Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 58
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Palliat Med ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543271

RESUMO

Background: Very few studies have investigated the racial differences in do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in children, and these studies are limited to oncological cases. We aim to characterize the racial difference in DNR orders among U.S. pediatric surgical patients. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the mortality of all children who underwent an inpatient surgery between 2012 and 2017 from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. We used log-binomial models to estimate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of DNR use comparing white with African American (AA) children. To estimate the risk-adjusted difference in DNR orders, we controlled the analyses for age, prematurity status, emergent case status, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, year of operation, surgical specialty, and surgical complexity. Results: Between 2012 and 2017, a total of 276,917 children underwent inpatient surgery, of whom 0.8% (n = 1601) died within 30 days of operation. Of the 1601 mortality cases, we retained 1212 children who were of either AA (26.0%, n = 350) or white (63.9%, n = 862) race. Most children were neonates, had an American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥4 (70.0%, n = 811), and developed one or more postoperative complications (68.7%, n = 833). Overall, AA children were more likely to be neonates at the time of surgery (42.0% vs. 40.3%, p < 0.001), to be premature (66.3% vs. 49.0%, p < 0.001), and develop one or more postoperative complications (73.7% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.017). White children were three times more likely to have a DNR order than their AA peers (adjusted RR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.09-8.56, p = 0.044). Conclusion: Among pediatric surgical patients in the United States, children of white race were three times more likely to have a DNR order in place than their AA peers despite the latter being "sicker" and more likely to develop postoperative complications. The mechanisms underlying this racial difference deserve further elucidation to improve shared decision making and goal-concordant care.

2.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The critical question of racial and gender diversity in pediatric anesthesia training programs has not been previously explored. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate trends by race/ethnicity and gender in pediatric anesthesiology fellowship training programs in the United States for the years 2000 to 2018. METHODS: Demographic data on pediatric anesthesiology fellows and anesthesiology residents were obtained from the self-reported data collected for the Journal of the American Medical Association's annual report on Graduate Medical Education for the years 2000 to 2018. Diversity was assessed by calculating the proportions of trainees per year by gender and racial/ethnic groups in pediatric anesthesiology fellowship and anesthesiology residency programs. Logistic regression equations were developed to estimate the annual growth rate of each racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: The number of pediatric anesthesiology fellows increased from 57 trainees in 2000-2001 to 202 in 2017-2018 at an average rate of 9 fellows per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 8-10). These increases were primarily due to white trainees (54.4%-63.4%) as the proportions of black (7.0%-4.5%), Asian (26.3%-21.3%), and other minority (12.3%-10.9%) trainees have remained low. The number of anesthesiology residents increased from 3950 trainees in 2000-2001 to 5940 in 2017-2018 at an average rate of 99 residents per year (95% CI, 88-111). Within all anesthesiology trainees, these increases were due to white trainees (55.7%-61.3%) as the proportion of black (5.0%-6.0%), Asian (25.8%-24.1%), and other minority trainees (8.2%-8.5%) has remained fairly constant over the time period. Despite the overall lower proportion of female anesthesiology residents (range: 27.0%-37.5%), a steady increase in the number of women in pediatric anesthesiology fellowship programs has reversed the gender imbalance in this population as of 2010. CONCLUSIONS: While historic gains have been made in gender diversity in pediatric anesthesiology, there is persistent underrepresentation of black and Hispanic trainees in pediatric anesthesiology. It appears that their low numbers in anesthesiology residency programs (the reservoir) may be partly responsible. Efforts to increase ethnic/racial diversity in pediatric anesthesiology fellowship and anesthesiology residency training programs are urgently needed.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 130(2): 452-461, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many of the common equations used for body surface area determination were either introduced before the widespread prevalence of childhood obesity, contained very few children in their sample, or have not been assessed in overweight/obese children. Therefore, we compared 6 body surface area formulae to determine their performance across body mass index categories using cross-sectional anthropometric data of children who underwent elective cardiac procedures. METHODS: We selected 6 formulae from the literature that included data from pediatric subjects in their derivation. We then substituted measured height and weight into each equation to compute body surface area data for the study subjects. The average values of the 6 formulae were calculated for each patient and used as reference for comparison. Comparisons between each formula and the reference standard were made with the 1-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient (measure of precision), the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (measure of bias and precision), and the Bland-Altman limit-of-agreement. All comparisons were made across age, sex, and body mass index categories. RESULTS: Among the 1000 (mostly Caucasian: 76.1%) subjects, 16.7% were overweight, while 14.1% were obese and 51.2% were girls. All calculated body surface area data showed a strong positive correlation with each other and the derived reference body surface area values (0.99-1.00; P < .001). Calculated body surface area values for all the formulae were significantly higher in overweight and obese children across every age group. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity status is a critical factor in the determination of body surface area values in children undergoing elective cardiac procedures. We caution that indexed hemodynamic and other therapeutic interventions may be inappropriate if limitations of body surface area formulae and the effect of obesity are not taken into consideration when caring for overweight and obese children. Body surface area studies utilizing accurate contemporary techniques that include sufficient number of overweight and obese children of various races are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Superfície Corporal , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/cirurgia , Adolescente , Antropometria/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/cirurgia
8.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1225-1233, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children recovering from anesthesia experience pain that is severe enough to warrant intravenous (IV) opioid treatment within moments of admission to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Postoperative pain has several negative consequences; therefore, preventing significant PACU pain in children is both a major clinical goal and a moral/ethical imperative. This requires identifying patient-level and perioperative factors that may be used to predict PACU IV opioid requirement. This should allow for the development of personalized care protocols to prevent clinically significant PACU pain in children. Our objective was to develop prediction models enabling practitioners to identify children at risk for PACU IV opioid requirement after various painful ambulatory surgical procedures. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, clinical, demographic, and anthropometric data were prospectively collected on 1256 children 4-17 years of age scheduled for painful ambulatory surgery (defined as intraoperative administration of analgesia or local anesthetic infiltration). Three multivariable logistic regression models to determine possible predictors of PACU IV opioid requirement were constructed based on (1) preoperative history; (2) history + intraoperative variables; and (3) history + intraoperative variables + PACU variables. Candidate predictors were chosen from readily obtainable parameters routinely collected during the surgical visit. Predictive performance of each model was assessed by calculating the area under the respective receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Overall, 29.5% of patients required a PACU IV opioid, while total PACU analgesia requirement (oral or IV) was 41.1%. Independent predictors using history alone were female sex, decreasing age, surgical history, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.59 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.55-0.63]). Adding a few intraoperative variables improved the discriminant ability of the model (AUROC for the history + intraoperative variables model, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.67-0.74]). Addition of first-documented PACU pain score produced a substantially improved model (AUROC, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.82-0.87]). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain requiring PACU IV opioid in children may be determined using a small set of easily obtainable perioperative variables. Our models require validation in other settings to determine their clinical usefulness.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Local/métodos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Pediatria/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Antropometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sala de Recuperação , Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 111(5): 481-489, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data among pediatric otolaryngology patients showed unexplained higher rates of serious perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAE) in black children compared to their white peers. We evaluated whether preoperative respiratory comorbidity (PRC) burden contributes to racial disparity in serious PRAE in children undergoing non-otolaryngologic procedures. METHODS: Rates of serious PRAE (laryngospasm and/or bronchospasm) were compared across racial groups in a retrospective cohort of black and white children (N = 18538; black 10%) who underwent various elective, non-otolaryngologic procedures between 2007 and 2014 at a US tertiary Children's hospital. Self-reported race was the primary exposure while age, gender, recent upper respiratory tract infection, use of endotracheal intubation, PRC burden and an interaction term between PRC and race were covariates. RESULTS: Serious PRAE occurred in 9.6% of black children and 6.6% of white children. Although there was no significant difference in age between the groups, being black (odds ratio (OR) 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-2.62) was independently associated with serious PRAE. Similarly, baseline PRC was independently linked (p < 0.001) with serious PRAE. Notably, there was no significant (p = 0.454) interactions between race and PRC and serious PRAE in our subjects. CONCLUSION: Race and PRC are important considerations in the risk of serious PRAE and black children are especially at risk compared to their white peers. Children, with PRC (particularly those with SDB and asthma) are also at risk suggesting that due consideration should be given to these factors in the perioperative care of children undergoing elective surgical procedures. Mechanisms underlying these associations deserve further evaluation.

10.
J Perianesth Nurs ; 33(3): 304-311, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784260

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may be a critical risk factor for emergence agitation (EA). We hypothesized that SDB diagnosis is a predictor of EA in children after general anesthesia for ambulatory surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, observational, cohort study. METHODS: Children aged 4 to 17 years were assessed for the occurrence of EA. Differences in probability of EA were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses. FINDINGS: Of 1,076 children, 66 (6.1%) had EA. Compared with those without EA, children with EA were younger (P < .001), more likely to have had mask induction (P < .001) and a preoperative diagnosis of SDB (P = .008). On multivariable analysis, SDB, severe obesity, decreasing age in years, increasing first arousal pain score, and intraoperative use of sevoflurane were independently associated with EA. CONCLUSIONS: SDB and severe obesity may be critical independent predictors of EA in children. Mechanisms underlying these observations deserve further elucidation.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/complicações , Agitação Psicomotora/etiologia , Respiração , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia
12.
Anesth Analg ; 127(3): e47, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683830
17.
Anesthesiol Res Pract ; 2017: 3728289, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757869

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Almost all pediatric orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients require mechanical ventilation in the early postoperative period. Prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation (PPMV) may be a marker of severe disease and may be associated with morbidity and mortality. We determined the incidence and risk factors for PPMV in children who underwent OLT. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data collected on 128 pediatric OLT recipients. PPMV was defined as postoperative ventilation ≥ 4 days. Perioperative characteristics were compared between cases and control groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios for PPMV after controlling for relevant cofactors. RESULTS: An estimated 25% (95% CI, 17.4%-32.6%) required PPMV. The overall incidence of PPMV varied significantly by age group with the highest incidence among infants. PPMV was associated with higher postoperative mortality (p = 0.004) and longer intensive care unit (p < 0.001) and hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis identified young patient age, preoperative hypocalcemia, and increasing duration of surgery as independent predictors of PPMV following OLT. CONCLUSION: The incidence of PPMV is high and it was associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOS and higher posttransplant mortality. Surgery duration appears to be the only modifiable predictor of PPMV.

18.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 27(7): 760-767, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When pain management has been studied in settings such as pediatric emergency departments, racial disparities have been clearly identified. To our knowledge, this has not been studied in the pediatric perioperative setting. We sought to determine whether there are differences based on race in the administration of analgesia to children suffering from pain in the postanesthesia care unit. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational, study of 771 children aged 4-17 years who underwent elective outpatient surgery. Racial differences in probability of receiving analgesia for pain in the recovery room were assessed using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 294 children (38.2%) received at least one class of analgesia (opioid or nonopioid); while 210 (27.2%) received intravenous (i.v.) opioid analgesia in the recovery room. Overall postanesthesia care unit analgesia utilization was similar between white and minority children (white children 36.8% vs minority children 43.4%, OR 1.3; 95% CI=0.92-1.89; P=.134). We found no significant difference by racial/ethnic group in the likelihood of a child receiving i.v. opioid for severe postoperative pain (white children 76.0% vs 85.7%, OR 1.89; 95% CI=0.37-9.67; P=.437). However, minority children were more likely to receive i.v. opioid analgesia than their white peers (white children 24.5% vs minority children 34.2%, OR 1.5; 95% CI=1.04-2.2; P=.03). On multivariable analysis, minority children had a 63% higher adjusted odds of receiving i.v. opioids in the recovery room (OR=1.63; 95% CI, 1.05-2.62; P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: Receipt of analgesia for acute postoperative pain was not significantly associated with a child's race. Minority children were more likely to receive i.v. opioids for the management of mild pain.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Grupos Étnicos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 96: 145-151, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28390605

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms are associated with increased rates of opioid-induced respiratory depression as well as enhanced nociception. Consequently, practitioners often withhold or administer lower intraoperative doses of opioids out of concern for postoperative respiratory depression. Therefore, SDB may be a critical determinant of analgesic requirement in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). We investigated whether preoperative SDB classification was independently associated with need for PACU analgesic intervention in a cross-sectional sample of 985 children who underwent elective, painful ambulatory surgical procedures. METHODS: Using prospectively collected data, children aged 4-17yr were grouped into two categories based on whether or not they had symptoms of SDB. Perioperative variables were compared between the exposed and control groups using Chi-squared test for categorical or t-test for continuous variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SDB and the odds of requiring PACU IV opioids. RESULTS: Children with preoperative SDB symptoms (N = 325) compared with the reference group of children who did not have these symptoms had higher rates of PACU analgesic intervention (47.1% vs. 37.4%; p = 0.004) and higher mean arousal pain scores (3.7 ± 3.5 vs.1.9 ± 2.9; p < 0.001). In our primary multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for a number of variables, preoperative SDB symptoms was associated with a two-fold increased odds of receiving PACU intravenous opioid (OR = 2.01, 95%CI, 1.29-3.12; p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that preoperative SDB symptoms in children undergoing ambulatory surgery, exerts a significant influence on PACU pain behavior and analgesic requirement. Mechanisms underlying this enhanced pain experience deserve further elucidation.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 75(6): 1137-1143, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011324

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Open temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroplasty with discectomy has been described as a primary surgical treatment and as a secondary treatment when minimally invasive procedures have failed. The aim of the present study was to compare TMJ discectomy with a fat graft versus TMJ discectomy with a temporalis graft using the pain score and maximal interincisal opening (MIO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients who had undergone TMJ arthroplasty and discectomy with an abdominal fat graft or an interpositional temporalis flap at the University of Michigan from 1999 to 2014. The predictor variable was the type of surgical intervention. The main outcome variables were the pain score and MIO. Additional outcome variables were diet, medication use, the presence of myofascial pain, and occlusal outcomes. The statistical analysis included the mean ± standard deviation, a 1-way analysis of variance for continuous data, and Pearson's χ2 test for categorical variables. RESULTS: The study cohort included 50 patients, of whom 30 had undergone discectomy with a fat graft and 20 had undergone discectomy with a temporalis myofascial graft. The mean pain scores were decreased by 78.3% in the myofascial flap group and 52.8% in the fat graft group. Changes in MIO showed a statistically significant increase in the fat graft group but only approached statistical significance in the myofascial flap group. CONCLUSIONS: The patients who had undergone TMJ arthroplasty and discectomy with a temporalis myofascial flap showed significantly greater improvement in pain scores and marginal improvement in the MIO compared with patients who had received an abdominal fat graft.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/transplante , Artroplastia/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Músculo Temporal/transplante , Disco da Articulação Temporomandibular/cirurgia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA