Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 45
Filtrar
1.
Am J Infect Control ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are prevalent and difficult to treat worldwide. Most HAIs can be prevented by effective implementation of Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures. A survey was conducted to assess the existing IPC practices across a network of Indian Hospitals using the World Health Organization designed self-assessment IPC Assessment Framework (IPCAF) tool. METHODS: This was a cross sectional observation study. Thirty-two tertiary care public and private facilities, part of the existing Indian HAI surveillance network was included. Data collected was analysed by a central team at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, a tertiary care hospital of India. The WHO questionnaire tool was used to understand the capacity and efforts to implement IPC practices across the network. RESULTS: The overall median score of IPCAF across the network was 620. Based on the final IPCAF score of the facilities; 13% hospitals had basic IPC practices, 28% hospitals had intermediate and 59% hospitals had advanced IPC practices. The component multimodal strategies (CC5) had the broadest range of score while the component IPC guidelines had the narrowest one. CONCLUSION: Quality improvement training for IPC nurses and healthcare professionals are needed to be provided to health facilities.

2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381553

RESUMO

Introduction: the crude mortality rate due to infectious diseases in India is approximately 417 per one lakh persons and pyogenic infections are one of the significant contributor. Poor antimicrobial stewardship in India has led to an increase in multidrug resistant superbugs in both community as well as hospital settings. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial etiology of pyogenic infections and to evaluate their antimicrobial resistance profile. Methods: this is a retrospective observational study from January, 2018 to December, 2018. A total 1851 samples, collected as a part of patient care were included in this study. Specimens were subjected to culture on Blood agar and MacConkey agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Species identification was done as per standard laboratory protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: of total 1851 samples, culture was positive in 61.54%. A total 70.59%, Gram negative organisms were isolated followed by Gram positive cocci in 45.48%, yeast in 1.05%, coryneform bacteria in 0.79% and in one case, non-tubercular mycobacteria was isolated. Staphylococcus aureus (30.9%) was the predominant organism isolated. Most common multi drug resistant isolates were Klebsiella spp. (74.79%) and Acinetobacter spp. (74.32%). Conclusion: this study gives an insight about the prevalence and common etiology of pyogenic infections along with their antimicrobial resistance profile in north western region of India. This study will contribute in formulating antibiotic stewardship program by selecting the antibiograms of pyogenic isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400420

RESUMO

Neonatal dengue is an under-diagnosed disease likely due to low index of suspicion along with its resemblance to sepsis. We hereby report two cases of neonatal dengue, highlighting the need of high degree of suspicion in infants born to febrile mothers even with maternal serology being negative. Moreover, severity of neonatal illness positively correlates with the maternal disease.


Assuntos
Dengue , Sepse , Dengue/diagnóstico , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Parto , Gravidez
4.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021024, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak ofsevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted inexponential rise in the number of patients getting hospitalised with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a paucity of data from South East Asian Region related to the predictors of clinical outcomes in these patients. This formed the basis of conducting our study. METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. Demographic, clinical, radiological and laboratory data of 125 patients was collected on admission. The study outcome was death or discharge after recovery. For univariate analysis, unpaired t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's Exact test were used. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and few laboratory parameters. Logistic regression was applied for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Elderly age, ischemic heart disease and smoking were significantly associated with mortality. Elevated levels of D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reduced lymphocyte counts were the predictors of mortality. The ROCs for SOFA score curve showed a cut-off value ≥ 3.5 (sensitivity- 91.7% and specificity- 87.5%), for IL-6 the cut-off value was ≥ 37.9 (sensitivity- 96% and specificity- 78%) and for lymphocyte counts, a cut off was calculated to be less than and equal to 1.46 x 109per litre (sensitivity-75.2%and specificity- 83.3%). CONCLUSION: Old age, smoking history, ischemic heart disease and laboratory parameters including elevated D-dimer, raised LDH and low lymphocyte counts at baseline are associated with COVID-19 mortality. A higher SOFA score at admission is a poor prognosticator in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária
5.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312578

RESUMO

Aim: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak resulted in severe health impact with the loss of many lives across the world. Pulmonary parenchyma suffers most from the brunt of the infection. However, evidence suggested a systemic involvement during the course of illness. Information on morphological changes of liver is sparse in the literature. We aimed to evaluate the pathological findings in liver by minimally invasive autopsies. Methods: Post-mortem core biopsies of the liver obtained from patients who succumbed to (coronavirus disease 2019) COVID-19 disease were studied. Demographic findings, comorbidities and relevant laboratory tests were collected. Detailed histopathological changes were assessed. Results: Liver function tests(LFTs) were available in 40 cases, and it was deranged in 80% cases. A spectrum of histological changes was observed. Macrovesicular steatosis and non-specific portal inflammation of mild degree were the common morphological changes. Features suggestive of vascular alteration were noted in more than half of the cases. These included increased portal vein branches, irregular luminal dilation and herniation of portal veins into the periportal hepatocytes. Additionally, we observed morphological changes attributed to terminal shock-related changes. Conclusion: The present study results highlight that liver parenchyma changes may be related to multiple pathogenic mechanisms. The presence of vascular alteration in portal tracts suggests derangement of hepatic vasculature related to systemic hypercoagulable state induced by the viral infection. It remains to establish if the histological changes are related to direct viral insult or to the systemic response caused by the viral attack.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. The virus is transmitted primarily by the bite of Culex species mosquito and is of global concern. The infection is associated with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms and is more fatal in the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of WNV meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent female who presented with features of acute meningitis with a 5-days history. After the radiological suspicion of viral meningoencephalitis, viral serology was performed and was reactive for IgM antibody against WNV, delaying the diagnosis for at least 5 days. CONCLUSION: The purpose of this case report is to prime the treating physicians on the usefulness of viral serology in such a scenario. Viral serology is a simple and relatively rapid technique to diagnose or rule out the suspected viral cause of meningoencephalitis and minimize the time gap between diagnosis and start of supporting treatment wherever appropriate antivirals are not available for clinical use.

8.
Turk Thorac J ; 22(2): 130-136, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use chest-X-ray (CXR)-based scores along with total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the prediction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients presenting with clinical features of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study involving all patients who presented with clinical features of SARI and who had undergone bedside chest X-ray (CXR), hemograms with TLC, NLR, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at our institute from May 1 to June 30, 2020. RESULTS: Of 204 patients, 115 tested RT-PCR-positive and 89 tested negative. The patients who presented with SARI, using CXR-based score of 4 or more, TLC of less than 8,700 cells/µL, and NLR of <7 had a statistically significant area under the curve (p<0.001) for diagnosing COVID-19. The sensitivity and specificity of the CXR score was 80.8% and 73.0%, of TLC was 70.1% and 74.7%, and of NLR was 70.1% and 59.0%, respectively, in diagnosing COVID-19 alone. The specificity further increased to 90.4% when we used the CXR score with NLR and to 92.8% when we used the CXR score with TLC. The post-test odds ("rule in" disease) of a positive test for having the disease were 3, 2.77, and 1.71 times with the use of either CXR score, TLC, or NLR criteria, respectively; whereas, combined use of CXR score and NLR increased the post-test odds by 5.53 times, and combination of CXR score with TLC increased the post-test odds by 7.5 times. CONCLUSION: CXR score with TLC and NLR can predict COVID-19 infection among those who presented with features of SARI. This may help in the early isolation of the patient until the RT-PCR report becomes available.

9.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(1): 30-35, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) has been suggested to be linked with increased perioperative morbidity it is still practiced commonly. We studied the association of PBD and positive biliary culture with surgical site infection and also analysed the common pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity spectrum. METHODS: Prospectively maintained data of patients who underwent various pancreatobiliary surgeries from 2017 to 2019 was analysed. Patients whose intraoperative bile culture reports were available were included in the study. Various factors associated with surgical site infection (SSI), microbial spectrum of bile culture and their sensitivity pattern were analysed. RESULTS: Out of 68 patients whose bile culture report were available, PBD was done in 65% (n = 44). Among patients with infected bile (n = 51), biliary stent was present in 78.4% (n = 40). On univariate analysis, the factors associated with SSI were low albumin level (<3.5 mg%), long operative time (>6 h), duration of abdominal drain (>4 days), length of hospital stay, intraoperative bile spillage and infected bile. However, on multivariate analysis, only presence of drain for >4 days (p = 0.04) and positive bile culture (p = 0.02) was linked with increased risk of SSI. Most common organism isolated was E coli (73.2%), with 100% sensitivity to Colistin and Tigecycline shown by gram negative isolates. CONCLUSION: Preoperative biliary stenting alone did not increase the risk of SSI, but the positive bile culture correlated with SSI irrespective of PBD. Most biliary pathogens were resistant to commonly used antibiotics and intraoperative bile culture will aid in providing appropriate antibiotic coverage.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is a ubiquitous organism rarely associated with human diseases, but its association especially among hospitalized premature neonates and immunocompromised individuals are not so common. CASE: We report two cases of neonatal bacteraemia and meningitis among low birth weight premature neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) by E. meningoseptica, a high alert organism associated with such conditions. CONCLUSIONS: E. meningoseptica, a high alert organism associated with meningitis among premature underweight neonates. High degree of resistant to most of the broad-spectrum antibiotics makes its management a challenging task. A good communication between the clinician and the microbiologist becomes very important for the proper management of the patients.

11.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(7): 820-831, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding risk factors of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vis-à-vis asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, severe disease and death is important. METHODS: An unmatched case-control study was conducted through telephonic interviews among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Jodhpur, India from 23 March to 20 July 2020. Contact history, comorbidities and tobacco and alcohol use were elicited using standard tools. RESULTS: Among 911 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, 47.5% were symptomatic, 14.1% had severe COVID-19 and 41 (4.5%) died. Older age, working outside the home, cardiac and respiratory comorbidity and alcohol use were found to increase the risk of symptomatic disease as compared with asymptomatic infection. Current tobacco smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.46 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.26 to 0.78]) but not smokeless tobacco use (OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.55 to 1.19]) appeared to reduce the risk of symptomatic disease. Age ≥60 y and renal comorbidity were significantly associated with severe COVID-19. Age ≥60 y and respiratory and cardiac comorbidity were found to predispose to mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent reduced risk of symptomatic COVID-19 among tobacco smokers could be due to residual confounding owing to unknown factors, while acknowledging the limitation of recall bias. Cross-protection afforded by frequent upper respiratory tract infection among tobacco smokers could explain why a similar association was not found for smokeless tobacco use, thereby being more plausible than the 'nicotinic hypothesis'. Those with comorbidities and age ≥60 y should be prioritized for hospital admission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tabaco
12.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(2): 166-168, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863358

RESUMO

Splenic abscess is an uncommon extra-intestinal complication of Salmonella Typhi infection in the post-antibiotic era. The condition is associated with high morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed in a timely manner. We report the case of a 20-year-old man who presented with left upper abdominal pain, high-grade fever, and a lump in the abdomen. Ultrasound and computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a large solitary splenic abscess. The abscess was drained percutaneously and Salmonella Typhi was isolated on a culture board, which was an unexpected finding. The patient was prescribed the appropriate antibiotics based on an antimicrobial susceptibility report and periodic follow-up was planned. The clinical condition of the patient improved along with complete resolution of the abscess. This report reiterates the importance of clinical diagnosis and radiological imaging even for common diseases presenting in an unusual fashion. Percutaneous drainage and microbial culture, with antibiotics prescribed based on susceptibility are key to the treatment of such abscesses.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 585888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041830

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute onset pneumonia caused by a novel Betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in the Wuhan City of China in December 2019 and evolved into a global pandemic. To date, there are no proven drugs or vaccines against this virus. Hence, the situation demands an urgent need to explore all potential therapeutic strategies that can be made available to prevent the disease progression and improve patient outcomes. In absence of clinically proven treatment guidelines, several repurposed drugs and investigational agents are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for their probable benefits in the treatment of COVID-19. These include antivirals (remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir, and favipiravir), interferon, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiparasitic drugs (ivermectin and nitazoxanide), biologics (monoclonal antibodies and interleukin receptor antagonist), cellular therapies (mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells), convalescent plasma, and cytokine adsorber. Though several observational studies have claimed many of these agents to be effective based on their in vitro activities and extrapolated evidence from SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemics, the currently available data remains inconclusive because of ill-defined patient selection criteria, small sample size, lack of concurrent controls, and use of intermediary outcomes instead of patient-relevant outcomes. Moreover, there is a need to clearly define the patient populations who warrant therapy and also the timing of initiation of treatment. Understanding the disease pathology responsible for the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is imperative to identify the potential targets for drug development. This review explains the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and summarizes the potential treatment candidates, which can provide guidance in developing effective therapeutic strategies.

14.
Neurol India ; 68(5): 1196-1200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109875

RESUMO

Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a sporadic zoonotic viral illness recently becoming endemic in regions in the western parts of India. It usually presents as a viral hemorrhagic fever with severe liver and kidney failure. Case Report: An 18-year-old male from the western part of Rajasthan presented with rapidly progressing areflexic weakness of limbs a week after brief fever. He deteriorated rapidly with drowsiness, fulminant liver failure, and acute kidney injury with high creatine kinase. He also developed thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage from various sites. Workup for viral hemorrhagic fever revealed IgM positivity for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. The patient kept worsening and died of multiorgan failure and diffuse alveolar bleeding after 14 days. Conclusions: This report highlights the need to expand the differential diagnoses in the commonly encountered presentation of acute quadriparesis to include the possibility of tick-borne diseases like Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the setting of bleeding diathesis and acute hepatorenal syndrome.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia , Adolescente , Humanos , Índia , Fígado , Masculino , Quadriplegia/etiologia
15.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, Indian nationals evacuated from Iran were quarantined at Jaisalmer, Rajasthan. We wished to study the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in this closed population. METHODS: A basic susceptible, exposed, infected, and removed (SEIR) compartmental model was developed using the daily stepwise approach in Microsoft Excel. An advanced model using standard differential equations in Python software version 3.6 was used to estimate R0 based on model fit to actual data. RESULTS: Forty-eight SARS-CoV-2 infections were found among the 474 quarantined individuals. Out of these, 44 (92%) were asymptomatic. R0 for the overall duration was found to be 2.29 (95% CI: 1.84-2.78). Male gender and age ≥ 60 years were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (RR = 4.33, 95% CI: 2.07-9.05 and 5.32, 95% CI: 3.13-9.04, respectively). Isolation of infected individuals and stricter quarantine of remaining individuals reduced the R0 from 2.41 initially to 1.17 subsequently. CONCLUSION: R0 value was found comparable to the earlier studies indicating similar transmission dynamics among quarantined individuals in India. Universal testing and prompt isolation of infected individuals reduced the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Smaller group sizes should be preferred to large groups during facility-based quarantine in evacuation situations. The role of asymptomatic individuals appears to be strong in SARS-CoV-2 transmission within closed populations.

16.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(6): 2781-2784, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984125

RESUMO

Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease, which mainly involves skin, peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and eyes. According to National Leprosy Eradication Programme 2017-18 annual report, the annual new case detection rate from Rajasthan is 1.27 per 1 lakh population and prevalence rate is 0.14. Aims and Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the spectrum of Mycobacterium leprae infections among suspected cases attending a teaching hospital in western Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Microbiology, in a teaching hospital, western Rajasthan, between the period of January 2017 and April 2019. The records of modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining during the study period were analyzed. The demographic data like age and sex along with clinical diagnosis were also recorded from laboratory register and hospital information system. Results: Out of total 91 suspected cases, 30.77% was microbiologically confirmed cases of leprosy. Out of total positive cases, 71.43% were male and 28.57% were female. A maximum number of positive (50%) were found in the age group of 31-50 years. Conclusion: Present study gives an insight about the spectrum of leprosy in the region. The large number of positive cases signifies that leprosy awareness and programs aimed at elimination need to be more vigorously implemented. To achieve complete eradication from this menace, newer strategies like effective vaccine development and drug-resistance testing should be implemented.

18.
J Clin Orthop Trauma ; 11(Suppl 4): S657-S659, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774044

RESUMO

Sacroiliitis is a rare complication of enteric fever, seen in <1% of the cases and its concomitant presence with hepatitis has been reported only once. Incorrect or delayed diagnosis of enteric fever may lead to serious complications. Here, we present a complicated case of enteric fever in a 15 years old female who was misdiagnosed elsewhere to be a case of dengue fever owing to thrombocytopenia at presentation along with a weak positive dengue IgM immunochromatography test. The patient eventually developed a rare combination of complications (sacroiliitis, hepatitis, ascites and pleural effusion) and was transferred to our hospital where specific antimicrobial treatment was instituted after isolation of Salmonella Typhi from the clinical samples. This case demonstrates the importance of establishing the correct diagnosis by optimum utilization of the diagnostic services at the time of admission to prevent potentially life threatening complications in an otherwise treatable condition.

19.
Front Genet ; 11: 854, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849833

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute onset pneumonia caused by a novel Betacoronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly evolved into a pandemic. Though its origin has been linked to the Wuhan City of China's Hubei Province in December 2019, recent reports claim that the original animal-to-human transmission of the virus probably happened sometime between September and October 2019 in Guangdong Province, rather than Hubei. As of July 3, 2020, India has reported a case positivity rate of 6.5% and a fatality rate of 2.8%, which are among the lowest in the world. Also, the severity of the disease is much less among Indians as evidenced by the low rate of ICU admission (15.3%) and the need for mechanical ventilation (4.16%). As per the World Health Organization (WHO) situation report 165 on July 3, 2020, India has one of the lowest deaths per 100,000 population (1.32 deaths against a global average of 6.04). Several factors related to the pathogen, host and environment might have some role in reducing the susceptibility of Indians to COVID-19. These include some ongoing mutations that can alter the virulence of the circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains, host factors like innate immunity, genetic diversity in immune responses, epigenetic factors, genetic polymorphisms of ACE2 receptors, micro RNAs and universal BCG vaccination, and environmental factors like high temperature and humidity which may alter the viability and transmissibility of the strain. This perspective -highlights the potential factors that might be responsible for the observed low COVID-19 fatality rate in Indian population. It puts forward several hypotheses which can be a ground for future studies determining individual and population susceptibility to COVID-19 and thus, may offer a new dimension to our current understanding of the disease.

20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(5): 2180-2182, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754469

RESUMO

In the COVID-19 pandemic, global health care systems have become overwhelmed with potentially infectious patients seeking testing and care. Preventing spread of infection to and from health care workers (HCWs) and patients relies on effective use of personal protective equipment(PPE). The most critical part in due course of managing this pandemic is adequate supply of PPEs. We have customized a PPE which is economical and reusable after proper disinfection. This customized PPE can be a solution to conservation of supply during this pandemic.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...