTICIPANTS: All PCR confirmed COVID-19 adult patients including non-pregnant females, with mild to moderate disease, will be enrolled from Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan). Patients with any pre-existing chronic illness will be excluded from the study. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this multi-armed study ionic-iodine polymer complex with 200 mg of elemental iodine will be given using three formulations to evaluate efficacy. Patients will be receiving either encapsulated iodine complex of 200 mg (arm A), iodine complex syrup form 40 ml (arm B), iodine complex throat spray of 2 puffs (arm C) or empty capsule (arm D) as placebo; all three times a day. All the 4 arms will be receiving standard care as per version 3.0 of the clinical management guidelines for COVID-19 established by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes will be viral clearance with radiological and clinical improvement. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and HRCT chest scans will be done on the admission day and then after every fourth day for 12 days or till the symptoms are resolved. RT-PCR will only be shown as positive or negative while HRCT chest scoring will be done depending on the area and severity of lung involvement [2]. Time taken for the alleviation of symptoms will be calculated by the number of days the patient remained symptomatic. 30-day mortality will be considered as a secondary outcome. RANDOMISATION: Stratification for initial COVID-19 status (or days from initial symptoms as a proxy), age groups, gender, baseline severity of symptoms and co-morbidities will be used to ensure that the study arms remain balanced in size for the 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio. Randomization will be done using the lottery method. As patients are being admitted at different times, they will be recruited after obtaining their voluntary written informed consent following all standard protocols of the infection, control and disinfection. BLINDING (MASKING): This is a quadruple (participants, care providers, investigators and outcomes assessors) blinded study where only the study's Primary Investigator will have information about the arms and their interventions. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 200 patients will be randomized into four groups with three experimental and one placebo arm. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version Number is 2.3 and it is approved from IRB Shaikh Zayed Hospital with ID SZMC/IRB/Internal0056/2020 on July 14th, 2020. The recruitment is in progress. It was started on July 30, 2020, and the estimated end date for the trial is August 15, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial has been retrospectively registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04473261 dated July 16, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Iodo/administração & dosagem , Polímeros/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , /mortalidade , Cápsulas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sprays Orais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608780

RESUMO

This study examines links between Morgan and Stanley capital Investment (MSCI), foreign direct investment (FDI), renewable energy, urbanization, and trade openness on environmental degradation in (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) BRICS countries. In this study, generalized method of moment (GMM) estimation is applied on a data set ranging from 1993 to 2018. Results illustrate that stock market index price (MSCI) has negative relationship on CO2 emissions in India, China, Russia, and South Africa and has positive relationship in Brazil. One possible reason for this is strong environmental regulations and their enforcement by Brazilian government. The study also finds that trade openness, FDI, and urbanization have a significant positive relationship on environmental degradation. The impact of stock market development on environmental degradation varies among BRICS countries. Our outcomes have significant policy implications. For example, the policy makers have to initiate effective strategies to promote the renewable energy sources to meet the increasing demand for energy by replacing the use of conventional energy such as coal, gas, and oil. This will help to reduce the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel and ensure sustainable stock market development in the BRICS nations. BRICS countries who have taken the initiative and formulated policies for businesses to conserve the environment play a positive role compared to those who do not.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550557

RESUMO

The instant endeavor was undertaken to monitor copper (Cu) contents in water, soil, forage, and cow's blood impacted by heavy automobiles in Sahiwal town of district Sargodha, Pakistan. The samples were collected in triplicates with a total of 120 soil and water samples with corresponding forage samples. For the analysis of metal concentration in cows, 60 blood samples were collected from the cows feeding on these forages on selected sites. Metal contents were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that water samples contained mean values of Cu concentration ranged from 1.01 to 0.444 mg/kg at all sites. It was maximum at site 3 and minimum at site 6. The soil samples of all the forage fields showed Cu mean values concentration ranged from 1.94 to 0.286 mg/kg at all sites. It was maximum in Trifolium alexandrinum grown field at site 2, and minimum in Avena sativa at site 2. All the forage samples showed the mean value of Cu concentration ranged from 0.151 to 1.86 mg/kg at all sites. The concentration of Cu was maximum in Zea mays grown at site 5 and minimum in Trifolium alexandrinum at site 4. The cow blood samples showed the mean concentration of Cu ranged from 1.368 to 0.53 mg/kg at all sites. It was maximum at site 2 and minimum at site 6. Owing to the results of pollution index and transfer factors, metal content was found to be in permissible range in forages as well as animal samples.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528680

RESUMO

Soil contamination with Cd and Pb is a worldwide problem which not only degrades the environment but also poses a serious threat for human and animal health. Phytoremediation of these contaminated soils using halophytic plants like quinoa presents an opportunity to clean the soils and use them for crop production. The current experiment was performed to evaluate the Cd and Pb tolerance potential of quinoa and subsequently its implications for human health. Three weeks old quinoa seedlings were exposed to Cd (30, 60 and 90 mg kg-1) and Pb (50, 100 and 150 mg kg-1) levels along with a control. The results revealed that plant height decreased at highest levels of soil Cd and Pb. Shoot, root and seed dry weight decreased with increasing levels of soil Cd and Pb. Tissue Cd and Pb concentrations increased with increasing levels of Cd and Pb in soil, the highest Cd was found in roots while the lowest in seeds. The highest Pb concentration was found in shoots at low Pb level, while in roots at high level of Pb. Increasing levels of Cd and Pb stimulated the activities of measured antioxidant enzymes and decreased membrane stability index. The health risk assessments of Cd and Pb revealed that hazard quotient was < 1 for both the metals. However, the results of total hazard quotient showed that value was < 1 for Pb and 1.19 for Cd showing potential carcinogenicity. This study demonstrates that quinoa has good phytoremediation potential for Cd and Pb however, the risk of Cd toxicity is challenging for human health.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 679, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436717

RESUMO

Fagonia indica (L.) is an important medicinal plant with multitude of therapeutic potentials. Such application has been attributed to the presence of various pharmacological important phytochemicals. However, the inadequate biosynthesis of such metabolites in intact plants has hampered scalable production. Thus, herein, we have established an in vitro based elicitation strategy to enhance such metabolites in callus culture of F. indica. Cultures were exposed to various doses of UV radiation (UV-C) and grown in different photoperiod regimes and their impact was evaluated on biomass accumulation, biosynthesis of phytochemicals along antioxidant expression. Cultures grown under photoperiod (16L/8D h) after exposure to UV-C (5.4 kJ/m2) accumulated optimal biomass (438.3 g/L FW; 16.4 g/L DW), phenolics contents (TPC: 11.8 µgGAE/mg) and flavonoids contents (TFC: 4.05 µgQE/mg). Similarly, HPLC quantification revealed that total production (6.967 µg/mg DW) of phytochemicals wherein kaempferol (1.377 µg/mg DW), apigenin (1.057 µg/mg DW), myricetin (1.022 µg/mg DW) and isorhamnetin (1.022 µg/mg DW) were recorded highly accumulated compounds in cultures at UV-C (5.4 kJ/m2) dose than other UV-C radiations and light regimes.. The antioxidants activities examined as DPPH (92.8%), FRAP (182.3 µM TEAC) and ABTS (489.1 µM TEAC) were also recorded highly expressed by cultures under photoperiod after treatment with UV-C dose 5.4 kJ/m2. Moreover, same cultures also expressed maximum % inhibition towards phospholipase A2 (sPLA2: 35.8%), lipoxygenase (15-LOX: 43.3%) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1: 55.3% and COX-2: 39.9%) with 1.0-, 1.3-, 1.3- and 2.8-fold increased levels as compared with control, respectively. Hence, findings suggest that light and UV can synergistically improve the metabolism of F. indica and could be used to produce such valuable metabolites on commercial scale.

19.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental condition characterized by multiple psychological and physiological impairments in young children. According to the recent reports 1 out of every 58 newly born children is suffering from autism. The aetiology of disorder is complex and poorly understood, hindering the adaptation of targeted and effective therapies. There are no well-established diagnostic biomarkers for autism, hence the analysis of symptoms by the pediatricians play a critical role in the early intervention. METHODS: In the present report we have emphasized on 24 behavioral, psychological and clinical symptoms of autism. RESULTS: Impaired social interaction, restrictive and narrow interests, anxiety, depression; aggressive, repetitive, rigid and self-injurious behavior, lack of consistency, short attention span, fear, shyness and phobias, hypersensitivity and rapid mood alterations, high level of food and toy selectivity; inability to establish friendships or follow the instructions; fascination by round spinning objects and eating non-food materials are common psychological characteristics of autism. Speech or hearing impairments, poor cognitive function, gastrointestinal problems, weak immunity, disturbed sleep and circadian rhythms, weak motor neuromuscular interaction, lower level of serotonin and neurotransmitters, headache and body pain include common physiological symptoms. CONCLUSION: A variable qualitative and quantitative impact of these wide range of symptoms is perceived in each autistic individual making him/her distinct, incomparable and exceptional. Selection and application of highly personalized medical and psychological therapies are therefore recommended for the management and treatment of autism.

20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 19179-19185, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394408

RESUMO

With the growing awareness of the linkage among open defecation (OD), environment, and health, it is important to understand the factors responsible for OD. It is a necessary step toward developing a strategy to end open defecation for ensuring a better environment and human health. There is no such study available for Pakistan. The study, therefore, aims to bridge this gap. Using household data of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2017-2018, an association of OD with potential predictors, analysis of variance, and a logistic regression model are employed to develop the evidence. The results suggest that place of residence, education, poverty status, social norms, geopolitical regions, and living space significantly predict the OD behavior in Pakistan. This study recommends two things: first is to facilitate the households and communities to own latrines, second is to change the behavior through intervention. However, political commitment and effective administration will be key to ascertain ending OD.


Assuntos
Defecação , Saneamento , Humanos , Paquistão , População Rural , Toaletes
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