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1.
J Plant Res ; 134(6): 1181-1198, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595677

RESUMO

To elucidate the origin and migration history of the "Mansen elements," a group of temperate grassland plants mainly distributed in northeastern Asia, phylogeographic analyses based on chloroplast DNA markers and double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) data were performed on Viola orientalis, one of the representative species of the group. Phylogenetic analyses using ddRAD-seq data revealed that the populations of V. orientalis were clustered into five clades, among which the continental clades made of populations from Russia and Korea diverged more than 100,000 years earlier than the Japanese clades. The Japanese clade likely diverged during the last glacial period, followed by a further post-glacial divergence into the Kyushu and the Honshu subclades. Our study demonstrated that V. orientalis originated in the continental area of northeastern Asia and, during the last glacial period, has spread southward through the Korean Peninsula across the Japanese Islands. This finding supports the previously proposed evolutionary hypothesis regarding the origin and migration routes of the Mansen elements.

2.
J Evol Biol ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532915

RESUMO

An increasing volume of empirical studies demonstrated that hybridization between distant lineages may have promoted speciation in various taxa. However, the timing, extent and direction of introgressive hybridization remain unknown in many cases. Here, we report a possible case in which repeated hybridization promoted divergence of Oryzias ricefishes (Adrianichthyidae) on Sulawesi, an island of Wallacea. Four Oryzias species are endemic to the Malili Lake system in central Sulawesi, which is composed of five tectonic lakes; of these, one lake is inhabited by two species. Morphological and population genomic analyses of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms revealed that these two sympatric species are phylogenetically sister to but substantially reproductively isolated from each other. Analyses of admixture and comparison of demographic models revealed that the two sympatric species experienced several substantial introgressions from outgroup populations that probably occurred soon after they had secondary contact with each other in the lake. However, the ratio of migrants from the outgroups was estimated to be different between the two species, which is consistent with the hypothesis that these introgressions aided their divergence or prevented them from forming a hybrid swarm. Repeated lake fragmentations and fusions may have promoted diversification of this freshwater fish species complex that is endemic to this ancient lake system.

3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 615, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telmatochromis temporalis is a cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika. The normal and dwarf morphs of this fish are a clear example of ongoing ecological speciation, and body size plays an important role in this speciation event as a magic trait. However, the genetic basis underlying this trait has not been studied. RESULTS: Based on double-digested restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing of a hybrid cross between the morphs that includes F0 male, F0 female, and 206 F2 individuals, we obtained a linkage map consisting of 708 ddRAD markers in 22 linkage groups, which corresponded to the previously reported Oreochromis niloticus chromosomes, and identified one significant and five suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body size. From the body-size distribution pattern, the significant and three of the five suggestive QTL are possibly associated with genes responsible for the difference in body size between the morphs. CONCLUSIONS: The QTL analysis presented here suggests that multiple genes, rather than a single gene, control morph-specific body size. The present results provide further insights about the genes underlying the morph specific body size and evolution of the magic trait during ecological speciation.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ciclídeos/genética , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
4.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(5): 1147-1159, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251529

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for growth-related traits by constructing a genetic linkage map based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in Japanese quail. A QTL mapping population of 277 F2 birds was obtained from an intercross between a male of a large-sized strain and three females of a normal-sized strain. Body weight (BW) was measured weekly from hatching to 16 weeks of age. Non-linear regression growth models of Weibull, Logistic, Gompertz, Richards, and Brody were analyzed, and growth curve parameters of Richards was selected as the best model to describe the quail growth curve of the F2 birds. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing developed 125 SNP markers that were informative between their parental strains. The SNP markers were distributed on 16 linkage groups that spanned 795.9 centiMorgan (cM) with an average marker interval of 7.3 cM. QTL analysis of phenotypic traits revealed four main-effect QTLs. Detected QTLs were located on chromosomes 1 and 3 and were associated with BW from 4 to 16 weeks of age and asymptotic weight of Richards model at genome-wide significant at 1% or 5% level. No QTL was detected for BW from 0 to 3 weeks of age. This is the first report identified QTLs for asymptotic weight of the Richards parameter in Japanese quail. These results highlight that the combination of QTL studies and the RAD-seq method will aid future breeding programs identify genes underlying the QTL and the application of marker-assisted selection in the poultry industry, particularly the Japanese quail.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coturnix/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
5.
Funct Plant Biol ; 48(10): 984-993, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112311

RESUMO

At low temperatures (18°C), seedlings of an indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Kasalath showed symptoms of chlorosis, although the leaves of a japonica cultivar Arroz da Terra remained green. In this study, transcripts related to the chlorophyll content of rice seedlings grown at 18°C were investigated using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) data for F2 crosses between cultivars Arroz da Terra and Kasalath, as well as their parental cultivars. Differential expression analysis revealed that gene ontology terms related to 'photosynthesis' were significantly enriched in lowly expressed genes at 18°C than at 25°C in Kasalath. However, the gene ontology terms related to 'response to stress' were significantly enriched in highly expressed genes at 18°C than at 25°C in Kasalath. When the F2 plants were grown at 18°C, their chlorophyll contents varied. Transcripts with expression levels related to chlorophyll content were statistically selected using RNA-Seq data from 21 F2 plants. In regression models, frequently selected genes included four photosynthetic and two stress-responsive genes. The expression values of four photosynthetic and two stress-responsive genes in high-frequency selected genes were significantly correlated with chlorophyll content not only in plants analysed using RNA-Seq but also in 95 F2 plants.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068239

RESUMO

This research was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with egg-related traits by constructing a genetic linkage map based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) in Japanese quail. A total of 138 F2 females were produced by full-sib mating of F1 birds derived from an intercross between a male of the large-sized strain with three females of the normal-sized strain. Eggs were investigated at two different stages: the beginning stage of egg-laying and at 12 weeks of age (second stage). Five eggs were analyzed for egg weight, lengths of the long and short axes, egg shell strength and weight, yolk weight and diameter, albumen weight, egg equator thickness, and yolk color (L*, a*, and b* values) at each stage. Moreover, the age at first egg, the cumulative number of eggs laid, and egg production rate were recorded. RAD-seq developed 118 SNP markers and mapped them to 13 linkage groups using the Map Manager QTX b20 software. Markers were spanned on 776.1 cM with an average spacing of 7.4 cM. Nine QTL were identified on chromosomes 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, and Z using the simple interval mapping method in the R/qtl package. The QTL detected affected 10 egg traits of egg weight, lengths of the long and short axes of egg, egg shell strength, yolk diameter and weight, albumen weight, and egg shell weight at the beginning stage, yellowness of the yolk color at the second stage, and age at first egg. This is the first report to perform a quail QTL analysis of egg-related traits using RAD-seq. These results highlight the effectiveness of RAD-seq associated with targeted QTL and the application of marker-assisted selection in the poultry industry, particularly in the Japanese quail.


Assuntos
Coturnix/genética , Oviposição/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos/genética , Ovos , Feminino , Ligação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3480, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108473

RESUMO

Acclimation to high temperature increases plants' tolerance of subsequent lethal high temperatures. Although epigenetic regulation of plant gene expression is well studied, how plants maintain a memory of environmental changes over time remains unclear. Here, we show that JUMONJI (JMJ) proteins, demethylases involved in histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), are necessary for Arabidopsis thaliana heat acclimation. Acclimation induces sustained H3K27me3 demethylation at HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN22 (HSP22) and HSP17.6C loci by JMJs, poising the HSP genes for subsequent activation. Upon sensing heat after a 3-day interval, JMJs directly reactivate these HSP genes. Finally, jmj mutants fail to maintain heat memory under fluctuating field temperature conditions. Our findings of an epigenetic memory mechanism involving histone demethylases may have implications for environmental adaptation of field plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Termotolerância/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Desmetilação , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Histonas/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Metilação , Mutação
8.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 163: 107230, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133947

RESUMO

Phenotypic polymorphism within a species is a notable phenomenon in evolutionary biology to understand the process of adaptive speciation and other historical events. The Saxifraga fortunei complex is a widespread herb found in East Asia. It includes several ecotypic taxa corresponding to their habitat environments. The distribution of the various ecotypes in a limited area of the Japanese Archipelago makes the species a suitable model to investigate the impact of population demographic history and natural selection on lineage diversification. Here, Sanger-based sequencing was used to estimate the divergence timeframe between populations of the Eurasian continent and Japan. Genome-wide SNPs obtained by ddRAD sequencing were used to investigate the phylogeographic origins of ecotypic taxa. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the divergence of the Japanese population from the continental population in the late Miocene. Two distinct regional clades of North and South Japan were identified; phenotypic diversification was evident only in the southern clade. The South Japan clades displayed a historical distribution expansion from north to south. The phenotypic variations appeared to have generated during the expansion. The ecotypic boundaries were incongruent with the genetic grouping. We propose that morphological and ecological specialization in Japanese populations was repeatedly generated by local natural selection.

9.
DNA Res ; 28(3)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142133

RESUMO

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is grown as a nutritious leafy vegetable worldwide. To accelerate spinach breeding efficiency, a high-quality reference genome sequence with great completeness and continuity is needed as a basic infrastructure. Here, we used long-read and linked-read technologies to construct a de novo spinach genome assembly, designated SOL_r1.1, which was comprised of 287 scaffolds (total size: 935.7 Mb; N50 = 11.3 Mb) with a low proportion of undetermined nucleotides (Ns = 0.34%) and with high gene completeness (BUSCO complete 96.9%). A genome-wide survey of resistance gene analogues identified 695 genes encoding nucleotide-binding site domains, receptor-like protein kinases, receptor-like proteins and transmembrane-coiled coil domains. Based on a high-density double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing-based linkage map, the genome assembly was anchored to six pseudomolecules representing ∼73.5% of the whole genome assembly. In addition, we used SOL_r1.1 to identify quantitative trait loci for bolting timing and fruit/seed shape, which harbour biologically plausible candidate genes, such as homologues of the FLOWERING LOCUS T and EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE genes. The new genome assembly, SOL_r1.1, will serve as a useful resource for identifying loci associated with important agronomic traits and for developing molecular markers for spinach breeding/selection programs.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Spinacia oleracea/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética
10.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131748

RESUMO

How genetic variations affect gene expression dynamics of field-grown plants remains unclear. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis is frequently used to find genomic regions underlying gene expression polymorphisms. This approach requires transcriptome data for the complete set of the QTL mapping population under the given conditions. Therefore, only a limited range of environmental conditions is covered by a conventional eQTL analysis. We sampled sparse time-series of field-grown rice from chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and conducted RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Then, by using statistical analysis integrating meteorological data and the RNA-Seq data, we identified 1675 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) leading to polymorphisms in expression dynamics under field conditions. A genomic region on chromosome 11 influences the expression of several defense-related genes in a time-of-day- and scaled-age-dependent manner. This includes the eQTLs that possibly influence the time-of-day- and scaled-age-dependent differences in the innate immunity between Koshihikari and Takanari. Based on the eQTL and meteorological data, we successfully predicted gene expression under environments different from training environments, and in rice cultivars with more complex genotypes than the CSSLs. Our novel approach of eQTL identification facilitated the understanding of the genetic architecture of expression dynamics under field conditions, which is difficult to assess by conventional eQTL studies. The prediction of expression based on eQTLs and environmental information would contribute to the understanding of plant traits under diverse field conditions. (224/250 words).

11.
J Evol Biol ; 34(7): 1133-1143, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077583

RESUMO

Sympatric speciation is considered to be difficult without the coupling between ecological traits that allow resource partitioning and reproductive traits that allow assortative mating. Such "magic traits" are known to be involved in most of the compelling examples of sympatric speciation. In this study, we report a possible case of sympatric speciation without magic traits. Three species of ricefish (genus Oryzias) are suggested to have diverged sympatrically within Lake Poso, an ancient lake in Sulawesi. An analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that these three species are reproductively isolated from each other throughout the lake. Stable isotope analyses revealed that the three species use different food resources, which reflect differences in their feeding morphologies (gill rakers and digestive tracts) and feeding sites. Field and laboratory observations showed that O. nebulosus and O. orthognathus share a mating habitat of cobbles, where they scatter fertilized eggs, whereas this site is never used by O. nigrimas, indicating that assortative mating is partly achieved by spatial isolation. The small, less-adhesive eggs of O. nebulosus and O. orthognathus probably reflect their adaptation to spawning on cobble beaches. Laboratory mating experiments showed strong prezygotic isolation between O. nebulosus and O. orthognathus, which is achieved by strong species recognition presumably by both sexes based on species-specific mating dances and nuptial coloration. In summary, the assortative mating of O. nebulosus and O. orthognathus is probably not coupled to resource partitioning. We discussed how sympatric speciation among these species might have been achieved even without magic traits.

12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(9): 2947-2964, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081151

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A begomovirus resistance gene pepy-1, which encodes the messenger RNA surveillance factor Pelota, was identified in pepper (C. annuum) through map-based cloning and functional characterization. Pepper yellow leaf curl disease caused by begomoviruses seriously affects pepper (Capsicum spp.) production in a number of regions around the world. Ty genes of tomato, which confer resistance to the tomato yellow leaf curl virus, are the only begomovirus resistance genes cloned to date. In this study, we focused on the identification of begomovirus resistance genes in Capsicum annuum. BaPep-5 was identified as a novel source of resistance against pepper yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus (PepYLCIV) and pepper yellow leaf curl Aceh virus (PepYLCAV). A single recessive locus, which we named as pepper yellow leaf curl disease virus resistance 1 (pepy-1), responsible for PepYLCAV resistance in BaPep-5 was identified on chromosome 5 in an F2 population derived from a cross between BaPep-5 and the begomovirus susceptible accession BaPep-4. In the target region spanning 34 kb, a single candidate gene, the messenger RNA surveillance factor Pelota, was identified. Whole-genome resequencing of BaPep-4 and BaPep-5 and comparison of their genomic DNA sequences revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (A to G) located at the splice site of the 9th intron of CaPelota in BaPep-5, which caused the insertion of the 9th intron into the transcript, resulting in the addition of 28 amino acids to CaPelota protein without causing a frameshift. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaPelota in the begomovirus susceptible pepper No.218 resulted in the gain of resistance against PepYLCIV, a phenotype consistent with BaPep-5. The DNA marker developed in this study will greatly facilitate marker-assisted breeding of begomovirus resistance in peppers.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/fisiologia , Capsicum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Genes Recessivos , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/virologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11483, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075095

RESUMO

The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) and principal component regression (PCR) are popular methods of estimating traits from high-dimensional omics data, such as transcriptomes. The prediction accuracy of these estimation methods is highly dependent on the covariance structure, which is characterized by gene regulation networks. However, the manner in which the structure of a gene regulation network together with the sample size affects prediction accuracy has not yet been sufficiently investigated. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to investigate the prediction accuracy for several network structures under various sample sizes. When the gene regulation network is a random graph, a sufficiently large number of observations are required to ensure good prediction accuracy with the lasso. The PCR provided poor prediction accuracy regardless of the sample size. However, a real gene regulation network is likely to exhibit a scale-free structure. In such cases, the simulation indicates that a relatively small number of observations, such as [Formula: see text], is sufficient to allow the accurate prediction of traits from a transcriptome with the lasso.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0245316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111145

RESUMO

Sulawesi, an island located in a biogeographical transition zone between Indomalaya and Australasia, is famous for its high levels of endemism. Ricefishes (family Adrianichthyidae) are an example of taxa that have uniquely diversified on this island. It was demonstrated that habitat fragmentation due to the Pliocene juxtaposition among tectonic subdivisions of this island was the primary factor that promoted their divergence; however, it is also equally probable that habitat fusions and resultant admixtures between phylogenetically distant species may have frequently occurred. Previous studies revealed that some individuals of Oryzias sarasinorum endemic to a tectonic lake in central Sulawesi have mitochondrial haplotypes that are similar to the haplotypes of O. eversi, which is a phylogenetically related but geologically distant (ca. 190 km apart) adrianichthyid endemic to a small fountain. In this study, we tested if this reflects ancient admixture of O. eversi and O. sarasinorum. Population genomic analyses of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms revealed that O. eversi and O. sarasinorum are substantially reproductively isolated from each other. Comparison of demographic models revealed that the models assuming ancient admixture from O. eversi to O. sarasinorum was more supported than the models assuming no admixture; this supported the idea that the O. eversi-like mitochondrial haplotype in O. sarasinorum was introgressed from O. eversi. This study is the first to demonstrate ancient admixture of lacustrine or pond organisms in Sulawesi beyond 100 km. The complex geological history of this island enabled such island-wide admixture of lacustrine organisms, which usually experience limited migration.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7579, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828128

RESUMO

Leaf photosynthetic rate changes across the growing season as crop plants age. Most studies of leaf photosynthesis focus on a specific growth stage, leaving the question of which pattern of photosynthetic dynamics maximizes crop productivity unanswered. Here we obtained high-frequency data of canopy leaf CO2 assimilation rate (A) of two elite rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars and 76 inbred lines across the whole growing season. The integrated A value after heading was positively associated with crop growth rate (CGR) from heading to harvest, but that before heading was not. A curve-smoothing analysis of A after heading showed that accumulated A at > 80% of its maximum (A80) was positively correlated with CGR in analyses of all lines mixed and of lines grouped by genetic background, while the maximum A and accumulated A at ≤ 80% were less strongly correlated with CGR. We also found a genomic region (~ 12.2 Mb) that may enhance both A80 and aboveground biomass at harvest. We propose that maintaining a high A after heading, rather than having high maximum A, is a potential target for enhancing rice biomass accumulation.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8878, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893339

RESUMO

The plant root-associated environments such as the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and endosphere are different from the outer soil region (bulk soil). They establish characteristic conditions including microbiota, metabolites, and minerals, and they can directly affect plant growth and development. However, comprehensive insights into those characteristic environments, especially the rhizosphere, and molecular mechanisms of their formation are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the root-associated environment in actual field conditions by multi-omics analyses (mineral, microbiome, and transcriptome) of soybean plants. Mineral and microbiome analyses demonstrated a characteristic rhizosphere environment in which most of the minerals were highly accumulated and bacterial communities were distinct from those in the bulk soil. Mantel's test and co-abundance network analysis revealed that characteristic community structures and dominant bacterial taxa in the rhizosphere significantly interact with mineral contents in the rhizosphere, but not in the bulk soil. Our field multi-omics analysis suggests a rhizosphere-specific close association between the microbiota and mineral environment.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6464, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742052

RESUMO

Japanese pepper, Zanthoxylum piperitum, is native to Japan and has four well-known lineages (Asakura, Takahara, Budou, and Arima), which are named after their production area or morphology. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) was used to analyse 93 accessions from various areas, including these four lineages. Single nucleotide variant analysis was used to classify the plants into eight groups: the Asakura and Arima lineages each had two groups, the Takahara and Budou lineages each had one group, and two additional groups were present. In one Asakura group and two Arima groups, the plants were present in agricultural fields and mountains, thus representing the early stage of domestication of the Japanese pepper. The second Asakura lineage group was closely related to plants present in various areas, and this represents the second stage of domestication of this plant because, after early domestication, genetically related lineages with desirable traits spread to the periphery. These results demonstrate that domestication of Japanese pepper is ongoing. In addition, this study shows that spineless plants are polyphyletic, despite the spineless lineage being considered a subspecies of Japanese pepper.

18.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(2)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709120

RESUMO

Phenotypes of sessile organisms, such as plants, rely not only on their own genotypes but also on those of neighboring individuals. Previously, we incorporated such neighbor effects into a single-marker regression using the Ising model of ferromagnetism. However, little is known regarding how neighbor effects should be incorporated in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. In this study, we propose a new method for interval QTL mapping of neighbor effects, designated "neighbor QTL," the algorithm of which includes: (1) obtaining conditional self-genotype probabilities with recombination fraction between flanking markers; (2) calculating conditional neighbor genotypic identity using the self-genotype probabilities; and (3) estimating additive and dominance deviations for neighbor effects. Our simulation using F2 and backcross lines showed that the power to detect neighbor effects increased as the effective range decreased. The neighbor QTL was applied to insect herbivory on Col × Kas recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. Consistent with previous results, the pilot experiment detected a self-QTL effect on the herbivory at the GLABRA1 locus. Regarding neighbor QTL effects on herbivory, we observed a weak QTL on the top of chromosome 4, at which a weak self-bolting QTL was also identified. The neighbor QTL method is available as an R package (https://cran.r-project.org/package=rNeighborQTL), providing a novel tool to investigate neighbor effects in QTL studies.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Simulação por Computador , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1350, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649298

RESUMO

Sexual selection drives rapid phenotypic diversification of mating traits. However, we know little about the causative genes underlying divergence in sexually selected traits. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of male mating trait diversification in the medaka fishes (genus Oryzias) from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using linkage mapping, transcriptome analysis, and genome editing, we identify csf1 as a causative gene for red pectoral fins that are unique to male Oryzias woworae. A cis-regulatory mutation enables androgen-induced expression of csf1 in male fins. csf1-knockout males have reduced red coloration and require longer for mating, suggesting that coloration can contribute to male reproductive success. Contrary to expectations, non-red males are more attractive to a predatory fish than are red males. Our results demonstrate that integrating genomics with genome editing enables us to identify causative genes underlying sexually selected traits and provides a new avenue for testing theories of sexual selection.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Aptidão Genética , Oryzias/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Indonésia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/genética , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Filogenia , Pigmentação/genética , Comportamento Predatório , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal
20.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 126(5): 859-868, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654179

RESUMO

Geographic and environmental isolations of islands and the mainland offer excellent opportunity to investigate colonization and survival dynamics of island populations. We inferred and compared evolutionary processes and the demographic history of Rhododendron tsusiophyllum, in the Izu Islands and the much larger island Honshu, treated here as the mainland, using thousands of nuclear SNPs obtained by ddRAD-seq from eight populations of R. tsusiophyllum and three populations of R. tschonoskii as an outgroup. Phylogenetic relationships and their habitats suggest that R. tsusiophyllum had evolved and migrated from cold north to warm south regions. We detected clear genetic divergence among populations in three regions of Honshu and the Izu Islands, suggesting restricted migration between them due to isolated habitats on mountains even in the mainland. The three regions have different changes in effective population size, especially, genetic diversity and population size of the Izu Islands are small compared to the others. Further, habitats of populations in the Izu Islands are warmer than those in Honshu, suggesting that they have undergone adaptive evolution. Our study provides evidences of montane rather than insular isolation on genetic divergence, survival of populations and significance of adaptive evolution for island populations with small population size and low genetic diversity, despite close proximity to mainland populations.

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