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1.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484706

RESUMO

Background: By 2030, Sustainable Development Goal 3.4 aims to reduce the premature mortality caused by non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the second leading cause of mortality and disability-adjusted life years in India. This review was conducted to estimate the prevalence of COPD using systematic review and meta-analysis technique. Method: Search was conducted using six databases for studies on COPD among population above 30 years in India between years 2000 to 2020. Cross-sectional and cohort studies reporting prevalence of COPD and associated risk factors were included in the present review. Screening and data extraction was done by two authors independently. Studies were appraised for quality using the modified New Castle Ottawa scale and reporting quality was assessed using STROBE guidelines. Result: Our search returned 8973 records, from which 23 records fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Overall, the prevalence of COPD among population aged 30 years and above in India was 7%. Risk factors like active and passive smoking, biomass fuel exposure, environmental tobacco smoke, occupational exposure to dust, indoor and outdoor pollution, and increasing age were reported to have a significant association with COPD among Indian population. Conclusion: Our findings suggest the need for a multicentric national-level research study to understand COPD burden and its contributing risk factors. The findings also suggest the need for COPD sensitive health literacy program focused on early screening and primary prevention of risk factors for COPD, which may help early initiation of self-management practices, that are crucial for better quality of life.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Scand J Pain ; 21(3): 434-444, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to systematically review and meta-analyse relevant studies to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal chest pain in the emergency department. METHODS: This review was constructed while confirming to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, Science Direct, and OVID were systematically searched from their inception to January 19, 2020, to identify observational studies, where the prevalence of musculoskeletal causes of chest pain was reported in isolation or in combination with other causes or could be calculated from the available data. RESULTS: A meta-analysis of the nine included studies, having a total of 14,743 participants, showed the global pooled prevalence of musculoskeletal chest pain in the emergency department to be 16% (10-22%) [I 2=99.24%]. The pooled prevalence for the European continent was 17% (9-25%) [I 2=99.51%] and that for the urban areas was 13% (7-19%) [I 2=99.00%]. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides a reliable estimate of the prevalence of musculoskeletal chest pain in the emergency department. More studies providing age and gender-specific data for the prevalence of musculoskeletal chest pain in the emergency department should be carried out. A paucity of such data from rural areas also needs to be addressed in future research work. The prevalence values from this study will be useful in the application of Bayesian reasoning utilised in diagnosing patients, where the process of Bayesian arguing begins by knowing pre-test probabilities of different differential diagnosis, in this case that of musculoskeletal chest pain in the emergency department.

3.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 39(4): 346-353, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have numerous risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to study the prevalence of low BMD in IBD and the factors associated with it. METHODS: BMD was measured by radial quantitative ultrasound, and clinical and biochemical characteristics were compared in prospectively enrolled patients and healthy age and gender-matched controls. Chi-square test, t test for independent samples, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used as appropriate for univariate analysis to compare the characteristics between patients with and without abnormal BMD. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to determine the factors associated with low BMD in IBD patients. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients (Crohn's disease [CD] = 35, ulcerative colitis [UC] = 71) and 55 controls were included. Low BMD was equally prevalent in CD, UC and controls (42.9%, 36.6%, 36.4% respectively, p = 0.791). Serum calcium and vitamin D were significantly lower in IBD patients compared to controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) but not between patients with low and normal BMD. Older age (Odds ratio [OR] = 66.12 [9.299-470.243], p < 0.001), late onset of disease (OR = 4.795 [1.067-21.543], p = 0.041) and absence of steroid usage (OR = 0.272 [0.089-0.832], p = 0.022) were significantly associated with low BMD. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of low BMD in patients with IBD was similar to controls and this was associated with increasing age, late onset of disease, and absence of steroid usage. Judicious use of steroids can help preserve bone health in IBD.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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