Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 31
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243656

RESUMO

In layered hybrid perovskites, such as (BA)2 PbI4 (BA=C4 H9 NH3 ), electrons and holes are considered to be confined in atomically thin two dimensional (2D) Pb-I inorganic layers. These inorganic layers are electronically isolated from each other in the third dimension by the insulating organic layers. Herein we report our experimental findings that suggest the presence of electronic interaction between the inorganic layers in some parts of the single crystals. The extent of this interaction is reversibly tuned by intercalation of organic and inorganic molecules in the layered perovskite single crystals. Consequently, optical absorption and emission properties switch reversibly with intercalation. Furthermore, increasing the distance between inorganic layers by increasing the length of the organic spacer cations systematically decreases these electronic interactions. This finding that the parts of the layered hybrid perovskites are not strictly electronically 2D is critical for understanding the electronic, optical, and optoelectronic properties of these technologically important materials.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168412

RESUMO

Bi3+ and lanthanide ions have been codoped in metal oxides as optical sensitizers and emitters. But such codoping is not known in typical semiconductors such as Si, GaAs, and CdSe. Metal halide perovskite with coordination number 6 provides an opportunity to codope Bi3+ and lanthanide ions. Codoping of Bi3+ and Ln3+ (Ln=Er and Yb) in Cs2 AgInCl6 double perovskite is presented. Bi3+ -Er3+ codoped Cs2 AgInCl6 shows Er3+ f-electron emission at 1540 nm (suitable for low-loss optical communication). Bi3+ codoping decreases the excitation (absorption) energy, such that the samples can be excited with ca. 370 nm light. At that excitation, Bi3+ -Er3+ codoped Cs2 AgInCl6 shows ca. 45 times higher emission intensity compared to the Er3+ doped Cs2 AgInCl6 . Similar results are also observed in Bi3+ -Yb3+ codoped sample emitting at 994 nm. A combination of temperature-dependent (5.7 K to 423 K) photoluminescence and calculations is used to understand the optical sensitization and emission processes.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 151(16): 161101, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675874

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskites are extraordinary optoelectronic materials, but there are issues related to their toxicity and instability. To overcome these issues, various lead-free perovskites are being explored. Metal halide double perovskites, for example, Cs2AgSbCl6, in which two Pb2+ in CsPbCl3 (or Cs2Pb2Cl6) are replaced with one Ag+ and one Sb3+, provide both charge balanced and stable 3D perovskite structures. Synthesis of such double perovskites with different compositions, sizes, and solution processabilities still remains a challenge. The present communication describes synthesis and characterization of colloidal Cs2AgSb1-xBixCl6 alloy nanocrystals with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. These nanocrystals exhibit an elpasolite structure where the lattice parameters vary systematically with the composition "x." The nanocrystals are cubic in shape with an edge-length of ∼10 nm. UV-visible absorption spectra also change systematically with composition. The lowest energy absorption peak ∼3.4 eV becomes sharper along with a red-shift with increasing Bi content. The alloying can influence the optical absorption by both modifying the intrinsic electronic band structure and changing the concentration of antisite disorders. For intermediate compositions (x = 0.22, 0.36, and 0.70), photoluminescence with a peak at 2.74 eV is observed.

4.
Nanoscale ; 11(10): 4278-4286, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806430

RESUMO

Long term stability of the black perovskite phase of CsPbI3 nanocrystals under ambient conditions is an important challenge for their optoelectronic applications in real life. The nanocrystalline size is found to improve the stability of the black phase at room temperature. Furthermore, doping Mn is proposed to improve the stability of the black perovskite phase of CsPbI3 nanocrystals (NCs). However, the undoped and Mn-doped CsPbI3 NCs are prepared in different batches under somewhat different synthesis conditions thus obliterating the role of Mn in the stability of the black phase of CsPbI3 NCs. Here, we elucidate the effect of Mn doping on the surface and lattice energy of CsPbI3 NCs, stabilizing the black phase. For this purpose, we employ a postsynthesis doping strategy which has an advantage that the initial host remains the same for both undoped and Mn-doped samples. Uncertainties in the size/shape, surface energy, and structure through direct synthesis of undoped and Mn-doped NCs in different batches can be neglected in our postsynthesis doping strategy, allowing us to study the effect of dopants in a more controlled manner. Our postsynthesis Mn-doping in CsPbI3 NCs shows that the black phase stability under ambient conditions improves from few days for the undoped sample to nearly a month's time for the Mn-doped sample. We found that though surface passivation with a dopant precursor improves both colloidal and phase stability of black CsPbI3 NCs, it is the contraction of the lattice upon Mn-doping that mainly stabilizes the films of black phase CsPbI3 NCs. Similarly, we found that Mn-doped CsPbBr3 NCs show improved ambient stability of photoluminescence compared to the undoped sample.

5.
Chem Asian J ; 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29809310

RESUMO

Double perovskites (DPs) with a generic formula A2 M'(I)MIII X6 (A and M are metal ions, and X=Cl, Br, I) are now being explored as potential alternatives to Pb-halide perovskites for solar cells and other optoelectronic applications. However, these DPs typically suffer from wide (≈3 eV) and/or indirect band gaps. In 2017, a new structural variety, namely layered halide DP Cs4 CuSb2 Cl12 (CCSC) with bivalent CuII ion in the place of M'(I) was reported, which exhibit a band gap of approximately 1 eV. Here, we report a mechanochemical synthesis of CCSC, its thermal and chemical stability, and magnetic response of CuII d9 electrons controlling the optoelectronic properties. A simple grinding of precursor salts at ambient conditions provides a stable and scalable product. CCSC is stable in water/acetone solvent mixtures (≈30 % water) and many other polar solvents unlike Pb-halide perovskites. It decomposes to Cs3 Sb2 Cl9 , Cs2 CuCl4 , and SbCl3 at 210 °C, but the reaction can be reversed back to produce CCSC at lower temperatures and high humidity. A long-range magnetic ordering is observed in CCSC even at room temperature. The role of such magnetic ordering in controlling the dispersion of the conduction band, and therefore, controlling the electronic and optoelectronic properties of CCSC has been discussed.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(41): 5205-5208, 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722380

RESUMO

Metal halide double perovskites (DPs) are being explored as stable and non-toxic alternatives of Pb-halide perovskites. Typically DPs exhibit a wide (>2.5 eV) and/or indirect bandgap, limiting their applications in the visible region. Here we impart the visible-light emission property in direct bandgap Cs2AgInCl6 DPs by doping Mn2+ ions. Synthesis, characterization and luminescence of metal halide double perovskites are reported.

7.
Chem Sci ; 8(6): 4602-4611, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970882

RESUMO

Colloidal lead halide based perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have been recently established as an interesting class of defect-tolerant NCs with potential for superior optoelectronic applications. The electronic band structure of thallium halides (TlX, where X = Br and I) show a strong resemblance to lead halide perovskites, where both Pb2+ and Tl+ exhibit a 6s2 inert pair of electrons and strong spin-orbit coupling. Although the crystal structure of TlX is not perovskite, the similarities of its electronic structure with lead halide perovskites motivated us to prepare colloidal TlX NCs. These TlX NCs exhibit a wide bandgap (>2.5 eV or <500 nm) and the potential to exhibit a reduced density of deep defect states. Optical pump terahertz (THz) probe spectroscopy with excitation fluence in the range of 0.85-5.86 × 1013 photons per cm2 on NC films shows that the TlBr NCs possess high effective carrier mobility (∼220 to 329 cm2 V-1 s-1), long diffusion length (∼0.77 to 0.98 µm), and reasonably high photoluminescence efficiency (∼10%). This combination of properties is remarkable compared to other wide-bandgap (>2.5 eV) semiconductor NCs, which suggests a reduction in the deep-defect states in the TlX NCs. Furthermore, the ultrafast carrier dynamics and temperature-dependent reversible structural phase transition together with its influence on the optical properties of the TlX NCs are studied.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(20): 4988-4994, 2017 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28937765

RESUMO

Optoelectronic properties of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocubes (NCs) depend strongly on the interaction of the organic passivating molecules with the inorganic crystal. To understand this interaction, we employed a combination of synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and first-principles density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations. Variable energy XPS elucidated the internal structure of the inorganic part in a layer-by-layer fashion, whereas NMR characterized the organic ligands. Our experimental results confirm that oleylammonium ions act as capping ligands by substituting Cs+ ions from the surface of CsPbBr3 NCs. DFT calculations shows that the substitution mechanism does not require much energy for surface reconstruction and, in contrast, stabilizes the nanocrystal by the formation of three hydrogen bonds between the -NH3+ moiety of oleylammonium and surrounding Br- on the surface of NCs. This substitution mechanism and its origin are in stark contrast to the usual adsorption of organic ligands on the surface of typical NCs.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(45): 14187-14191, 2017 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28906065

RESUMO

Herein we report the colloidal synthesis of Cs3 Sb2 I9 and Rb3 Sb2 I9 perovskite nanocrystals, and explore their potential for optoelectronic applications. Different morphologies, such as nanoplatelets and nanorods of Cs3 Sb2 I9 , and spherical Rb3 Sb2 I9 nanocrystals were prepared. All these samples show band-edge emissions in the yellow-red region. Exciton many-body interactions studied by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of Cs3 Sb2 I9 nanorods reveals characteristic second-derivative-type spectral features, suggesting red-shifted excitons by as much as 79 meV. A high absorption cross-section of ca. 10-15  cm2 was estimated. The results suggest that colloidal Cs3 Sb2 I9 and Rb3 Sb2 I9 nanocrystals are potential candidates for optical and optoelectronic applications in the visible region, though a better control of defect chemistry is required for efficient applications.

10.
Nano Lett ; 17(9): 5402-5407, 2017 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831807

RESUMO

Colloidal all inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged to be an excellent material for applications in light emission, photovoltaics, and photocatalysis. Efficient interfacial transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes are essential for a good photovoltaic and photocatalytic material. Using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, we have measured the kinetics of photogenerated electron and hole transfer processes in CsPbBr3 NCs in the presence of benzoquinone and phenothiazine molecules as electron and hole acceptors, respectively. Efficient hot electron/hole transfer with a sub-300 fs time scale is the major channel of carrier transfer thus overcomes the problem related to Auger recombination. A secondary transfer of thermalized carriers also takes place with time scales of 20-50 ps for electrons and 137-166 ps for holes. This work suggests that suitable interfaces of CsPbX3 NCs with electron and hole transport layers would harvest hot carriers, increasing the photovoltaic and photocatalytic efficiencies.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(25): 7038-7054, 2017 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28150912

RESUMO

Introducing a few atoms of impurities or dopants in semiconductor nanocrystals can drastically alter the existing properties or even introduce new properties. For example, mid-gap states created by doping tremendously affect photocatalytic activities and surface controlled redox reactions, generate new emission centers, show thermometric optical switching, make FRET donors by enhancing the excited state lifetime, and also create localized surface plasmon resonance induced low energy absorption. In addition, researchers have more recently started focusing their attention on doped nanocrystals as an important and alternative material for solar energy conversion to meet the current demand for renewable energy. Moreover, the electrical and magnetic properties of the host are also strongly altered on doping. These beneficial dopant-induced changes suggest that doped nanocrystals with proper selections of dopant-host pairs may be helpful for generating designer materials for a wide range of current technological needs. How properties relate to the doping of a variety of semiconductor nanocrystals are summarized in this Review.

12.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 4838-48, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27367476

RESUMO

Colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as an excellent light emitting material in last one year. Using time domain and time-resolved THz spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we establish 3-fold free carrier recombination mechanism, namely, nonradiative Auger, bimolecular electron-hole recombination, and inefficient trap-assisted recombination in 11 nm sized colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs. Our results confirm a negligible influence of surface defects in trapping charge carriers, which in turn results into desirable intrinsic transport properties, from the perspective of device applications, such as remarkably high carrier mobility (∼4500 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), large diffusion length (>9.2 µm), and high luminescence quantum yield (80%). Despite being solution processed and possessing a large surface to volume ratio, this combination of high carrier mobility and diffusion length, along with nearly ideal photoluminescence quantum yield, is unique compared to any other colloidal quantum dot system.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 27(32): 325708, 2016 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352895

RESUMO

Green photoluminescence (PL) from CsPbBr3 nanocubes (∼11 nm edge-length) exhibits a high quantum yield (>80%), narrow spectral width (∼85 meV), and high reproducibility, along with a high molar extinction coefficient (3.5 × 10(6) M(-1) cm(-1)) for lowest energy excitonic absorption. In order to obtain these combinations of excellent properties for blue (PL peak maximum, λ max < 500 nm) emitting samples, CsPbBr3 nanocubes and nanoplatelets with various dimensions were prepared. Systematic increases in both the optical gap and transition probability for radiative excitonic recombination (PL lifetime 3-7 ns), have been achieved with the decreasing size of nanocubes. A high quantum yield (>80%) was also maintained, but the spectral width increased and became asymmetric for blue emitting CsPbBr3 nanocubes. Furthermore, PL was unstable and irreproducible for samples with λ max ∼ 460 nm, exhibiting multiple features in the PL. These problems arise because smaller (<7 nm) CsPbBr3 nanocubes have a tendency to form nanoplatelets and nanorods, eventually yielding inhomogeneity in the shape and size of blue-emitting nanocrystals. Reaction conditions were then modified achieving nanoplatelets, with strong quantum confinement along the thickness of the platelets, yielding blue emission. But inhomogeneity in the thickness of the nanoplatelets again broadens the PL compared to green-emitting CsPbBr3 nanocubes. Therefore, unlike high quality green emitting CsPbBr3 nanocubes, blue emitting CsPbBr3 nanocrystals of any shape need to be improved further.

14.
Chemphyschem ; 17(5): 710-6, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26710967

RESUMO

Sn(4+) -doped In2 O3 (ITO) is a benchmark transparent conducting oxide material. We prepared ligand-free but colloidal ITO (8 nm, 10 % Sn(4+) ) nanocrystals (NCs) by using a post-synthesis surface-modification reaction. (CH3 )3 OBF4 removes the native oleylamine ligand from NC surfaces to give ligand-free, positively charged NCs that form a colloidal dispersion in polar solvents. Both oleylamine-capped and ligand-free ITO NCs exhibit intense absorption peaks, due to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at around λ=1950 nm. Compared with oleylamine-capped NCs, the electrical resistivity of ligand-free ITO NCs is lower by an order of magnitude (≈35 mΩ cm(-1) ). Resistivity over a wide range of temperatures can be consistently described as a composite of metallic ITO grains embedded in an insulating matrix by using a simple equivalent circuit, which provides an insight into the conduction mechanism in these systems.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(51): 15424-8, 2015 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26546495

RESUMO

Traditional CdSe-based colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) have interesting photoluminescence (PL) properties. Herein we highlight the advantages in both ensemble and single-nanocrystal PL of colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs) over the traditional cQDs. An ensemble of colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs (11 nm) exhibits ca. 90 % PL quantum yield with narrow (FWHM=86 meV) spectral width. Interestingly, the spectral width of a single-NC and an ensemble are almost identical, ruling out the problem of size-distribution in PL broadening. Eliminating this problem leads to a negligible influence of self-absorption and Förster resonance energy transfer, along with batch-to-batch reproducibility of NCs exhibiting PL peaks within ±1 nm. Also, PL peak positions do not alter with measurement temperature in the range of 25 to 100 °C. Importantly, CsPbBr3 NCs exhibit suppressed PL blinking with ca. 90 % of the individual NCs remain mostly emissive (on-time >85 %), without much influence of excitation power.

16.
Nanoscale ; 7(20): 9204-14, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25926291

RESUMO

Electronic grade semiconductor films have been obtained via the sintering of solution processed PbS and PbSe nanocrystals at room temperature. Prior attempts to achieve similar films required the sintering of nanocrystals at higher temperatures (>350 °C), which inhibits the processing of such films on a flexible polymer substrate, and it is also expensive. We reduced the sintering temperature by employing two important strategies: (i) use of ligand-free nanocrystals and (ii) oriented attachment of nanocrystals. Colloidal ligand-free PbS and PbSe nanocrystals were synthesized at 70 °C with high yield (∼70%). However, these nanocrystals start to agglomerate with time in formamide, and upon the removal of the solvation energy, nanocrystals undergo oriented attachment, forming larger elongated crystals. PbS and PbSe nanocrystal films made on both glass and flexible substrates at room temperature exhibit Ohmic behavior with optimum DC conductivities of 0.03 S m(-1) and 0.08 S m(-1), respectively. Mild annealing of the films at 150 °C increases the conductivity values to 1.1 S m(-1) and 137 S m(-1) for PbS and PbSe nanocrystal films, respectively. AC impedance was measured to distinguish the contributions from grain and grain boundaries to the charge transport mechanism. Charge transport properties remain similar after the repeated bending of the film on a flexible polymer substrate. Reasonably high thermoelectric Seebeck coefficients of 600 µV K(-1) and 335 µV K(-1) for PbS and PbSe nanocrystal pellets, respectively, were obtained at room temperature.

17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(19): 3915-22, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26722893

RESUMO

Colloidal Ag2S nanocrystals (NCs) typically do not exhibit sharp excitonic absorption and emission. We first elucidate the reason behind this problem by preparing Ag2S NCs from nearly monodisperse CdS NCs employing cation exchange reaction. It was found that the defect-related midgap transitions overlap with excitonic transition, blurring the absorption spectrum. On the basis of this observation, we prepared nearly defect-free Ag2S NCs using molecular precursors. These defect-free Ag2S NCs exhibit sharp excitonic absorption, emission (quantum yield 20%) in near-infrared (853 nm) region, and improved performance of Ag2S quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Samples with lower defects exhibit photoconversion efficiencies >1% and open circuit voltage of ∼0.3 V, which are better compared with prior reports of Ag2S QDSSCs. Femtosecond transient absorption shows pump-probe two-photon absorption above 630 nm and slow-decaying excited state absorption below 600 nm. Concomitantly, open-aperture z-scan shows strong two-photon absorption at 532 nm (coefficient 55 ± 3 cm/GW).

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(36): 4743-6, 2014 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24682020

RESUMO

Exposed surfaces of organic-free colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals act as generic luminescent sensors for multiple analytes. S(2-) capped CdSe/CdSeS/CdS core/gradient-shell/shell nanocrystals are turn-on sensors for Cd(2+) ions (110 pM) in an aqueous medium with physiological pH 7.4. A similar organic-free semiconductor nanocrystal shows luminescence turn-off sensing for 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, a known explosive.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Coloides/química , Substâncias Explosivas/análise , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Picratos/análise , Trinitrotolueno/análise
19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(1): 167-73, 2014 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26276197

RESUMO

Donor-Acceptor transition was previously suggested as a mechanism for luminescence in (ZnS)1-x(AgInS2)x nanocrystals. Here we show the participation of delocalized valence/conduction band in the luminescence. Two emission pathways are observed: Path-1 involves transition between a delocalized state and a localized state exhibiting higher energy and shorter lifetime (∼25 ns) and Path-2 (donor-acceptor) involves two localized defect states exhibiting lower emission energy and longer lifetime (>185 ns). Surprisingly, Path-1 dominates (82% for x = 0.33) for nanocrystals with lower x, in sharp difference with prior assignment. Luminescence peak blue shifts systematically by 0.57 eV with decreasing x because of this large contribution from Path-1. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study of (ZnS)1-x(AgInS2)x nanocrystals shows larger AgS4 tetrahedra compared with InS4 tetrahedra with Ag-S and In-S bond lengths 2.52 and 2.45 Šrespectively, whereas Zn-S bond length is 2.33 Šalong with the absence of second nearest-neighbor Zn-S-metal correlation.

20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(13): 2306-11, 2014 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26279551

RESUMO

We prepared Fe- and Sn-codoped colloidal In2O3 nanocrystals (∼6 nm). Sn doping provides free electrons in the conduction band, originating localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and electrical conductivity. The LSPR band can be tuned between 2000 and >3000 nm, depending on the extent and kind of dopant ions. Fe doping, on the other hand, provides unpaired electrons, resulting in weak ferromagnetism at room temperature. Fe doping shifts the LSPR band of 10% Sn-doped In2O3 nanocrystals to a longer wavelength along with a reduction in intensity, suggesting trapping of charge carriers around the dopant centers, whereas Sn doping increases the magnetization of 10% Fe-doped In2O3 nanocrystals, probably because of the free electron mediated interactions between distant magnetic ions. The combination of plasmonics and magnetism, in addition to electronic conductivity and visible-light transparency, is a unique feature of our colloidal codoped nanocrystals.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA