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1.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 11(4): 422-428, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513579

RESUMO

Introduction: Injuries cause significant burdens in sub-Saharan Africa. In Rwanda, national regulations to reduce COVID-19 altered population mobility and resource allocations. This study evaluated epidemiological trends and care among injured patients preceding and during the COVID-19 pandemic at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK) in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods: This prospective interrupted cross-sectional study enrolled injured adult patients (≥15 years) presenting to the CHUK emergency department (ED) from January 27th-March 21st (pre-COVID-19 period) and June 1st-28th (intra-COVID-19 period). Trained study personnel continuously collected standardized data on enrolled participants through the first six-hours of ED care. The Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) was calculated as a metric of injury severity. Case characteristics prior to and during the pandemic were compared, statistical differences were assessed using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests. Results: Data were collected from 409 pre-COVID-19 and 194 intra-COVID-19 cases. Median age was 32, with a male predominance (74.3%). Road traffic injuries (RTI) were the most common injury mechanism pre-COVID-19 (47.8%) and intra-COVID-19 (53.6%) (p = 0.27). There was a significant increase in the number of transfer cases during the intra-COVID-19 period (52.1%) versus pre-COVID-19 (41.3%) (p = 0.01). KTS was significantly lower among intra-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.04), indicating higher severity of presentation. In the intra-COVID-19 period, there was a significant increase in the number of surgery consultations (40.7%) versus pre-COVID-19 (26.7%) (p < 0.001). The number of hospital admissions increased from 35.5% pre-COVID-19 to 46.4% intra-COVID-19 (p = 0.01). There was no significant mortality difference pre-COVID-19 as compared to the intra-COVID-19 period among injured patients (p = 0.76). Conclusion: Emergency injury care showed increased injury burden, inpatient admission and resource requirements during the pandemic period. This suggests the spectrum of disease may be more severe and that greater resources for injury management may continue to be needed during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in Rwanda and other similar settings.

2.
R I Med J (2013) ; 104(5): 24-29, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhode Island (RI) has been severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to describe emergency department (ED) patients with COVID-19 within the largest healthcare system in RI. METHODS: A retrospective electronic medical record review of 1,209 adult patients evaluated and diagnosed with COVID-19 in 4 EDs during the first peak (March 15, 2020 to May 16, 2020) was conducted. Sociodemographic, clinical, management, and ED disposition information were summarized. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 55 years (IQR 40-69), 55.2% were male, and 47.8% were Hispanic/Latinx. Over half of the patients (60.5%) were admitted to the hospital. Supplemental oxygen was used by 32.2%. CONCLUSION: This study presents the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of ED patients with COVID-19 presenting to the largest healthcare system in Rhode Island. Continued analysis is warranted to provide further insight into the trends in this pandemic.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhode Island/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(2): 435-444, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856336

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While trauma prognostication and triage scores have been designed for use in lower-resourced healthcare settings specifically, the comparative clinical performance between trauma-specific and general triage scores for risk-stratifying injured patients in such settings is not well understood. This study evaluated the Kampala Trauma Score (KTS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and Triage Early Warning Score (TEWS) for accuracy in predicting mortality among injured patients seeking emergency department (ED) care at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK) in Rwanda. METHODS: A retrospective, randomly sampled cohort of ED patients presenting with injury was accrued from August 2015-July 2016. Primary outcome was 14-day mortality and secondary outcome was overall facility-based mortality. We evaluated summary statistics of the cohort. Bootstrap regression models were used to compare areas under receiver operating curves (AUC) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Among 617 cases, the median age was 32 years and 73.5% were male. The most frequent mechanism of injury was road traffic incident (56.2%). Predominant anatomical regions of injury were craniofacial (39.3%) and lower extremities (38.7%), and the most common injury types were fracture (46.0%) and contusion (12.0%). Fourteen-day mortality was 2.6% and overall facility-based mortality was 3.4%. For 14-day mortality, TEWS had the highest accuracy (AUC = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.76-1.00), followed by RTS (AUC = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.55-0.92), and then KTS (AUC = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.47-0.84). Similarly, for facility-based mortality, TEWS (AUC = 0.89, 95% CI, 0.79-0.98) had greater accuracy than RTS (AUC = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.61-0.91) and KTS (AUC = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.53-0.83). On pairwise comparisons, RTS had greater prognostic accuracy than KTS for 14-day mortality (P = 0.011) and TEWS had greater accuracy than KTS for overall (P = 0.007) mortality. However, TEWS and RTS accuracy were not significantly different for 14-day mortality (P = 0.864) or facility-based mortality (P = 0.101). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of emergently injured patients in Rwanda, the TEWS demonstrated the greatest accuracy for predicting mortality outcomes, with no significant discriminatory benefit found in the use of the trauma-specific RTS or KTS instruments, suggesting that the TEWS is the most clinically useful approach in the setting studied and likely in other similar ED environments.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Emergências/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Triagem/métodos , Triagem/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
4.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 11(1): 152-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680737

RESUMO

Background: Injuries cause significant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan African countries such as Rwanda. These burdens may be compounded by limited access to intravenous (IV) resuscitation fluids such as crystalloids and blood products. This study evaluates the association between emergency department (ED) intravenous volume resuscitation and mortality outcomes in adult trauma patients treated at the University Teaching Hospital-Kigali (UTH- K). Methods: Data were abstracted using a structured protocol for a random sample of ED patients treated during periods from 2012 to 2016. Patients under 15 years of age were excluded. Data collected included demographics, clinical aspects, types of IV fluid resuscitation provided and outcomes. The primary outcome was facility-based mortality. Descriptive statistics were used to explore characteristics of the population. Kampala Trauma Scores (KTS) were used to control for injury severity. Magnitudes of effects were quantified using multivariable regression models adjusted for gender, KTS, time period, clinical interventions, presence of head injury and transfer to a tertiary care centre to yield adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: From the random sample of 3609 cases, 991 trauma patients were analysed. The median age was 32 [IQR 26, 46] years and 74.3% were male. ED volume resuscitation was given to 50.1% of patients with 43.5% receiving crystalloid and 6.4% receiving crystalloid and packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. The median KTS score was 13 [IQR 12, 13]. In multivariable regression, mortality likelihood was increased in those who received crystalloid (aOR = 4.31, 95%CI 1.24, 15.05, p = 0.022) and PRBC plus crystalloid (aOR = 9.97, 95%CI 2.15,46.17, p = 0.003) as compared to trauma patients not treated with IV resuscitation fluids. Conclusions: Injured ED patients treated with volume resuscitation had higher mortality, which may be due to unmeasured confounding or therapies provided. Further studies on fluid resuscitation in trauma populations in resource-limited settings are needed.

5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as an acute respiratory illness leading to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. As the disease spread, demands on health care systems increased, specifically the need to expand hospital capacity. Alternative care hospitals (ACHs) have been used to mitigate these issues; however, establishing an ACH has many challenges. The goal of this session was to perform systems testing, using a simulation-based evaluation to identify areas in need of improvement. METHODS: Four simulation cases were designed to depict common and high acuity situations encountered in the ACH, using a high technology simulator and standardized patient. A multidisciplinary observer group was given debriefing forms listing the objectives, critical actions, and specific areas to focus their attention. These forms were compiled for data collection. RESULTS: Logistical, operational, and patient safety issues were identified during the simulation and compiled into a simulation event report. Proposed solutions and protocol changes were made in response to the identified issues. CONCLUSION: Simulation was successfully used for systems testing, supporting efforts to maximize patient care and provider safety in a rapidly developed ACH. The simulation event report identified operational deficiencies and safety concerns directly resulting in equipment modifications and protocol changes.

6.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 9, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency care is a new but growing specialty across Africa where medical conditions have been estimated to account for 92% of all disability-adjusted life years. This study describes the epidemiology of medical emergencies and the impact of formalized emergency care training on patient outcomes for medical conditions in Rwanda. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using a database of randomly sampled patients presenting to the emergency center (EC) at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali. All patients, > 15 years of age treated for medical emergencies pre- and post-implementation of an Emergency Medicine (EM) residency training program were eligible for inclusion. Patient characteristics and final diagnosis were described by time period (January 2013-September 2013 versus September 2015-June 2016). Univariate chi-squared analysis was performed for diagnoses, EC interventions, and all cause EC and inpatient mortality stratified by time period. RESULTS: A random sample of 1704 met inclusion with 929 patients in the pre-residency time period and 775 patients in the post-implementation period. Demographics, triage vital signs, and shock index were not different between time periods. Most frequent diagnoses included gastrointestinal, infectious disease, and neurologic pathology. Differences by time period in EC management included antibiotic use (37.2% vs. 42.2%, p = 0.04), vasopressor use (1.9% vs. 0.5%, p = 0.01), IV crystalloid fluid (IVF) use (55.5% vs. 47.6%, p = 0.001) and mean IVF administration (2057 ml vs. 2526 ml, p < 0.001). EC specific mortality fell from 10.0 to 1.4% (p < 0.0001) across time periods. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates fell across top medical diagnoses after implementation of an EM residency program. Changes in resuscitation care may explain, in part, this mortality decrease. This study demonstrates that committing to emergency care can potentially have large effects on reducing mortality.

7.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1123-1130, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States, with firearms reported as the cause of death in up to 50% of these cases. Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of the Counseling on Access to Lethal Means intervention in the Emergency Department (CALM-ED) by non-physician personnel. METHODS: We conducted this single-center, prospective, quality improvement study (QI) in an urban, academic ED with over 90,000 annual patient visits. The study looked at adult patients who were discharged after presenting to the ED with suicidal crisis. Assessment of access to lethal means was conducted at the bedside, followed by a counseling session regarding safe storage of lethal means and follow-up via telephone call 48-72 hours after ED discharge. We collected data on patient's sociodemographics, psychiatric history, access to lethal means, lethal means storage methods, the patient's specific plans for lethal means storage after discharge, and post-discharge follow-up care. RESULTS: Of 215 eligible patients, 166 voluntarily agreed to participate in CALM-ED, of whom 84 (51%) reported access to lethal means. Following the intervention, 75% of patients described a specific storage plan for their lethal means. Patients with and without access to firearms were equally likely to participate in the follow-up telephone call. CONCLUSION: An ED-based CALM QI intervention is feasible for implementation by non-physician personnel and is well received by patients and families. This intervention has the potential to help saves lives at times of suicide crisis.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Aconselhamento , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle
8.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(6): 8-13, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752556

RESUMO

Field hospitals have long been used to extend health care capabilities in times of crisis. In response to the pandemic and an anticipated surge in patients, Rhode Island Gov. Gina Raimondo announced a plan to create three field hospitals, or "alternate hospital sites" (AHS), totaling 1,000 beds, in order to expand the state's hospital capacity. Following China's Fangcang shelter hospital model, the Lifespan AHS (LAHS) planning group attempted to identify existing public venues that could support rapid conversion to a site for large numbers of patients at a reasonable cost. After discussions with many stakeholders - pharmacy, laboratory, healthcare providers, security, emergency medical services, and infection control - design and equipment recommendations were given to the architects during daily teleconferencing and site visits. Specific patient criteria for the LAHS were established, staffing was prioritized, and clinical protocols were designed to facilitate care. Simulations using 4 different scenarios were practiced in order to assure proper patient care and flow, pharmacy utilization, and staffing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Hospitais de Isolamento , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Abrigo de Emergência , Humanos , Rhode Island , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Injury ; 51(7): 1468-1476, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, injuries account for approximately five million mortalities annually, with 90% occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although guidelines characterizing data for blood product transfusion in injury resuscitation have been established for high-income countries (HICs), no such information on use of blood products in LMICs exists. This systematic review evaluated the available literature on the use and associated outcomes of blood product transfusion therapies in LMICs for acute care of patients with injuries. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through November 2018 was performed by a health sciences medical librarian. Prospective and cross-sectional reports of injured patients from LMICs involving data on blood product transfusion therapies were included. Two reviewers identified eligible records (κ=0.92); quality was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Report elements, patient characteristics, injury information, blood transfusion therapies provided and mortality outcomes were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 3411 records, 150 full-text reports were reviewed and 17 met inclusion criteria. Identified reports came from the World Health Organization regions of Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean, and South-East Asia. A total of 6535 patients were studied, with the majority from exclusively inpatient hospital settings (52.9%). Data on transfusion therapies demonstrated that packed red blood cells were given to 27.0% of patients, fresh frozen plasma to 13.8%, and unspecified product types to 50.1%. Among patients with blunt and penetrating injuries, 5.8% and 15.7% were treated with blood product transfusions, respectively. Four reports provided data on comparative mortality outcomes, of which two found higher mortality in blood transfusion-treated patients than in untreated patients at 17.4% and 30.4%. The overall quality of evidence was either low (52.9%) or very low (41.2%), with one report of moderate quality by GRADE criteria. CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of high-quality data to inform appropriate use of blood transfusion therapies in LMIC injury care. Studies were geographically limited and did not include sufficient data on types of therapies and specific injury patterns treated. Future research in more diverse LMIC settings with improved data collection methods is needed to inform injury care globally.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Doença Aguda , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
10.
Community Ment Health J ; 56(7): 1366-1371, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065318

RESUMO

Individuals with suicidal ideation (SI) frequently present to the emergency department (ED). We hypothesized that CALM: Counseling on Access to Lethal Means training improves non-physician provider comfort with delivering an ED-based counseling intervention on lethal means restriction. Ten non-physician intervention counselors who currently provide CALM to ED patients presenting with SI were surveyed for demographics, prior experience caring for patients with SI, prior CALM experience, comfort providing CALM, and which method of training most improved comfort with CALM. Survey response rate was 100%. Following CALM training, 80% of respondents expressed confidence in their ability to counsel patients on safe storage of lethal means, although 50% felt that a script most improved comfort. Most survey respondents reported feeling comfortable counseling suicidal patients on safe storage of lethal means, but that the addition of a script for the counseling session improved comfort more than the online CALM training.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Aconselhamento , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
11.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(5): 818-821, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539340

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. An estimated 50% of these deaths are due to firearms. Suicidal ideation (SI) is a common complaint presenting to the emergency department (ED). Despite these facts, provider documentation on access to lethal means is lacking. Our primary aim was to quantify documentation of access to firearms in patients presenting to the ED with a chief complaint of SI. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients, nearly all of whom presented to an academic, urban ED with SI during July 2014. We collected data from all provider documentation in the electronic health record. Primary outcome assessed was whether the emergency physician (EP) team documented access to firearms. Secondary outcomes included demographic information, preexisting psychiatric diagnoses, and disposition. RESULTS: We reviewed 100 patient charts. The median age of patients was 38 years. The majority of patients had a psychiatric condition. EPs documented access to firearms in only 3% of patient charts. CONCLUSION: EPs do not adequately document access to firearms in patients with SI. There is a clear need for educational initiatives regarding risk-factor assessment and counseling against lethal means in this patient cohort.


Assuntos
Documentação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/legislação & jurisprudência , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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