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J Psychopharmacol ; 33(1): 25-36, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484737


BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of patients suffering from major depression fail to remit following treatment and develop treatment-resistant depression. Developing novel treatments requires animal models with good predictive validity. MRL/lpr mice, an established model of systemic lupus erythematosus, show depression-like behavior. AIMS: We evaluated responses to classical antidepressants, and associated immunological and biochemical changes in MRL/lpr mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: MRL/lpr mice showed increased immobility in the forced swim test, decreased wheel running and sucrose preference when compared with the controls, MRL/MpJ mice. In MRL/lpr mice, acute fluoxetine (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or duloxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not decrease the immobility time in the Forced Swim Test. Interestingly, acute administration of combinations of olanzapine (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously)+fluoxetine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or bupropion (10 mg/kg, i.p.)+fluoxetine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) retained efficacy. A single dose of ketamine but not three weeks of imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or escitalopram (5 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment in MRL/lpr mice restored sucrose preference. Further, we evaluated inflammatory, immune-mediated and neuronal mechanisms. In MRL/lpr mice, there was an increase in autoantibodies' titers, [3H]PK11195 binding and immune complex deposition. There was a significant infiltration of the brain by macrophages, neutrophils and T-lymphocytes. p11 mRNA expression was decreased in the prefrontal cortex. Further, there was an increase in the 5-HT2aR expression, plasma corticosterone and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. CONCLUSION: In summary, the MRL/lpr mice could be a useful model for Treatment Resistant Depression associated with immune dysfunction with potential to expedite antidepressant drug discovery.

PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181782, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742141


Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) regulates critical signal transduction pathways involved in the pathobiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune disorders. BMS-986142 is a potent and highly selective reversible small molecule inhibitor of BTK currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of both RA and primary Sjögren's syndrome. In the present report, we detail the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of BMS-986142 and show this agent provides potent and selective inhibition of BTK (IC50 = 0.5 nM), blocks antigen receptor-dependent signaling and functional endpoints (cytokine production, co-stimulatory molecule expression, and proliferation) in human B cells (IC50 ≤ 5 nM), inhibits Fcγ receptor-dependent cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and blocks RANK-L-induced osteoclastogenesis. Through the benefits of impacting these important drivers of autoimmunity, BMS-986142 demonstrated robust efficacy in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). In both models, robust efficacy was observed without continuous, complete inhibition of BTK. When a suboptimal dose of BMS-986142 was combined with other agents representing the current standard of care for RA (e.g., methotrexate, the TNFα antagonist etanercept, or the murine form of CTLA4-Ig) in the CIA model, improved efficacy compared to either agent alone was observed. The results suggest BMS-986142 represents a potential therapeutic for clinical investigation in RA, as monotherapy or co-administered with agents with complementary mechanisms of action.

Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/imunologia , Osteoclastos/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/imunologia , Ligante RANK/imunologia
J Diabetes ; 9(6): 613-621, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27530729


BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are more frequent in diabetic patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Endotoxemia affects glucose metabolism and lipolytic capacity. The aims of the present study were to determine whether endotoxemia exacerbates metabolic features (adipose inflammation, adipogenesis, and insulin resistance [IR]) in an animal model of diabetes (i.e. db/db mice) after acute infection and the effects of pioglitazone. METHODS: Female db/db mice treated with pioglitazone (3 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 µg/kg), followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) involved in: (i) adipogenesis (lipoprotein lipase [Lpl], fatty acid binding protein-4 [Ap2] and adiponectin [Adipoq]); (ii) insulin signaling (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [Pparg], suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 [Socs3], solute carrier family 2 [facilitated glucose transporter], member 4 [Slc2a4]); and (iii) inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [Tnf], interleukin-6 [Il6], monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [Ccl2], cyclo-oxygenase-2 [prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2; Ptgs2]). RESULTS: Experimental endotoxemia downregulated mRNA expression of Pparg, Slc2a4, Adipoq, Lpl, and Ap2, which coincided with upregulation of Il6, Tnf, Ccl2, Ptgs2, and Socs3 expression. Pioglitazone dose-dependently decreased Tnf, Il6, Ccl2, Ptgs2, and Socs3 expression in WAT, in association with upregulation of Lpl, Ap2, Slc2a4, and Adipoq expression, indicating improvement in endotoxin-induced IR. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that LPS challenge exacerbates IR in db/db mice by altering the expression of genes in WAT involved in adipogenesis and inflammation, which is effectively controlled by pioglitazone treatment.

Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Endotoxemia/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Endotoxemia/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/genética , Pioglitazona
J Immunol ; 198(3): 1308-1319, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003376


The serine/threonine kinase IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4 is a critical regulator of innate immunity. We have identified BMS-986126, a potent, highly selective inhibitor of IRAK4 kinase activity that demonstrates equipotent activity against multiple MyD88-dependent responses both in vitro and in vivo. BMS-986126 failed to inhibit assays downstream of MyD88-independent receptors, including the TNF receptor and TLR3. Very little activity was seen downstream of TLR4, which can also activate an MyD88-independent pathway. In mice, the compound inhibited cytokine production induced by injection of several different TLR agonists, including those for TLR2, TLR7, and TLR9. The compound also significantly suppressed skin inflammation induced by topical administration of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. BMS-986126 demonstrated robust activity in the MRL/lpr and NZB/NZW models of lupus, inhibiting multiple pathogenic responses. In the MRL/lpr model, robust activity was observed with the combination of suboptimal doses of BMS-986126 and prednisolone, suggesting the potential for steroid sparing activity. BMS-986126 also demonstrated synergy with prednisolone in assays of TLR7- and TLR9-induced IFN target gene expression using human PBMCs. Lastly, BMS-986126 inhibited TLR7- and TLR9-dependent responses using cells derived from lupus patients, suggesting that inhibition of IRAK4 has the potential for therapeutic benefit in treating lupus.

Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/fisiologia , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Receptor Toll-Like 9/fisiologia
Indian J Pharmacol ; 47(2): 153-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25878373


OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of two different classes of drugs in sephadex-induced lung inflammation using rats and explore the potential mechanism (s). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effects of dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) and rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg, p.o.) treatments were evaluated up to 3 days in sephadex challenged rats. 72 h postsephadex administration, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for cell count and cytokine estimation. Lung tissues were harvested for gene expression and histopathology. RESULTS: Dexamethasone treatment resulted in significant inhibition of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils, whereas rosiglitazone inhibited eosinophils and neutrophils only. Further, dexamethasone reduced the elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) after sephadex challenge while rosiglitazone significantly reduced the PGE2 levels without altering LTB4 in the BALF. Hydroxyproline content in rat lung homogenate was significantly reduced with dexamethasone treatment but not with rosiglitazone. Both the drugs were found to suppress matrix metallo proteinase 9, whereas only dexamethasone showed inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and up-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP-3) expression and preserved the broncho-alveolar microstructure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that up-regulation of TIMP-3 corroborated well with dexamethasone mediated inhibition of collagen degradation and restoration of alveolar micro-architecture.

Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Dextranos/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/metabolismo , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Citocinas/análise , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/enzimologia , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/agonistas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rosiglitazona , Tiazolidinedionas/administração & dosagem , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/genética
Int Immunopharmacol ; 21(2): 328-35, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24859061


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract which is mainly caused by dysregulated gut immune response to commensal flora. Very limited treatment options with marginal efficacy are available along with surgery which has high risk of reoccurrence. As both innate and adaptive immune responses have been found altered in IBD, a good therapeutic strategy could be to restrict both of them under chronic inflammatory conditions. Effect of chloroquine on TLR9 signaling is well reported, while there are limited studies on non-endosomal TLRs as well as T cell responses. Hence, we studied its effect on other TLRs as well as T cell response along with testing it as a potential therapeutics in IBD using murine preclinical colitis model. Chloroquine significantly suppressed the TLR2 as well as TLR9 signaling in both in vitro as well as in vivo experimental settings, while it had no effect on TLR4 pathway. It also suppressed the T cell cytokine and proliferative responses. In, DSS-induced murine colitis model, chloroquine administration, significantly improved body weight loss, colon length shortening, tissue damage and inflammatory cell infiltration. Based on our findings in preclinical murine model of IBD, chloroquine has the potential to be considered as a therapeutic option in clinics through inhibition of diverse TLR and T cell responses.

Cloroquina/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo