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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly recognized as valuable endpoints in clinical trials. The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) is a PROM utilized in children with musculoskeletal disorders. We evaluated the validity and reliability of PODCI in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). METHODS: Physical functioning and psychological well-being were assessed using PODCI in a large cohort of children enrolled in a multicenter study conducted by the Brittle Bone Disorders Consortium. Physical function scores were correlated with a validated, observer-rated scale, Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF), and with psychological well-being scores. We calculated sample sizes required to detect clinically meaningful differences in physical function. RESULTS: Four hundred seventeen children with OI types I, III, and IV were enrolled. Physical function scores in OI type III were significantly lower than those in OI types I and IV. There were no significant differences in psychological well-being. PODCI physical function scores showed moderate-to-strong correlation with BAMF. The Global Functioning Scale, a composite of physical function, did not consistently correlate with psychological well-being. CONCLUSION: PODCI can be a reliable measure of physical functioning in children with OI and offers valuable information about patient-reported health status and new ways to examine the utility of interventions in this population.

2.
Cell Rep ; 29(8): 2144-2153.e7, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747589

RESUMO

Patients with germline mutations in the urea-cycle enzyme argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) are at risk for developing neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits. We find that ASL is prominently expressed in the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), the central source of norepinephrine. Using natural history data, we show that individuals with ASL deficiency are at risk for developing attention deficits. By generating LC-ASL-conditional knockout (cKO) mice, we further demonstrate altered response to stressful stimuli with increased seizure reactivity in LC-ASL-cKO mice. Depletion of ASL in LC neurons leads to reduced amount and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and to decreased catecholamines synthesis, due to decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling. NO donors normalize catecholamine levels in the LC, seizure sensitivity, and the stress response in LC-ASL-cKO mice. Our data emphasize ASL importance for the metabolic regulation of LC function with translational relevance for ASL deficiency (ASLD) patients as well as for LC-related pathologies.

3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(9): 1858-1871, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Citrullinemia type 1 (CTLN1) is an inherited metabolic disease affecting the brain which is detectable by newborn screening. The clinical spectrum is highly variable including individuals with lethal hyperammonemic encephalopathy in the newborn period and individuals with a mild-to-moderate or asymptomatic disease course. Since the phenotypic severity has not been predictable early during the disease course so far, we aimed to design a reliable disease prediction model. METHODS: We used a newly established mammalian biallelic expression system to determine residual enzymatic activity of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1; OMIM #215700) in 71 individuals with CTLN1, representing 48 ASS1 gene variants and 50 different, mostly compound heterozygous combinations in total. Residual enzymatic ASS1 activity was correlated to standardized biochemical and clinical endpoints available from the UCDC and E-IMD databases. RESULTS: Residual enzymatic ASS1 activity correlates with peak plasma ammonium and L-citrulline concentrations at initial presentation. Individuals with 8% of residual enzymatic ASS1 activity or less had more frequent and more severe hyperammonemic events and lower cognitive function than those above 8%, highlighting that residual enzymatic ASS1 activity allows reliable severity prediction. Noteworthy, empiric clinical practice of affected individuals is in line with the predicted disease severity supporting the notion of a risk stratification-based guidance of therapeutic decision-making based on residual enzymatic ASS1 activity in the future. INTERPRETATION: Residual enzymatic ASS1 activity reliably predicts the phenotypic severity in CTLN1. We propose a new severity-adjusted classification system for individuals with CTLN1 based on the activity results of the newly established biallelic expression system.

4.
Ann Neurol ; 86(1): 116-128, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) often present with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on cognitive outcomes in UCDs. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study includes data from 503 individuals with UCDs who had comprehensive neurocognitive testing with a cumulative follow-up of 702 patient-years. RESULTS: The mean cognitive standard deviation score (cSDS) was lower in symptomatic than in asymptomatic (p < 0.001, t test) individuals with UCDs. Intellectual disability (intellectual quotient < 70, cSDS < -2.0) was associated with the respective subtype of UCD and early disease onset, whereas height of the initial peak plasma ammonium concentration was inversely associated with neurocognitive outcomes in mitochondrial (proximal) rather than cytosolic (distal) UCDs. In ornithine transcarbamylase and argininosuccinate synthetase 1 deficiencies, we did not find evidence that monoscavenger therapy with sodium or glycerol phenylbutyrate was superior to sodium benzoate in providing cognitive protection. Early liver transplantation appears to be beneficial for UCDs. It is noteworthy that individuals with argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and argininosuccinate lyase deficiencies identified by newborn screening had better neurocognitive outcomes than those diagnosed after the manifestation of first symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Cognitive function is related to interventional and non-interventional variables. Early detection by newborn screening and early liver transplantation appear to offer greater cognitive protection, but none of the currently used nitrogen scavengers was superior with regard to long-term neurocognitive outcome. Further confirmation could determine these variables as important clinical indicators of neuroprotection for individuals with UCDs. ANN NEUROL 2019.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2311-2318, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic connective tissue disorder that causes bone fragility. Phenotypic severity influences ability to walk, however, little is known about ambulatory characteristics of individuals with OI, especially in more severe forms. The purpose of this work was to characterize mobility in OI using standard clinical assessment tools and determine if patient characteristics could be used to predict mobility outcomes. METHODS: We collected mobility data at five clinical sites to analyze the largest cohort of individuals with OI (n = 491) to date. Linear mixed models were developed to explore relationships among subject demographics and mobility metrics. RESULTS: Results showed minor limitations in the mild group while the more severe types showed more significant limitations in all mobility metrics analyzed. Height and weight were shown to be the most significant predictors of mobility. Relationships with mobility and bisphosphonates varied with OI type and type used (oral/IV). CONCLUSION: These results are significant to understanding mobility limitations of specific types of OI and beneficial when developing rehabilitation protocols for this population. It is important for physicians, patients, and caregivers to gain insight into severity and classification of the disease and the influence of disease-related characteristics on prognosis for mobility.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 1977-1986, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670878

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Untargeted metabolomic analysis is increasingly being used in the screening and management of individuals with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). We aimed to test whether untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma might be useful for monitoring the disease course and management of urea cycle disorders (UCDs). METHODS: Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was used to generate z-scores for more than 900 metabolites in plasma from 48 individuals with various UCDs. Pathway analysis was used to identify common pathways that were perturbed in each UCD. RESULTS: Our metabolomic analysis in plasma identified multiple potentially neurotoxic metabolites of arginine in arginase deficiency and, thus, may have utility in monitoring the efficacy of treatment in arginase deficiency. In addition, we were also able to detect multiple biochemical perturbations in all UCDs that likely reflect clinical management, including metabolite alterations secondary to dietary and medication management. CONCLUSION: In addition to utility in screening for IEM, our results suggest that untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma may be beneficial for monitoring efficacy of clinical management and off-target effects of medications in UCDs and potentially other IEM.

7.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 518-533, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573518

RESUMO

Downregulation of the urea cycle enzyme argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) by either promoter methylation or by HIF1α is associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in multiple cancers. We have previously shown that in normoxic conditions, ASS1 downregulation facilitates cancer cell proliferation by increasing aspartate availability for pyrimidine synthesis by the enzyme complex CAD. Here we report that in hypoxia, ASS1 expression in cancerous cells is downregulated further by HIF1α-mediated induction of miR-224-5p, making the cells more invasive and dependent on upstream substrates of ASS1 for survival. ASS1 was downregulated under acidic conditions, and ASS1-depleted cancer cells maintained a higher intracellular pH (pHi), depended less on extracellular glutamine, and displayed higher glutathione levels. Depletion of substrates of urea cycle enzymes in ASS1-deficient cancers decreased cancer cell survival. Thus, ASS1 levels in cancer are differentially regulated in various environmental conditions to metabolically benefit cancer progression. Understanding these alterations may help uncover specific context-dependent cancer vulnerabilities that may be targeted for therapeutic purposes. SIGNIFICANCE: Cancer cells in an acidic or hypoxic environment downregulate the expression of the urea cycle enzyme ASS1, which provides them with a redox and pH advantage, resulting in better survival.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/79/3/518/F1.large.jpg.


Assuntos
Argininossuccinato Sintase/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Criança , Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Oxirredução , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4885, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459321

RESUMO

Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes (CSS and NCBRS) are Mendelian disorders caused by mutations in subunits of the BAF chromatin remodeling complex. We report overlapping peripheral blood DNA methylation epi-signatures in individuals with various subtypes of CSS (ARID1B, SMARCB1, and SMARCA4) and NCBRS (SMARCA2). We demonstrate that the degree of similarity in the epi-signatures of some CSS subtypes and NCBRS can be greater than that within CSS, indicating a link in the functional basis of the two syndromes. We show that chromosome 6q25 microdeletion syndrome, harboring ARID1B deletions, exhibits a similar CSS/NCBRS methylation profile. Specificity of this epi-signature was confirmed across a wide range of neurodevelopmental conditions including other chromatin remodeling and epigenetic machinery disorders. We demonstrate that a machine-learning model trained on this DNA methylation profile can resolve ambiguous clinical cases, reclassify those with variants of unknown significance, and identify previously undiagnosed subjects through targeted population screening.

9.
Bone ; 120: 70-74, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290234

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta [1] is a rare disorder of connective tissue caused by abnormalities in the synthesis or processing of type I collagen. Type I collagen is the most abundant type of collagen and is expressed in almost all connective tissues. Given that type I collagen interacts with other collagens based in the extracellular matrix (ECM), we hypothesized changes in type I collagen in OI would result in perturbations in the homeostasis of other collagen types. We measured serum biomarkers of several non-type I collagens in patients with mild (type I) and moderate-to-severe (type III/IV) OI. Compared to controls, those with moderate-to severe OI had a higher mean level of the synthesis markers of collagen III (ProC3) (P = 0.02), and levels of collagen V (ProC5) (P = 0.07) were slightly, but not significantly, higher. Degradation markers of collage type IV (C4M2) (P = 0.04) and type VI (C6M) (P = 0.003) were also higher. In each case, a test for trend suggested levels were higher in moderate-to-severe OI, intermediate in mild OI, and lowest in controls (P = 0.06-0.002). These changes supports the hypothesis that mutations in type I collagen induce a widespread alteration in the ECM, and that the diverse clinical manifestations of OI reflect an extensive disruption in ECM biology.

10.
Clin Genet ; 94(6): 502-511, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152014

RESUMO

Pulmonary complications are a significant cause for morbidity and mortality in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). However, to date, there have been few studies that have systematically evaluated pulmonary function in individuals with OI. We analyzed spirometry measurements, including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 ), in a large cohort of individuals with OI (n = 217) enrolled in a multicenter, observational study. We show that individuals with the more severe form of the disease, OI type III, have significantly reduced FVC and FEV1 which do not follow the expected trends of the normal population. We also show that "normalization" of FVC and FEV1 using general population data to generate percent predicted values underestimates the pulmonary involvement in OI. Within each subtype of OI, we used linear mixed models to find potential correlations between FEV1 and FVC with the clinical variables including mobility, bisphosphonate use, and scoliosis. Our results are an important step in understanding the extent of pulmonary involvement in individuals with OI and for developing pulmonary endpoints for use in the routine patient care as well as in the investigation of new therapies.

11.
Cell ; 174(6): 1559-1570.e22, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100185

RESUMO

The urea cycle (UC) is the main pathway by which mammals dispose of waste nitrogen. We find that specific alterations in the expression of most UC enzymes occur in many tumors, leading to a general metabolic hallmark termed "UC dysregulation" (UCD). UCD elicits nitrogen diversion toward carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydrooratase (CAD) activation and enhances pyrimidine synthesis, resulting in detectable changes in nitrogen metabolites in both patient tumors and their bio-fluids. The accompanying excess of pyrimidine versus purine nucleotides results in a genomic signature consisting of transversion mutations at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels. This mutational bias is associated with increased numbers of hydrophobic tumor antigens and a better response to immune checkpoint inhibitors independent of mutational load. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that UCD is a common feature of tumors that profoundly affects carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and immunotherapy response.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 276-287, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075114

RESUMO

Primary hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. Insights obtained from the study of rare Mendelian forms of hypertension have been invaluable in elucidating the mechanisms causing primary hypertension and development of antihypertensive therapies. Endothelial cells play a key role in the regulation of blood pressure; however, a Mendelian form of hypertension that is primarily due to endothelial dysfunction has not yet been described. Here, we show that the urea cycle disorder, argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASLD), can manifest as a Mendelian form of endothelial-dependent hypertension. Using data from a human clinical study, a mouse model with endothelial-specific deletion of argininosuccinate lyase (Asl), and in vitro studies in human aortic endothelial cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells from individuals with ASLD, we show that loss of ASL in endothelial cells leads to endothelial-dependent vascular dysfunction with reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, increased oxidative stress, and impaired angiogenesis. Our findings show that ASLD is a unique model for studying NO-dependent endothelial dysfunction in human hypertension.

13.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) predisposes people to recurrent fractures, bone deformities, and short stature. There is a lack of large-scale systematic studies that have investigated growth parameters in OI. METHODS: Using data from the Linked Clinical Research Centers, we compared height, growth velocity, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in 552 individuals with OI. Height, weight, and BMI were plotted on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention normative curves. RESULTS: In children, the median z-scores for height in OI types I, III, and IV were -0.66, -6.91, and -2.79, respectively. Growth velocity was diminished in OI types III and IV. The median z-score for weight in children with OI type III was -4.55. The median z-scores for BMI in children with OI types I, III, and IV were 0.10, 0.91, and 0.67, respectively. Generalized linear model analyses demonstrated that the height z-score was positively correlated with the severity of the OI subtype (P < 0.001), age, bisphosphonate use, and rodding (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: From the largest cohort of individuals with OI, we provide median values for height, weight, and BMI z-scores that can aid the evaluation of overall growth in the clinic setting. This study is an important first step in the generation of OI-specific growth curves.

14.
Clin Imaging ; 51: 160-163, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787982

RESUMO

Whereas isolated sphenoid wing dysplasia (SWD) is a well-known clinical feature in neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), extensive cranial defects involving multiple bones have been rarely reported in this disorder. In this report, we describe the clinical course of a 20-year-old male with NF1 and an extensive cranial bone dysplasia. The large sphenoethmoidal defect was associated with transethmoidal and orbital cephalocele as well as inferolateral herniation of the frontal lobe. In spite of the large defect, the individual did not have any symptoms or complications resulting from the osteopathy. We review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis and management of cranial bone dysplasia in NF1.

15.
Cell Rep ; 23(7): 1962-1976, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768197

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an established role in numerous physiological and pathological processes, but the specific cellular sources of NO in disease pathogenesis remain unclear, preventing the implementation of NO-related therapy. Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is the only enzyme able to produce arginine, the substrate for NO generation by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms. Here, we generated cell-specific conditional ASL knockout mice in combination with genetic and chemical colitis models. We demonstrate that NO derived from enterocytes alleviates colitis by decreasing macrophage infiltration and tissue damage, whereas immune cell-derived NO is associated with macrophage activation, resulting in increased severity of inflammation. We find that induction of endogenous NO production by enterocytes with supplements that upregulate ASL expression and complement its substrates results in improved epithelial integrity and alleviation of colitis and of inflammation-associated colon cancer.

16.
Genet Med ; 20(7): 708-716, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693650

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Benzoate and phenylbutyrate are widely used in the treatment of urea cycle disorders, but detailed studies on pharmacokinetics and comparative efficacy on nitrogen excretion are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, three-arm, crossover trial in healthy volunteers to study pharmacokinetics and comparative efficacy of phenylbutyrate (NaPB; 7.15 g•m-2BSA•day-1), benzoate (NaBz; 5.5 g•m-2BSA•day-1), and a combination of two medications (MIX arm; 3.575 g NaPB and 2.75 g NaBz•m-2BSA•day-1) on nitrogen excretion. Stable isotopes were used to study effects on urea production and dietary nitrogen disposal. RESULTS: The conjugation efficacy for both phenylbutyrate and benzoate was 65%; conjugation was superior at the lower dose used in the MIX arm. Whereas NaPB and MIX treatments were more effective at excreting nitrogen than NaBz, nitrogen excretion as a drug conjugate was similar between phenylbutyrate and MIX arms. Nitrogen excreted per USD was higher with combination therapy compared with NaPB. CONCLUSION: Phenylbutyrate was more effective than benzoate at disposing nitrogen. Increasing phenylbutyrate dose may not result in higher nitrogen excretion due to decreased conjugation efficiency at higher doses. Combinatorial therapy with phenylbutyrate and benzoate has the potential to significantly decrease treatment cost without compromising the nitrogen disposal efficacy.

17.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 83, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exon-targeted microarrays can detect small (<1000 bp) intragenic copy number variants (CNVs), including those that affect only a single exon. This genome-wide high-sensitivity approach increases the molecular diagnosis for conditions with known disease-associated genes, enables better genotype-phenotype correlations, and facilitates variant allele detection allowing novel disease gene discovery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 63,127 patients referred for clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) at Baylor Genetics laboratories, including 46,755 individuals tested using exon-targeted arrays, from 2007 to 2017. Small CNVs harboring a single gene or two to five non-disease-associated genes were identified; the genes involved were evaluated for a potential disease association. RESULTS: In this clinical population, among rare CNVs involving any single gene reported in 7200 patients (11%), we identified 145 de novo autosomal CNVs (117 losses and 28 intragenic gains), 257 X-linked deletion CNVs in males, and 1049 inherited autosomal CNVs (878 losses and 171 intragenic gains); 111 known disease genes were potentially disrupted by de novo autosomal or X-linked (in males) single-gene CNVs. Ninety-one genes, either recently proposed as candidate disease genes or not yet associated with diseases, were disrupted by 147 single-gene CNVs, including 37 de novo deletions and ten de novo intragenic duplications on autosomes and 100 X-linked CNVs in males. Clinical features in individuals with de novo or X-linked CNVs encompassing at most five genes (224 bp to 1.6 Mb in size) were compared to those in individuals with larger-sized deletions (up to 5 Mb in size) in the internal CMA database or loss-of-function single nucleotide variants (SNVs) detected by clinical or research whole-exome sequencing (WES). This enabled the identification of recently published genes (BPTF, NONO, PSMD12, TANGO2, and TRIP12), novel candidate disease genes (ARGLU1 and STK3), and further confirmation of disease association for two recently proposed disease genes (MEIS2 and PTCHD1). Notably, exon-targeted CMA detected several pathogenic single-exon CNVs missed by clinical WES analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data document the efficacy of exon-targeted CMA for detection of genic and exonic CNVs, complementing and extending WES in clinical diagnostics, and the potential for discovery of novel disease genes by genome-wide assay.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Éxons , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(16): 3046-3055, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486640

RESUMO

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poikiloderma, small stature, sparse hair, skeletal abnormalities, increased risk of osteosarcoma, and decreased bone mass. To date, there has not been a comprehensive evaluation of the prevalence and extent of metabolic bone disease in RTS. Furthermore, the mechanisms that result in this phenotype are largely unknown. In this report, we provide a detailed evaluation of 29 individuals with RTS with respect to their metabolic bone status including bone mineral density, calcium kinetics studies, and markers of bone remodeling. We show that individuals with RTS have decreased areal bone mineral density. Additionally, we demonstrate that the presence of pathogenic variants in RECQL4 and low bone mineral density correlate with the history of increased risk of fractures. Using a RECQL4-deficient mouse model that recapitulates skeletal abnormalities seen in individuals with RTS, we demonstrate that generalized skeletal involvement is likely due to decreased osteogenesis. Our findings are clinically relevant as they may help in the risk stratification of patients with RTS and also in the identification of individuals who may benefit from additional surveillance and management of metabolic bone disease.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/metabolismo , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Síndrome de Rothmund-Thomson/metabolismo , Síndrome de Rothmund-Thomson/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Osteogênese/fisiologia , RecQ Helicases/genética , RecQ Helicases/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Clin Invest ; 126(8): 2881-92, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27427983

RESUMO

The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins supports mitotic proliferation, meiosis, and DNA repair to control genomic stability. Impairments in chromosome maintenance are linked to rare chromosome breakage disorders. Here, we have identified a chromosome breakage syndrome associated with severe lung disease in early childhood. Four children from two unrelated kindreds died of severe pulmonary disease during infancy following viral pneumonia with evidence of combined T and B cell immunodeficiency. Whole exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense mutations in the NSMCE3 (also known as NDNL2) gene, which encodes a subunit of the SMC5/6 complex that is essential for DNA damage response and chromosome segregation. The NSMCE3 mutations disrupted interactions within the SMC5/6 complex, leading to destabilization of the complex. Patient cells showed chromosome rearrangements, micronuclei, sensitivity to replication stress and DNA damage, and defective homologous recombination. This work associates missense mutations in NSMCE3 with an autosomal recessive chromosome breakage syndrome that leads to defective T and B cell function and acute respiratory distress syndrome in early childhood.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Quebra Cromossômica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Pneumopatias/genética , Alelos , Linfócitos B/citologia , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meiose , Mitose , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Recombinação Genética , Síndrome , Linfócitos T/citologia
20.
Mol Cell Oncol ; 3(2): e1127314, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27308634

RESUMO

Clinical observations in citrullinemia type I, an inborn error of metabolism, led us to explore the benefits of somatic ASS1 silencing in cancer. We found that downregulation of ASS1 results in preferential utilization of its substrate, aspartate, for pyrimidine synthesis to support cell proliferation. Reducing aspartate availability for pyrimidine synthesis restricted cancerous proliferation.

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