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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 633, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) is an isolation procedure in pancreatosplenectomy for pancreatic body/tail cancer. Connective tissues around the bifurcation of the celiac axis are dissected, followed by median-to-left retroperitoneal dissection. This procedure has the potential to isolate blood and lymphatic flow to the area of the pancreatic body/tail and the spleen to be excised. This is achieved by division of the inflow artery, transection of the pancreas, and then division of the outflow vein in the early phases of surgery. In cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the procedure has been shown to decrease intraoperative blood loss and increase R0 resection rate by complete clearance of the lymph nodes. This trial investigates whether the isolation procedure can prolong the survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who undergo distal pancreatosplenectomy (DPS) compared with those that undergo the conventional approach. METHODS/DESIGN: Patients with PDAC scheduled to undergo DPS are randomized before surgery to undergo either a conventional procedure (arm A) or to undergo the isolation procedure (arm B). In arm A, the pancreatic body, tail, and spleen are mobilized, followed by removal of the regional lymph nodes. The splenic vein is transected at the end of the procedure. The timing of division of the splenic artery (SA) is not restricted. In arm B, regional lymph nodes are dissected, then we transect the root of the SA, the pancreas, then the splenic vein. At the end of the procedure, the pancreatic body/tail and spleen are mobilized and removed. In total, 100 patients from multiple Japanese high-volume centers will be randomized. The primary endpoint is 2-year recurrence-free survival by intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary endpoints include intraoperative blood loss, R0 resection rate, and overall survival. DISCUSSION: If this trial shows that the isolation procedures can improve survival with a similar R0 rate and with a similar number of lymph node dissections to the conventional procedure, the isolation procedure is expected to become a standard procedure during DPS for PDAC. Conversely, if there were no significant differences in endpoints between the groups, it would demonstrate justification of either procedure from surgical and oncological points of view. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000041381 . Registered on 10 August 2020. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04600063 . Registered on 22 October 2020.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of multi-agent chemotherapy and radiation therapy has facilitated potential resection with curative intent in selected locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients with excellent outcomes. Nevertheless, there remains a remarkable lack of consensus on the management of LAPC. We sought to describe the outcomes of patients with LAPC and objectively define the multidisciplinary selection process for operative exploration based on anatomical factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients with LAPC were evaluated for pancreatic surgery in the multidisciplinary clinic of a high-volume institution, between 2013 and 2018. Prospective stratification (LAPC-1, LAPC-2, and LAPC-3), based on the involvement of regional anatomical structures, was performed at the time of presentation prior to the initiation of treatment. Resection rates and patient outcomes were evaluated and correlated with the initial anatomic stratification system. RESULTS: Overall, 415 patients with LAPC were included in the study, of whom 84 (20%) were successfully resected, with a median overall survival of 35.3 months. The likelihood of operative exploration was associated with the pretreatment anatomic LAPC score, with a resection rate of 49% in patients classified as LAPC-1, 32% in LAPC-2, and 11% in LAPC-3 (p < 0.001). Resected patients with improvement of the LAPC score at the time of exploration had significantly longer median overall survival compared with those with no change or progression of LAPC score (60.7 vs. 29.8 months, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Selected patients with LAPC can undergo curative-intent surgery with excellent outcomes. The proposed Johns Hopkins anatomic LAPC score provides an objective system to anticipate the probability of eventual surgical resection after induction therapy.

4.
Adv Ther ; 38(8): 4258-4270, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176089

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies. Larger tumor size is widely acknowledged to be associated with increased lymph node (LN) metastatic potential. However, the quantitative relationships between tumor size and LN metastasis or survival remain unclear. This study aims to quantify the objective relationship between tumor size and the prevalence of LN metastases across a spectrum primary tumor size. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify 9958 patients with resected PDAC without distant metastasis. The prevalence of LN metastases, LN ratio (LNR), and N2/N1 ratio were assessed amongst different tumor sizes, and the relationships were displayed by matched curves. RESULTS: In the enrolled cohort, age, tumor site, grade, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th node staging, tumor size, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were identified as significant independent predictors for overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). For tumors within 1-40 mm in size, the prevalence of node-positive disease is closely modelled using a logarithmic formula [0.249 × ln (size) + 0.452] × 100%. The prevalence plateaued between 70% and 80% beyond 40 mm. The mean LNR increased in a stepwise manner as tumor size increased from 1-5 mm (LNR = 0.024) to 41-45 mm (LNR = 0.177); then, beyond 45 mm, it plateaued near 0.170. N2/N1 ratio gradually increased along with tumor size from 1-5 mm (N2/N1 = 0.286) to 41-45 mm (N2/N1 = 1.016), and when tumor size reached to 41-45 mm or more, the ratio stabilized around 1.000. In addition, significant survival prediction by AJCC N staging was observed when tumors ranging between 16 and 45 mm in size. CONCLUSION: Regional LN involvement demonstrated a logarithmic growth with increasing tumor sizes in patients with resected PDAC . The probability of metastasis in each regional LN for resected PDAC with tumors greater than 40 mm in size was near 17.0% and their overall prevalence of LN metastasis was 70-80%. Among which, 50% of patients had an N2 stage. Such prediction may be a potential and promising tool for guiding lymphadenectomy in PDAC surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico
5.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337689

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica es un patógeno transmitido por alimentos y agente etiológico de brotes alimentarios de gran impacto en la salud humana. El aumento de la resistencia bacteriana constituye una amenaza a la salud pública, la aparición de cepas de Salmonella con resistencia a múltiples antimicrobianos (MDR) fue descrita en humanos, alimentos y animales para consumo; por ello se considera muy importante conocer la situación epidemiológica local. El objetivo de este trabajo fue generar información sobre los serotipos circulantes, resistencia a los antibióticos y presencia de resistencia simultánea a múltiples fármacos en Salmonella provenientes de muestras clínicas humanas y muestras de alimentos en el periodo desde 2017 a 2019. Fueron analizadas un total de 668 cepas de Salmonella aisladas en los años 2017, 2018 y 2019 a partir de muestras clínicas humanas y de alimentos, en el Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública y/o remitidas por Laboratorios de la Red de Enteropatógenos. Se observaron serotipos muy diversos con prevalencia del serovar Heidelberg en alimentos y Typhimurium en muestras de humanos. Se encontró que el 45,4% de las cepas fueron sensibles a todos los antibióticos (ATB), el 35,6% fueron resistentes de 1 a 6 ATB y el 19% con sensibilidad intermedia; observándose mayor resistencia a Tetraciclina, Ác. Nalidíxico, Ampicilina y Nitrofurantoína, en menor grado se evidenció resistencia a cefalosporinas (C3ªG) y a ciprofloxacina. El 16.9% de las cepas presentaron resistencia múltiple (3 o más antibióticos) con 37 fenotipos distintos. Las serovariedades que presentaron mayor resistencia a los antimicrobianos fueron Heidelberg, Schwarzengrund y Typhimurium


Salmonella enterica is a foodborne pathogen and etiological agent of food outbreaks with a great impact on human health. The increase in bacterial resistance constitutes a threat to public health. The appearance of Salmonella strains with resistance to multiple antimicrobials (MDR) has already been described in humans, food and animals for consumption; for this reason, it is considered very important to know the local epidemiological situation. The target of this work was to generate information on circulating serotypes, antibiotic resistance and the presence of simultaneous resistance to multiple drugs in Salmonella from human clinical samples and food samples in the period from 2017 to 2019. A total of 668 Salmonella strains isolated in the years 2017, 2018 and 2019 were analyzed from human and food clinical samples, at the Central Public Health Laboratory and / or sent by Laboratories of the Enteropathogens Network. Very diverse serotypes were observed with prevalence of Heidelberg serovar in food and Typhimurium in human samples .It was found that 45,4% of the strains were sensitive to all antibiotics (ATB), 35,6% were resistant from 1 to 6 ATB and 19% with intermediate sensitivity; observing greater resistance to Tetracycline, Ác. Nalidixic, Ampicillin and Nitrofurantoin, to a lesser degree resistance to cephalosporins (C3ªG) and ciprofloxacin was evidenced. The 16.9% the strains presented multiple resistance (3 or more antibiotics) with 37 different phenotypes. The serovars with the highest antimicrobial resistance were Heidelberg, Schwarzengrund and Typhimurium


Assuntos
Animais , Salmonella , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Anti-Infecciosos , Sorogrupo
6.
Pancreatology ; 21(5): 884-891, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma can directly invade the peripancreatic lymph nodes; however, the significance of direct lymph node invasion is controversial, and it is currently classified as lymph node metastasis. This study aimed to identify the impact of direct invasion of peripancreatic lymph nodes on survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A total of 411 patients with resectable/borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatic resection at two high-volume centers from 2006 to 2016 were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: Sixty (14.6%) patients had direct invasion of the peripancreatic lymph nodes without isolated lymph node metastasis (N-direct group), 189 (46.0%) had isolated lymph node metastasis (N-met group), and 162 (39.4%) had neither direct invasion nor isolated metastasis (N0 group). There was no significant difference in median overall survival between the N-direct group (35.0 months) and the N0 group (45.6 month) (p = 0.409), but survival was significantly longer in the N-direct compared with the N-met group (25.0 months) (p = 0.003). Similarly, median disease-free survival was similar in the N-direct (21.0 months) and N0 groups (22.7 months) (p = 0.151), but was significantly longer in the N-direct compared with the N-met group (14.0 months) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified resectability, adjuvant chemotherapy, and isolated lymph node metastasis as independent predictors of overall survival. However, direct lymph node invasion was not a predictor of survival. CONCLUSION: Direct invasion of the peripancreatic lymph nodes had no effect on survival in patients undergoing pancreatic resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and should therefore not be classified as lymph node metastasis.

7.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(4): 329, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708956

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of indolent gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) has increased dramatically. GEP-NENs often present late with concomitant liver metastasis, which is associated with poorer outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 3,188 patients with liver metastatic GEP-NENs from the national scale Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database in the USA between 2010 and 2016. The population-based sample of GEP-NENs with liver metastasis was stratified by primary site (intestinal, pancreatic or gastric), surgical intervention and functional status. Results: Of the 3,188 patients with liver metastatic GEP-NENs in this study, intestinal NENs (iNENs) were the most common and displayed the best 5-year survival of 42.6% compared to 25.8% in pancreatic NENs (pNENs) and 12.0% in gastric NENs (gNENs). Surgical intervention [hazard ratio (HR): 0.46, 95% CI: (0.40-0.53), P<0.001] and carcinoid subtype showed robust survival advantages across all groups. pNENs with liver metastasis were associated with the greatest benefit of surgery [HR: 0.55, 95% CI: (0.41-0.75), P<0.001] while iNENs were the most commonly treated by surgery. After risk adjustment, primary site was not associated with outcome in the non-surgical group. Conclusions: Taken collectively, when diagnosed with liver metastasis, iNENs conferred a better overall prognosis than both pNENs and gNENs. Primary surgical resection, especially of carcinoid type tumors, emerged as a robust prognostic indicator of better outcomes irrespective of primary site. This finding was most pronounced in liver metastatic pNENs. When possible, we recommend surgical intervention in GEP-NENs with liver metastasis.

8.
Pancreatology ; 21(3): 573-580, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of CD70 in several malignancies is potentially associated with poor patient prognosis and could serve as a therapeutic target. However, the clinical relevance of CD70 expression in pancreatic cancer has not been thoroughly explored. METHODS: We evaluated CD70 expression in 166 surgical specimens obtained from human patients with pancreatic cancer. We analyzed the function of CD70 in proliferation and migration using pancreatic cancer cell lines with silenced CD70 expression. RESULTS: CD70 expression was positively stained in 42 patients (25%). In the whole cohort, high CD70 expression was not associated with overall survival (OS: 33.1 vs. 40.8 months, P = 0.256), although it was significantly associated with inferior OS in a population of patients that completed adjuvant chemotherapy (OS: 45.4 vs. 63.8 months, P = 0.027). Moreover, the incidence of hematogenous metastasis was significantly higher in patients with high CD70 expression than in those with low CD70 expression (P = 0.020). This finding was also statistically significant in multivariate analyses (P = 0.001). In vitro experiments demonstrated that CD70 expression contributed to cancer cell proliferation independently of gemcitabine treatment as well as cell migration. Furthermore, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of frozen surgical tissues showed a correlation between the expression of CD70 and mesenchymal markers. CONCLUSIONS: CD70 expression in pancreatic cancer might be involved in hematogenous metastasis. Furthermore, our results imply that CD70 overexpression can serve as a novel prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in patients who have completed adjuvant chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ligante CD27/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Int J Cancer ; 148(3): 769-779, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895958

RESUMO

In patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), optimal treatment selection, including multimodality regimens such as neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT), can be clinically transformative. Unfortunately, currently no predictive biomarkers are available that can guide the use of NACRT in PDAC patients. Accordingly, herein we developed a novel gene signature that can preoperatively predict NACRT-sensitivity in PDAC patients. Herein, we evaluated the performance of a 10-gene panel in 749 PDAC cases, which included two public datasets (The Cancer Genome Atlas and International Cancer Genome Consortium; n = 276), and three clinical specimen cohorts (n = 417), and a pre-NACRT endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy cohort (n = 56). The potential predictive performance of this signature was evaluated and compared to CA-19-9 levels and key clinicopathological factors. We first evaluated the prognostic potential of a 10-gene panel which significantly predicted overall survival in both public datasets (P < .01, P < .01), and two in-house patient cohorts (P < .01, P = .04). In the pre-NACRT EUS-FNA cohort, we established a radio-sensitivity gene panel (RSGP) which yielded highly robust (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.81-0.97) for predicting response to gemcitabine-based NACRT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that RSGP was an independent predictor for response to NACRT (OR = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.25-5.85), and this response-prediction was even more robust when CA-19-9 levels were included into the model. In conclusion, we have validated and developed a novel gene signature that is highly robust in predicting response to NACRT, even in preoperative settings, highlighting its clinical significance for optimizing and personalizing treatment strategies in PDAC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Haemophilus influenzae is a cause of mild and severe invasive infections, especially among children under 5 years old. Serotype b (Hib) was very frequent before the introduction of the vaccine, which was introduced in Paraguay in 2004. METHODS: A total of 523 isolates of H. influenzae obtained from 1999 to 2017 and referred to the National Reference Laboratory in Paraguay were studied by conventional microbiological methods and molecular techniques. RESULTS: The most frequent serotype was non-typeable (HiNT) (51.8%; 271/523), followed by Hib (43%; 225/523), Hia and Hif (1.5%; 8/523, respectively), Hic (1%; 5/523), Hie (0.8%; 4/523), and Hid (0.4%; 2/523). A total of 48.4% invasive infections were caused by HiNT, and 46.1% by Hib; 88.6% of isolates corresponded to meningitis, 70.8% to sepsis and 50.9% to pneumonia in children under 5 years. A total of 84% (181/217) of isolates corresponded to invasive infections caused by Hib in children under 5 years, with the highest proportion observed between 2001 and 2003. The most prevalent biotypes were biotype I (29%), biotype II (12%), biotype III (24%), and biotype IV (13%). Among the total of isolates, 13% (68/523) of isolates were resistant to ampicillin. CONCLUSION: After the introduction of the Hib vaccine in Paraguay, the number of invasive Hib cases decreased in children under 5 years old, although we observed an increase of HiNT in children over 5 years. Continuous surveillance is necessary in order to monitor the effectiveness of the vaccine and for the development of preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus influenzae , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Vacinas Conjugadas
11.
J Am Coll Surg ; 231(4): 460-469.e1, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This retrospective multicenter study aimed to evaluate the risk of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) in patients receiving antithrombotic agents (ATAs). PPH is the most severe complication after pancreatectomy. However, there is little known about the strength of the association between ATA use, PPH, and other clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Between 2007 and 2016, 1,297 patients underwent pancreatectomy at 2 surgical centers. ATA use included aspirin, clopidogrel, ticlopidine, warfarin, direct oral anticoagulants, and intravenous unfractionated heparin. The ATA group was composed of 144 patients who were taking ATAs before surgery. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients developed PPH. The patients in the ATA group showed higher frequency (8.3% vs 2.0%, p < 0.001) of PPH compared with the control group (n = 1,153). In multivariate analysis, ATA use was an independent adverse risk factor for PPH (odds ratio [OR] 3.58, 95% CI 1.29-9.91, p = 0.014). Stratification by preoperative ATA therapy revealed a significant risk of PPH Grade C in patients receiving combined AT therapy. The median onset of late hemorrhage (>24 hours post-surgery) in the ATA group was later than in the control group (17.5 vs 8.5 days, p = 0.032), and the incidence tended to be higher in patients who restarted ATAs postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: History of ATA use is a significant risk factor for PPH, and postoperative resumption of ATAs appears to be associated with an increased risk of PPH. Patients receiving combined antithrombotic therapy may be at particularly high risk for PPH.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ann Gastroenterol Surg ; 4(3): 216-223, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490335

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Although drug development over the past decade has gradually improved the prognosis of PDAC, the prognosis remains extremely poor. The predominant determinant of a poor prognosis is that patients are already at the advanced stage when they are diagnosed. Therefore, it is essential to detect early-stage PDAC to ensure a good prognosis. However, in general, being asymptomatic at the early stage makes the detection of early-stage PDAC very difficult. Recently, much attention has been focused on the utility of a liquid biopsy as a biomarker. Theoretically, early-stage tumors can be detected even under asymptomatic conditions. A number of studies on liquid biopsies have been reported so far. Several biomarkers, including circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCS), and exosomes, are used in liquid biopsies, with the potential to be applied to the clinical setting. Each biomarker is reported to have different utilities, such as the detection of early-stage disease, the differential diagnosis of PDAC from other types of pancreatic tumors, the prediction of the prognosis or risk of recurrence, and monitoring the treatment response. In this review, we focus on ctDNA, CTCS, and exosomes as representative liquid biopsy biomarkers and describe the specific functions of each biomarker in the treatment of PDAC. Furthermore, we discuss the application of liquid biopsies, especially for the surgical management of PDAC.

13.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci ; 27(12): 992-1001, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between bacterial infection and clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Microbiological data for intraoperative bile culture (BC) and drain culture on postoperative day 4 (DC) were collected. The study population was classified into the following three groups: P1 (positive BC and DC), P2 (positive BC and negative DC), and N (negative BC). A total of 209 patients (P1: 38, P2: 72, and N: 99) who underwent PD between May 2013 and May 2018 met the inclusion criteria of the study. RESULTS: The rate of CR-POPF was significantly higher in the P1 group (34.2%) than in the P2 (12.5%; P = .007) and N groups (14.1%; P = .008). Between P1 and P2 groups, a significant difference was observed in the proportion of Enterococcus faecalis grown in BC (42.1% vs 4.2%; P < .001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of E faecalis in bile was independently associated with CR-POPF. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of both bile and postoperative abdominal fluid infections can be more accurate in predicting CR-POPF. Furthermore, the presence of E faecalis in bile may serve as a novel surrogate marker for CR-POPF.


Assuntos
Fístula Pancreática , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Bile , Drenagem , Humanos , Fístula Pancreática/diagnóstico , Fístula Pancreática/epidemiologia , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 18(1)abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1291903

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae sigue siendo una de las causas más importantes de morbilidad y mortalidad en niños y adultos alrededor del mundo. El objetivo del estudio fue describir la frecuencia de aislamiento de S. pneumoniae en enfermedad invasiva, distribución de serotipos y sensibilidad antimicrobiana en Paraguay (2010-2018). Se estudiaron 793 cepas de S. pneumoniae aisladas de pacientes de todas las edades con enfermedad invasiva en Paraguay, provenientes de los diferentes centros centinelas y colaboradores en el marco de la vigilancia de meningitis y neumonías, durante el periodo 2010-2018. La frecuencia general según diagnóstico resultó 74.9% de neumonías (n=594), 18.4% de meningitis (n=146) y 6.7% de sepsis (n=53). El serotipo 14 fue más frecuente con 174 aislamientos (22.0%), seguido del serotipo 19A con 84 aislamientos (10.6%), el serotipo 3 con 66 aislamientos (8.3%) y el 6A con 37 aislamientos (4.7%). En meningitis se registró una frecuencia general de resistencia a penicilina del 32,2% y de ceftriaxona del 1,4%. En los casos de no meningitis la resistencia a penicilina fue del 0,8% y ceftriaxona del 0,3%. Los resultados de serotipos y sensibilidad antimicrobiana proporcionarán información necesaria para la implementación de estrategias de prevención y tratamiento de la enfermedad neumocócica en nuestro país, por lo que es necesaria una vigilancia continua para evaluar la carga de enfermedad, los serotipos circulantes y el aumento de la resistencia a los antibióticos


Streptococcus pneumoniae remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in children and adults worldwide. The objective of the study was to describe the frequency of isolation of S. pneumoniae in invasive disease, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in Paraguay (2010-2018). We studied 793 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from patients of all ages with invasive disease in Paraguay, from different sentinel centers and collaborators in the framework of meningitis and pneumonia surveillance during the period 2010-2018. The general frequency according to diagnosis was 74.9% of pneumonia (n = 594), 18.4% of meningitis (n = 146) and 6.7% of sepsis (n = 53). Serotype 14 was more frequent with 174 isolates (22.0%), followed by serotype 19A with 84 isolates (10.6%), serotype 3 with 66 isolates (8.3%) and 6A with 37 isolates (4.70%). In meningitis, there was a general frequency of penicillin resistance of 32.2% and ceftriaxone of 1.4%. In cases of non-meningitis, penicillin resistance was 0.8% and ceftriaxone 0.3%. The results of serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity will provide necessary information for the implementation of prevention strategies and treatment of pneumococcal disease in our country, therefore it is necessary to continue monitoring in order to assess the burden of the disease, circulating serotypes and increased antibiotic resistance


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia Pneumocócica , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Meningite Pneumocócica
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(12): 1793-1801, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674897

RESUMO

Introduction. Colonization by Neisseria meningitidis is the pre-requisite for the development of disease. We present the findings of a cross-sectional investigation onto the oropharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis and Neisseria species in the population aged 3 to 21 in Paraguay.Aim. Carriage prevalence by age groups, risk factors associated with carriage, and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of strains are described.Methodology. We collected 2011 oropharyngeal swabs from consenting participants aged 3-21 years. Infants were recruited at immunization clinics, and older children and young adults were identified at schools and universities. A single oropharyngeal swab was collected and processed for the identification and isolation of Neisseria. Additionally, participants, or their legal guardian if these were minors, were requested to fill a standardized questionnaire.Results. N. meningitidis was isolated in 42/2011 (2.1 %) participants, while other Neisseria spp. were identified in 306/2011 (15.2 %) subjects: N. cinerea and N. lactamica were identified in 39/2011 (1.9 %) and 43/2011 (2.2 %), respectively. Meningococcal strains belonged to ten different clonal complexes, of which six are associated with invasive disease (ST-32/ET5 complex, ST-11/ET37 complex, ST-103 complex, ST-167 complex, ST-35 complex and ST-41/44 complex/lineage 3).Conclusion. Prevalence of N. meningitidis carriage was low compared to that reported from other settings, however, the overall carriage of Neisseria spp. (including N. meningitidis) was comparable to meningococcal carriage prevalence reported in the literature. This study is the first of its kind conducted in Paraguay, and one of the few known in the Southern Cone of Latin America.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria/isolamento & purificação , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria/classificação , Paraguai , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pancreatology ; 19(5): 722-728, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the prognosis of recurrent pancreatic cancer (RPC) is improving with the appearance of new anticancer drugs, prognostic indicators for RPC are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate significance of the inflammation-based prognostic score, including modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), in patients with RPC. METHODS: This study reviewed 263 patients of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma at our institution between 2006 and 2015. A receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to determine the cut-off values. The prognostic significance of the inflammation-based prognostic scores were evaluated by a multivariate analysis. RESULTS: 172 patients (65.4%) who had recurrence was included in this study. The optimal PNI for predicting 1-year survival after recurrence was 40 with higher area under receiver operating characteristics curve value (0.704) in comparison with other inflammation-based prognostic scores. A univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that liver metastasis (P < 0.001) and PNI < 40 (P < 0.001) were independently associated with the survival time after recurrence. When each of the two predictors was counted as one point and the points were calculated for all cases, a good stratified survival curve was obtained, showing the shorter survival in the higher points: median survival times of 2, 1, and 0 points were 4.3, 11.1, and 21.2 months, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation-based prognostic scores, especially PNI is useful clinical biomarker for predicting the survival time after recurrence in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neutrófilos , Avaliação Nutricional , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(1): [P73-P80], jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047036

RESUMO

Introducción: Las hepatitis causadas por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) se han transformado en uno de los principales problemas de enfermedades infecciosas emergentes, responsables del 80% de las hepatitis crónicas con posible evolución a cirrosis o carcinoma hepatocelular y ocasionando un alto costo para el sistema de salud. Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico y los genotipos del VHC en pacientes que acudieron al Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública (LCSP). Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo; se incluyeron 162 pacientes con infección por Hepatitis C referidos al LCSP entre el 2013 y 2018, para seguimiento y/o genotipificación. Se les realizó la amplificación del genoma mediante la técnica reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real previa transcripción reversa (RT-PCR). A una submuestra con PCR detectable y carga viral >500 UI/ml se determinó el genotipo(n=52). Resultados: La media de edad fue de 44,2 ±15,6 años, el 52,5% eran hombres. El 8,02% presentaron carga viral alta, 32,09 % baja y 59,87 % indetectable. La distribución de genotipos fue la siguiente: 61,5 % genotipo 1 (28,1% 1a, 53,1% 1b y 18,8% genotipo 1 sin subtipificación), 15,4% genotipo 2, 15,4% genotipo 3 y 7,7% genotipo 4. Conclusiones: El presente trabajo muestra la importancia de la implementación de técnicas moleculares aplicadas a la vigilancia epidemiológica de nuestro país de manera a establecer programas de detección temprana y seguimiento adecuado de los pacientes, ya que la caracterización genotípica ayuda a determinar lasestrategias terapéuticas más adecuadas y predecir la respuesta antiviral. Se confirma que el genotipo 1 es el que circula con mayor frecuencia, con alto predominio del subtipo 1b. Palabras Clave: Biología Molecular, Hepatitis C, Genotipo, Epidemiología Molecular, Paraguay.


Introduction: Hepatitis caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become one of the main problems of emerging infectious diseases, responsible for 80% of chronic hepatitis with possible evolution to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and causing a high cost for the health system. Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile and the genotypes of HCV in patients who attended the Central Public Health Laboratory (LCSP). Materials and methods: Descriptive study; included 162 patients with Hepatitis C infection referred to the LCSP between 2013 and 2018, for follow-up and / or genotyping. Genome amplification was performed using the polymerase chain reaction technique in real time prior to reverse transcription (RT-PCR). To a subsample with detectable PCR and viral load> 500 IU / ml, the genotype was determined (n = 52). Results: The mean age was 44.2 ± 15.6 years, 52.5% were men. The 8.02% had high viral load, 32.09% low and 59.87% undetectable. The genotype distribution was as follows: 61.5% genotype 1 (28.1% 1a, 53.1% 1b and 18.8% genotype 1 without subtyping), 15.4% genotype 2, 15.4% genotype 3 and 7.7% genotype 4. Conclusions: The present work shows the importance of the implementation of molecular techniques applied to the epidemiological surveillance of our country in order to establish programs of early detection and adequate monitoring of patients, since genotypic characterization helps to determine the most appropriate therapeutic strategies and predict the antiviral response. It is confirmed that genotype 1 is the one that circulates more frequently, with a high predominance of subtype 1b. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Hepatitis C, Genotype, Molecular Epidemiology, Paraguay.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Hepatite C , Biologia Molecular , Epidemiologia Molecular , Genótipo
18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43: e10, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093234

RESUMO

Objective: Describe the phenotypical and genotypical characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from cases of meningococcal disease in Paraguay between 1996 and 2015. Methods: Conventional microbiological methods and molecular techniques were used to study 114 isolates of N. meningitidis and 12 clinical samples without isolation (confirmed by polymerase chain reaction), provided by various sentinel centers and collaborating centers in Paraguay. Results: The most affected age group was children under 1 year (19.0%), followed by 1-5-year-olds (17.5%). The highest percentage of strains was isolated in meningitis cases (81.7%) and serogroup B was found in 60.3% of cases. The most frequent phenotypes were B:4:p1.14 (16.0%), B:15:p1.5, C:nt:nst, and W:nt:p1.2 (10.5%), respectively. The prevalent clonal complexes were: ST-11/ET37 complex, 29.6% (8/27), predominantly serogroup W (6/8); ST-35 complex, 18.5% (5/27), in serogroup B (4/4); and ST-32/ET5 complex, 14.8% (4/16), in serogroup B (5/5). Conclusions: Meningococcal meningitis is relatively uncommon in Paraguay. Distribution analysis showed that serogroup B is the most common and that the number of cases of meningococcal disease caused by serogroups C and W increased in the last two years. The identified clonal complexes were correlated with those found in the Southern Cone region. Due to the high virulence of N. meningitidis, its surveillance should be a strategic priority of national and regional public health systems to prevent epidemic outbreaks and support public health decision-making.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 252, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 levels after resection are considered to predict prognosis; however, the significance of decreased CA19-9 levels after neoadjuvant therapy has not been clarified. This study aimed to define the prognostic significance of decreased CA19-9 levels after neoadjuvant therapy in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2012, 240 consecutive patients received neoadjuvant therapy and subsequent resection at seven high-volume institutions in Japan. These patients were divided into three groups: Normal group (no elevation [≤37 U/ml] before and after neoadjuvant therapy), Responder group (elevated levels [> 37 U/ml] before neoadjuvant therapy but decreased levels [≤37 U/ml] afterwards), and Non-responder group (elevated levels [> 37 U/ml] after neoadjuvant therapy). Analyses of overall survival and recurrence patterns were performed. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to clarify the clinicopathological factors influencing overall survival. The initial metastasis sites were also evaluated in these groups. RESULTS: The Responder group received a better prognosis than the Non-responder group (3-year overall survival: 50.6 and 41.6%, respectively, P = 0.026), but the prognosis was comparable to the Normal group (3-year overall survival: 54.2%, P = 0.934). According to the analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve, the CA19-9 cut-off level defined as no elevation after neoadjuvant therapy was ≤103 U/ml. The multivariate analysis revealed that a CA19-9 level ≤ 103 U/ml, (P = 0.010, hazard ratio: 1.711; 95% confidence interval: 1.133-2.639), tumor size ≤27 mm (P = 0.040, 1.517; (1.018-2.278)), a lack of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002, 1.905; (1.276-2.875)), and R0 status (P = 0.045, 1.659; 1.012-2.627) were significant predictors of overall survival. Moreover, the Responder group showed a lower risk of hepatic recurrence (18%) compared to the Non-responder group (31%), though no significant difference in loco-regional, peritoneal or other distant recurrence were observed between groups (P = 0.058, P = 0.700 and P = 0.350, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased CA19-9 levels after neoadjuvant therapy predicts a better prognosis, with low incidence of hepatic recurrence after surgery.


Assuntos
Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Prognóstico , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Oncologist ; 24(6): 749-e224, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679316

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: The triple combination chemotherapy of SOXIRI (S-1/oxaliplatin/irinotecan) in patients with unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was an effective treatment that appeared to be better tolerated than the widely used FOLFIRINOX regimen.SOXIRI regimen may provide an alternative approach for advanced pancreatic cancer. BACKGROUND: In our previous phase I study, we determined the recommended dose of a biweekly S-1, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (SOXIRI) regimen in patients with unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This phase II study was conducted to assess the safety and clinical efficacy in patients with unresectable PDAC. METHODS: Patients with previously untreated metastatic and locally advanced PDAC were enrolled. The primary endpoint was response rate (RR). Secondary endpoints were adverse events (AEs), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Patients received 80 mg/m2 of S-1 twice a day for 2 weeks in alternate-day administration, 150 mg/m2 of irinotecan on day 1, and 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin on day 1 of a 2-week cycle. RESULTS: Thirty-five enrolled patients received a median of six (range: 2-15) treatment cycles. The RR was 22.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.4-40.1); median OS, 17.7 months (95% CI: 9.8-22.0); and median PFS, 7.4 months (95% CI: 4.2-8.4). Furthermore, the median OS in patients with distant metastasis was 10.1 months, whereas that in patients with locally advanced PDAC was 22.6 months. Major grade 3 or 4 toxicity included neutropenia (54%), anemia (17%), febrile neutropenia (11%), anorexia (9%), diarrhea (9%), and nausea (9%). There were no treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSION: SOXIRI is considered a promising and well-tolerated regimen in patients with unresectable PDAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Ácido Oxônico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Tegafur/administração & dosagem
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