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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407838

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the agreement between self-reported use of sleep medications and tranquilizers and dispensed hypnotics and anxiolytics. METHODS: Self-reported medication use was obtained from the population-based survey Health and Environment in Oslo (HELMILO) (2009-2010) (n = 13 019). Data on dispensed hypnotics and anxiolytics were obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). As measures of validity, we calculated sensitivity and specificity using both self-reports and prescription records as the reference standard. Furthermore, we calculated Cohen's kappa. Current self-reported medication use was compared with prescription data in time windows of both 100 and 200 days preceding questionnaire completion. RESULTS: The highest sensitivity was observed for current sleep medication use in the 100-day time window (sensitivity = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74, 0.79) when using prescription records as the reference standard. Sensitivity was generally lower for tranquilizers compared with sleep medications. Cohen's kappa showed the highest agreement for the 200-day time window with substantial agreement for sleep medications (kappa = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.67) and moderate agreement for tranquilizers (kappa = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests moderate to substantial agreement between self-reported use of sleep medications and tranquilizers and dispensed drugs in a general adult population. The magnitude of agreement varied according to drug category and time window. Since self-reported and registry-based use of these drug classes does not match each other accurately, limitations of each data source should be considered when such medications are applied as the exposure or outcome in epidemiologic studies.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 120(10): 1007-1014, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the association of a family history of cancer with the risk of testicular cancer in young adults. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study including 1,974,287 males born 1951-2015, of whom 2686 were diagnosed with TC before the age of 30. RESULTS: A history of TC in male relatives was significantly associated with a diagnosis of TC among children and young adults, including brothers (6.3-fold), sons (4.7-fold), fathers (4.4-fold), paternal uncles (2.0-fold) and maternal uncles (1.9-fold). Individuals with a father diagnosed with a carcinoma or sarcoma showed an elevated risk (1.1-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively). A family history of mesothelioma was positively associated with a risk of TC [(father (2.8-fold), mother (4.6-fold) and maternal uncles and aunt (4.4-fold)]. Elevated risks were also observed when siblings were diagnosed with malignant melanoma (1.4-fold). The risk of TC was also increased when fathers (11.1-fold), paternal (4.9-fold) and maternal uncles and aunts (4.6-fold) were diagnosed with malignant neuroepithelial-tumours. CONCLUSION: We found an increased risk of TC among children and young adults with a family history of TC, carcinoma, mesothelioma, sarcoma, malignant melanoma and malignant neuroepithelial tumours. Hereditary cancer syndromes might underlie some of the associations reported in this study.

3.
Thorax ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear what underlies the greater risk of asthma reported among children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to clarify the role of parental subfertility and unmeasured confounding on the association between ART and childhood asthma, and to examine the possibility for common mechanisms underlying parental subfertility and miscarriages influencing asthma pathogenesis. METHODS: We used data from national Norwegian health registries (n=474 402) and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (n=75 797). We used log-linear regression to estimate overall associations, and fixed-effects logistic regression to estimate associations within siblings. RESULTS: ART offspring had greater asthma risk, the adjusted relative risk (aRR) was 1.20 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.32) in the registry-based cohort, and 1.42 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.76) in MoBa. The sibling analysis yielded similar associations, although the CI included the null value. The elevated asthma risk among ART offspring was attenuated when they were compared with spontaneously conceived offspring with time to conception >12 months, aRR 1.22 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.57). Asthma risk also increased with maternal history of early miscarriages (≤12 weeks), with an aRR of 1.07 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.11) for one, aRR 1.18 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.26) for two and aRR 1.24 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.37) for three or more. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that both parental subfertility and characteristics related to the ART procedure itself might increase offspring asthma risk, although this needs to be confirmed in future studies, and further suggest that common mechanisms underlying parental subfertility and recurrent miscarriages might influence offspring asthma pathogenesis.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 107(5): 789-798, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722838

RESUMO

Background: Western diets may provide excess vitamin A, which is potentially toxic and could adversely affect respiratory health and counteract benefits from vitamin D. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine child asthma at age 7 y in relation to maternal intake of vitamins A and D during pregnancy, infant supplementation with these vitamins, and their potential interaction. Design: We studied 61,676 school-age children (born during 2002-2007) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort with data on maternal total (food and supplement) nutrient intake in pregnancy (food-frequency questionnaire validated against biomarkers) and infant supplement use at age 6 mo (n = 54,142 children). Linkage with the Norwegian Prescription Database enabled near-complete follow-up (end of second quarter in 2015) for dispensed medications to classify asthma. We used log-binomial regression to calculate adjusted RRs (aRRs) for asthma with 95% CIs. Results: Asthma increased according to maternal intake of total vitamin A [retinol activity equivalents (RAEs)] in the highest (≥2031 RAEs/d) compared with the lowest (≤779 RAEs/d) quintile (aRR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40) and decreased for total vitamin D in the highest (≥13.6 µg/d) compared with the lowest (≤3.5 µg/d) quintile (aRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.97) during pregnancy. No association was observed for maternal intake in the highest quintiles of both nutrients (aRR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.18) and infant supplementation with vitamin D or cod liver oil. Conclusions: Excess vitamin A (≥2.5 times the recommended intake) during pregnancy was associated with increased risk, whereas vitamin D intake close to recommendations was associated with a reduced risk of asthma in school-age children. No association for high intakes of both nutrients suggests antagonistic effects of vitamins A and D. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03197233.

6.
Matern Child Health J ; 22(4): 512-519, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29285630

RESUMO

Objectives Air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of preeclampsia and hypertension during pregnancy. However, the evidence for such a relation is still limited. We investigated the associations between exposure for moderate to low levels of air pollution during pregnancy and preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in selected urban and county areas of Norway. Methods This study used a sub-group of 17,533 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Air pollution levels at residential addresses were estimated using land use regression models and back-extrapolated to the period of each pregnancy. Information on preeclampsia and gestational hypertension were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and information on lifestyle factors was collected from questionnaires completed by the women during pregnancy. Results Moderate mean levels of NO2 (13.6 ± 6.9 µg/m3) at residential address during pregnancy were not associated with preeclampsia and pregnancy hypertension. We found no statistically significant associations per 10 µg/m3 change in NO2 exposure and preeclampsia (adjusted OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08) or hypertension during pregnancy (adjusted OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.78, 1.06). Conclusions for Practice In this large Norwegian pregnancy cohort, we found no statistically significant associations for moderate to low levels of pregnancy NO2 exposure and preeclampsia or hypertension during pregnancy.

7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(6): 1199-1209, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244063

RESUMO

Prenatal maternal psychosocial stress might influence the development of childhood asthma. Evaluating paternal psychosocial stress and conducting a sibling comparison could provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding. We examined the associations of parental psychosocial stress during and after pregnancy with asthma at age 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 63,626; children born in 2000-2007). Measures of psychosocial stress included lifetime major depressive symptoms, current anxiety/depression symptoms, use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics, life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work stress, and social support. Childhood asthma was associated with maternal lifetime major depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.30), in addition to symptoms of anxiety/depression during pregnancy (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28). Maternal negative life events during pregnancy (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.13) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18) were also associated with asthma. These associations were not replicated when evaluated within sibling groups. There were no associations with paternal psychosocial stress. In conclusion, maternal anxiety/depression and negative life events were associated with offspring asthma, but this might be explained by unmeasured maternal background characteristics that remain stable across deliveries.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 1(7): e184145, 2018 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646341

RESUMO

Importance: With increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and its manifestation in most countries, together with the supporting evidence of the progression to other atopic phenotypes, AD has developed into a worldwide public health concern. The presence of the disease of has increased since the 1950s, but some recent studies suggest a stationary or decreasing trend. Objective: To analyze a nationwide health register based on prescription data to determine the incidence rate (IR) of AD in an entire pediatric population. Design, Setting, and Participants: All children resident in Norway younger than 6 years from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2015, were included in this cohort study. Medical diagnoses and disease-specific medications were used as a proxy for identifying children with AD in this population-based prescription registry study. The prescription study was terminated in 2016. The total number of 295 286 disease-specific prescriptions was analyzed from August 2016 through December 2017. The hypothesis was formulated before, during, and after the data collection. Main Outcomes and Measures: All children with a medical diagnosis of AD or eczema based on at least 2 prescriptions of topical corticosteroids or at least 1 prescription of topical calcineurin inhibitors. Incidence rates per person-year (PY) and IR ratios were calculated. Results: A total of 295 286 disease-specific prescriptions were dispensed to 122 470 children, of whom 63 460 had AD and 56 009 (88.3%) had reimbursed prescriptions and associated AD diagnoses. The annual Norwegian study population (aged <6 years) increased from 357 451 children in 2009 to 373 954 in 2015. The overall IR increased from 0.028 per PY (95% CI, 0.028-0.029 per PY) in 2009 to 0.034 per PY (95% CI, 0.033-0.035 per PY) in 2014. For children younger than 1 year, the IR increased from 0.052 per PY (95% CI, 0.050-0.053 PY) in 2009 to 0.073 per PY (95% CI, 0.071-0.075 per PY) in 2014. In this age group, the IR was 53% higher in boys compared with girls (IR ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.49-1.57; P < .001). The incidence proportion before the age of 6 years was 17.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-17.7%). The primary seasons for the onset of AD were winter and spring. Conclusions and Relevance: This nationwide study suggests an increase in the IR of pediatric AD, especially among children younger than 1 year. This study's findings suggest that increase occurred with a higher IR during winter and spring seasons. Atopic dermatitis had an earlier onset in boys than in girls. During the study period, more than 1 in 6 children younger than 6 years had, at some point, been affected by AD.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/tendências , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Saúde do Lactente/tendências , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais
9.
BMJ Open ; 7(12): e015796, 2017 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether maternal air pollution exposure during pregnancy induces changes in the developing respiratory system of a child and whether it has consequences for respiratory health in early childhood. We investigated associations between exposure to moderate levels of air pollution during pregnancy and early childhood lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and wheezing. METHODS: This study used a subgroup of 17 533 participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Air pollution levels at residential addresses were estimated using land use regression models, and back-extrapolated to the period of each pregnancy. Information on LRTI and wheezing and lifestyle factors was collected from questionnaires completed by mothers during pregnancy and when the child was 6 and 18 months of age. RESULTS: Moderate mean levels of NO2 (13.6 µg/m3, range 0.01-60.4) exposure at residential address during pregnancy were not statistically associated with LRTI and wheezing. No association was found per 10 µg/m3 change in NO2 exposure and LRTI before the age of 6 months (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0.99; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.17), or between 6 and 18 months of age (adjusted RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.16). Similarly, we found no association per 10 µg/m3 change in NO2 exposure and wheezing between 6 and 18 months of age (adjusted RR 1.02; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.07). CONCLUSIONS: There were no statistically significant associations for moderate levels of pregnancy NO2 exposure and respiratory health outcomes during early childhood in overall analyses.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Materna , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Noruega , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Environ Health ; 16(1): 110, 2017 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been associated with adverse health effects including sleep disturbances. Use of sleep medication as an indicator of sleeping problems has rarely been explored in studies of the effects of traffic noise. Furthermore, using registry data on sleep medications provides an opportunity to study the effects of noise on sleep where attribution of sleep problems to noise is not possible. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from the population-based study Health and Environment in Oslo (HELMILO) (2009-10) (n = 13,019). Individual data on sleep medications was obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). Noise levels (L night) were modeled for the most exposed façade of the building at each participant's home address. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to analyze the association between traffic noise and sleep medication use both for one whole year and for the summer season. The results were reported as changes in the effect estimate per 5 decibel (dB) increase in noise level. RESULTS: We observed no association between traffic noise and sleep medication use during one year [odds ratio (OR) = 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96, 1.04]. For sleep medication use in the summer season, there was a positive, however non-significant association (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.10). Among individuals sleeping with the bedroom window open, the association increased slightly and was borderline statistically significant (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.12). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of an association between traffic noise and sleep medication use during one year. However, for the summer season, there was some suggestive evidence of an association. These findings indicate that season may play a role in the association between traffic noise and sleep, possibly because indoor traffic noise levels are likely to be higher during summer due to more frequent window opening. More studies are, however, necessary in order to confirm this.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído dos Transportes , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Estações do Ano
11.
BMJ Open ; 7(7): e016460, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28698346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and address the changes in arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and heart rate (HR) in native Tibetans who reascend to the high-altitude city of Lhasa (3658 m) after a 7-year stay at low altitude. METHODS: We followed two cohorts of students aged 17-21 years (859 Native Tibetan and 801 Han Chinese), travelling from lowland China until 3 days after their arrival in highland city of Lhasa. Questionnaire information of the symptoms of AMS using the Lake Louise Scoring System, resting SaO2 and HR were assessed both before leaving the lowland and after arriving in Lhasa. Linear regression was performed to compare changes in SaO2 and HR levels from low to high altitude in Tibetan and Han Chinese. RESULTS: New cases of AMS occurred in only 1.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 2.0%) of the Tibetan students who came to Lhasa by train compared with 32.7% (95% CI 28.0% to 37.3%) and 42.9% (95% CI 38.0% to 47.7%) of the Han Chinese students who came to Lhasa by train and by air, respectively. Tibetan students had less changes in SaO2 (-2.95 percentage points, 95% CI -3.24% to -2.65%) and HR (10.89 beats per minute (bpm), 95% CI 9.62 to 12.16 bpm) from low to high altitude compared with Han Chinese students, although measurements did not differ between the two groups when measured at low altitude. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy Tibetans are mostly protected against AMS and primarily maintain their good adaptation to high altitude, even after a long period of stay at low altitude.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude/epidemiologia , Doença da Altitude/fisiopatologia , Altitude , Frequência Cardíaca , Oxigênio/sangue , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Oximetria , Consumo de Oxigênio , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Tibet/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arch Public Health ; 75: 20, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28469847

RESUMO

We kindly thank the journal for the opportunity to respond to the recent comments made regarding our manuscript entitled "Acute mountain sickness among tourists visiting the high-altitude city of Lhasa, Tibet, China at 3658 m above sea level: A cross-sectional study".

13.
Sleep ; 40(2)2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28364487

RESUMO

Study Objectives: The aims of the present study were to investigate how nighttime road traffic noise relates to self-reported symptoms of insomnia and sleep medication use. Methods: We used questionnaire data from the population-based study Health and Environment in Oslo (HELMILO) (2009-2010; n = 13019). The insomnia symptoms difficulties falling asleep, awakenings during the night, and waking up too early in the morning as well as self-reported sleep medication use were included as outcomes. Modeled noise levels (Lnight) were assigned to each participant's home address. For selecting covariates to the statistical model, we used a directed acyclic graph. The associations between noise and sleep were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, we found an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.09) for the association between traffic noise and difficulties falling asleep, in the total study population. For the association between traffic noise and awakenings during the night, the OR was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.08) and for waking up too early, the OR was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.11). The effect estimates are given per 5-dB increase in traffic noise level (Lnight). Self-reported sleep medication use was not statistically significantly associated with traffic noise exposure. Conclusions: In an adult population from Oslo, traffic noise was associated with difficulties falling asleep and waking up too early. These findings indicate that sleep quantity may be compromised for individuals living in areas highly exposed to nighttime traffic noise.


Assuntos
Escuridão , Meio Ambiente , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Razão de Chances , Autorrelato , Sono , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(4): 247-258, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087514

RESUMO

Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy. Atmospheric pollution measurements (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) were combined with data from permanent monitors and land-use data into seasonally adjusted land-use regression models. Preterm birth risks associated with air pollution and meteorological factors were estimated using adjusted discrete-time Cox models. The frequency of preterm birth was 5.0%. Preterm birth risk tended to increase with first-trimester average atmospheric pressure (odds ratio per 5-mbar increase = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11), which could not be distinguished from altitude. There was also some evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk with first-trimester average temperature in the -5°C to 15°C range, with a plateau afterwards (spline coding, P = 0.08). No evidence of adverse association with atmospheric pollutants was observed. Our study lends support for an increase in preterm birth risk with atmospheric pressure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Atmosférica , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Saúde da População Urbana
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 195(2): 221-228, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27518161

RESUMO

RATIONALE: A potential adverse effect of high folate intake during pregnancy on children's asthma development remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively investigate folate intake from both food and supplements during pregnancy and asthma at age 7 years when the diagnosis is more reliable than at preschool age. METHODS: This study included eligible children born 2002-2006 from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a population-based pregnancy cohort, linked to the Norwegian Prescription Database. Current asthma at age 7 was defined by asthma medications dispensed at least twice in the year (1,901 cases; n = 39,846) or by maternal questionnaire report (1,624 cases; n = 28,872). Maternal folate intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire validated against plasma folate. We used log-binomial and multinomial regression to calculate adjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Risk of asthma was increased in the highest versus lowest quintile of total folate intake with an adjusted relative risk of 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.44) that was similar for maternally reported asthma. Mothers in the highest quintile had a relatively high intake of food folate (median, 308; interquartile range, 241-366 µg/d) and nearly all took at least 400 µg/d of supplemental folic acid (median, 500; interquartile range, 400-600 µg/d). CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective population-based cohort with essentially complete follow-up, pregnant women taking supplemental folic acid at or above the recommended dose, combined with a diet rich in folate, reach a total folate intake level associated with a slightly increased risk of asthma in children.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Eur Respir J ; 48(6): 1622-1630, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27824595

RESUMO

Studies of pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma are conflicting, and none have performed a formal mediation analysis of preterm birth.We examined the association between pre-eclampsia and asthma at 7 years using national registries, including all births in Norway from 1999 to 2006 (n=406 907), and a subsample of children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (n=45 028) using log-linear regression. We performed a mediation analysis of preterm birth, and a sibling comparison to evaluate unobserved confounding.There was a positive association between pre-eclampsia and asthma in the registry study, with an adjusted relative risk of 1.31 (95% CI 1.22-1.41), but not in MoBa, which had an adjusted relative risk of 1.19 (95% CI 0.99-1.44). The odds ratios for the direct effect not mediated through preterm birth and the indirect effect in the registry linkage were 1.19 (95% CI 1.10-1.29) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.11-1.14), respectively. The sibling comparison indicated no association between pre-eclampsia and asthma (adjusted OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.33).In this large study, which used different datasets and analytic approaches, there was little evidence for an association between pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma. The association was weak and largely explained by pre-term birth and confounders shared by siblings.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Irmãos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Public Health ; 74: 26, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27358731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution has adverse effects on cardiopulmonary health of adults. Exposure to air pollution in pregnancy may affect foetal development. However, the evidence of such effect remains inconsistent. We investigated the effects of exposure to air pollution during pregnancy on birth outcomes. METHODS: This study, based within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), includes 17,533 participants living in the two largest cities in Norway: Oslo and Bergen, and their two surrounding counties: Akershus and Hordaland. Air pollution levels at residential addresses were estimated using land use regression models and back-extrapolated to the period of each pregnancy using continuous monitoring station data. Birth outcomes were birth weight, low birth weight, gestational age, and preterm delivery obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Information on lifestyle factors was collected from MoBa questionnaires completed by mothers during pregnancy. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the associations between pregnancy NO2 exposure and birth outcomes. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant negative association between pregnancy exposure to NO2 and birth weight -43.6 (95%CI -55.8 to -31.5) g per 10 µg/m(3) NO2. However, after adjusting for either area or the combination of parity and maternal weight, no substantive effects of air pollution exposure were evident. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy was associated with decrease in birth weight, but area-related and lifestyle factors attenuated this association. We found no statistically significant associations of air pollution exposure with gestational age, low birth weight or preterm delivery.

18.
Arch Public Health ; 74: 23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27252854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traveling to Tibet implies a risk for developing acute mountain sickness (AMS), and the size of this problem is likely increasing due to the rising number of tourists. No previous study on AMS has been conducted among the general tourist population in Tibet. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of AMS in a large tourist population visiting Lhasa. METHODS: A sample of 2385 tourists was recruited from seven randomly selected hotels in Lhasa between June and October 2010. Within three days of their first arrival, the participants filled in a questionnaire based on the Lake Louise Scoring System (LLSS) about AMS-related symptoms and potential contributing factors. AMS was defined as the presence of headache and a cumulative Lake Louise Score ≥4. After estimating the prevalence of AMS, a Log-Binomial Model was applied to analyse the relationship between AMS and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of AMS was 36.7 % (95 % CI: 34.6-38.7 %) and was not dependent on tourists' country of origin. Among the participants who developed AMS, 47.6 % reported that they experienced symptoms within the first 12 h after arriving in Lhasa, and 79.0 % reported that they had to reduce their activity level. A poor or average health condition (adjusted PR 1.63, 95 % CI 1.38-1.93), an age below 55 years (adjusted PR 1.29, 95 % CI 1.04-1.60), a rapid ascent to Lhasa (adjusted PR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.34) were independent AMS risk factors, while smoking (adjusted PR 0.75, 95 % CI 0.59-0.96) and pre-exposure to high altitude (adjusted PR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.60-0.84) reduced the risk of AMS. CONCLUSIONS: AMS is commonly experienced by tourists visiting Lhasa Tibet, and often affects their activities. The tourists' country of origin did not seem to affect their risk of AMS, and their age was inversely related to AMS. Subjects planning to visit a high-altitude area should be prepared for experiencing AMS-related problems, and consider preventive measures such as pre-exposure or a gradual ascent to high altitudes.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(5): 1319-1325.e4, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neopterin levels and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios (KTRs) increase with IFN-γ stimulation, indicating TH1 immunity, and thus might be inversely associated with asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the association of maternal neopterin levels and KTRs during pregnancy with asthma in the offspring. METHODS: We analyzed the associations of maternal plasma total neopterin levels and KTRs in midpregnancy with asthma at age 7 years among 2883 children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Asthma was classified either based on registered dispensed asthma medications in the Norwegian Prescription Database or maternal report. We calculated adjusted relative risks using log-binomial regression. RESULTS: The median gestational week of blood sampling was 18 weeks (interquartile range, 17-19 weeks). The risk of dispensed asthma medications at age 7 years was highest among children of mothers in the highest quartile of neopterin levels, whereas the risk was similar in the 3 lowest quartiles. The adjusted relative risk of dispensed asthma medications was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.16-2.38) when comparing children of mothers in the highest quartile with those in the 3 lowest quartiles. A similar association was observed for maternal report of asthma at age 7 years. When we evaluated allergic versus nonallergic asthma, neopterin levels tended to be associated with nonallergic asthma. Maternal KTR was not associated with asthma development. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that high maternal levels of neopterin, a marker of cellular immune activation, during pregnancy were positively associated with asthma in offspring. Experimental studies would be needed to further elucidate underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Neopterina/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Cinurenina/sangue , Noruega/epidemiologia , Triptofano/sangue
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 45(2): 512-22, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paracetamol exposure has been positively associated with asthma development. The relative importance of prenatal vs infant exposure and confounding by indication remains elusive. We examined the association of prenatal and infant (first 6 months) paracetamol exposure with asthma development while addressing confounding by indication. METHODS: We used information from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 53169 children for evaluation of current asthma at 3 years, 25394 for current asthma at 7 years and 45607 for dispensed asthma medications at 7 years in the Norwegian Prescription Database. We calculated adjusted relative risks (adj. RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using log-binomial regression. RESULTS: There were independent modest associations between asthma at 3 years with prenatal paracetamol exposure (adj. RR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.25) and use of paracetamol during infancy (adj. RR 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.45). The results were consistent for asthma at 7 years. The associations with prenatal paracetamol exposure were seen for different indications (pain, respiratory tract infections/influenza and fever). Maternal pain during pregnancy was the only indication that showed an association both with and without paracetamol use. Maternal paracetamol use outside pregnancy and paternal paracetamol use were not associated with asthma development. In a secondary analysis, prenatal ibuprofen exposure was positively associated with asthma at 3 years but not asthma at 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that prenatal and infant paracetamol exposure have independent associations with asthma development. Our findings suggest that the associations could not be fully explained by confounding by indication.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Mães , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Análise Multivariada , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
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